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Migration Act 1958

Authoritative Version
  • - C2013C00458
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 62 of 1958 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Sex Discrimination Amendment (Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Intersex Status) Act 2013
An Act relating to the entry into, and presence in, Australia of aliens, and the departure or deportation from Australia of aliens and certain other persons
Administered by: Immigration and Citizenship
Registered 23 Aug 2013
Start Date 01 Aug 2013
End Date 22 Nov 2013

Migration Act 1958

No. 62, 1958 as amended

Compilation start date:                     1 August 2013

Includes amendments up to:            Act No. 122, 2013

This compilation has been split into 2 volumes

Volume 1:       sections 1–261K

Volume 2:       sections 262–507

                        Schedule

                        Endnotes

Each volume has its own contents

 

About this compilation

The compiled Act

This is a compilation of the Migration Act 1958 as amended and in force on 1 August 2013. It includes any amendment affecting the compiled Act to that date.

This compilation was prepared on 16 August 2013.

The notes at the end of this compilation (the endnotes) include information about amending Acts and instruments and the amendment history of each amended provision.

Uncommenced provisions and amendments

If a provision of the compiled Act is affected by an uncommenced amendment, the text of the uncommenced amendment is set out in the endnotes.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for amendments

If the operation of an amendment is affected by an application, saving or transitional provision, the provision is identified in the endnotes.

Modifications

If a provision of the compiled Act is affected by a textual modification that is in force, the text of the modifying provision is set out in the endnotes.

Provisions ceasing to have effect

If a provision of the compiled Act has expired or otherwise ceased to have effect in accordance with a provision of the Act, details of the provision are set out in the endnotes.

  

  

  


Contents

Part 1—Preliminary                                                                                                             1

1............................ Short title............................................................................ 1

2............................ Commencement.................................................................. 1

3............................ Repeal and savings............................................................. 1

3A......................... Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power..... 2

3B.......................... Compensation for acquisition of property........................... 3

4............................ Object of Act...................................................................... 3

4AA...................... Detention of minors a last resort......................................... 4

4A......................... Application of the Criminal Code....................................... 4

5............................ Interpretation....................................................................... 4

5AA...................... Meaning of unauthorised maritime arrival...................... 29

5A......................... Meaning of personal identifier......................................... 30

5B.......................... When personal identifier taken not to have been provided 32

5C.......................... Meaning of character concern......................................... 32

5CA....................... Child of a person.............................................................. 33

5CB....................... De facto partner................................................................ 34

5D......................... Limiting the types of identification tests that authorised officers may carry out       35

5E.......................... Meaning of purported privative clause decision............... 35

5F.......................... Spouse.............................................................................. 36

5G......................... Relationships and family members................................... 36

6............................ Effect of limited meaning of enter Australia etc................ 37

7............................ Act to extend to certain Territories.................................... 37

7A......................... Effect on executive power to protect Australia’s borders.. 37

8............................ Certain resources installations to be part of Australia....... 37

9............................ Certain sea installations to be part of Australia................. 38

10.......................... Certain children taken to enter Australia at birth............... 39

11.......................... Visa applicable to 2 or more persons................................ 39

12.......................... Application of Part VA of the Marriage Act..................... 39

Part 2—Control of arrival and presence of non‑citizens                             40

Division 1—Immigration status                                                                            40

13.......................... Lawful non‑citizens.......................................................... 40

14.......................... Unlawful non‑citizens....................................................... 40

15.......................... Effect of cancellation of visa on status.............................. 40

16.......................... Removal of immigration rights of inhabitant of Protected Zone               40

17.......................... Pre‑cleared flights............................................................. 41

Division 2—Power to obtain information and documents about unlawful non‑citizens                42

18.......................... Power to obtain information and documents about unlawful non‑citizens               42

19.......................... Scales of expenses............................................................ 42

20.......................... Reasonable compensation................................................. 42

21.......................... Failure to comply with section 18 notice........................... 43

24.......................... Information and documents that incriminate a person....... 43

25.......................... Copies of documents........................................................ 44

26.......................... Minister may retain documents......................................... 44

27.......................... Division binds the Crown................................................. 44

Division 3—Visas for non‑citizens                                                                       45

Subdivision A—General provisions about visas                                              45

28.......................... Interpretation..................................................................... 45

29.......................... Visas................................................................................. 45

30.......................... Kinds of visas................................................................... 46

31.......................... Classes of visas................................................................ 46

32.......................... Special category visas....................................................... 46

33.......................... Special purpose visas........................................................ 47

34.......................... Absorbed person visas..................................................... 50

35.......................... Ex‑citizen visas................................................................. 50

36.......................... Protection visas................................................................. 50

37.......................... Bridging visas................................................................... 53

37A....................... Temporary safe haven visas.............................................. 53

38.......................... Criminal justice visas........................................................ 54

38A....................... Enforcement visas............................................................. 54

38B........................ Maritime crew visas.......................................................... 55

39.......................... Criterion limiting number of visas.................................... 56

40.......................... Circumstances for granting visas...................................... 56

41.......................... Conditions on visas.......................................................... 58

42.......................... Visa essential for travel..................................................... 59

43.......................... Visa holders must usually enter at a port.......................... 61

Subdivision AA—Applications for visas                                                            63

44.......................... Extent of following Subdivisions..................................... 63

45.......................... Application for visa.......................................................... 63

45A....................... Visa application charge..................................................... 63

45B........................ Amount of visa application charge.................................... 63

45C........................ Regulations about visa application charge......................... 64

46.......................... Valid visa application........................................................ 64

46A....................... Visa applications by unauthorised maritime arrivals......... 68

46B........................ Visa applications by transitory persons............................ 69

47.......................... Consideration of valid visa application............................. 70

48.......................... Non‑citizen refused a visa or whose visa cancelled may only apply for particular visas          70

48A....................... Non‑citizen refused a protection visa may not make further application for protection visa     71

48B........................ Minister may determine that section 48A does not apply to non‑citizen   72

49.......................... Withdrawal of visa application.......................................... 73

50.......................... Only new information to be considered in later protection visa applications            74

51.......................... Order of consideration...................................................... 74

Subdivision AB—Code of procedure for dealing fairly, efficiently and quickly with visa applications 74

51A....................... Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule.......... 74

52.......................... Communication with Minister.......................................... 75

54.......................... Minister must have regard to all information in application 75

55.......................... Further information may be given..................................... 76

56.......................... Further information may be sought................................... 76

57.......................... Certain information must be given to applicant................. 76

58.......................... Invitation to give further information or comments........... 77

59.......................... Interviews......................................................................... 78

60.......................... Medical examination......................................................... 78

61.......................... Prescribed periods............................................................ 78

62.......................... Failure to receive information not require action............... 79

63.......................... When decision about visa may be made............................ 79

64.......................... Notice that visa application charge is payable................... 80

Subdivision AC—Grant of visas                                                                           81

65.......................... Decision to grant or refuse to grant visa........................... 81

65A....................... Period within which Minister must make decision on protection visas    81

66.......................... Notification of decision..................................................... 82

67.......................... Way visa granted.............................................................. 83

68.......................... When visa is in effect........................................................ 83

69.......................... Effect of compliance or non‑compliance........................... 83

Subdivision AE—Evidence of visas                                                                     84

70.......................... Request for evidence of a visa.......................................... 84

71.......................... Liability to pay visa evidence charge................................. 84

71A....................... Officer must give evidence of a visa................................. 85

71B........................ Regulations about visa evidence charge............................ 85

Subdivision AF—Bridging visas                                                                          86

72.......................... Interpretation..................................................................... 86

73.......................... Bridging visas................................................................... 87

74.......................... Further applications for bridging visa............................... 87

75.......................... When eligible non‑citizen in immigration detention granted visa              88

76.......................... Bridging visa not affect visa applications.......................... 88

Subdivision AG—Other provisions about visas                                               89

77.......................... Visas held during visa period........................................... 89

78.......................... Children born in Australia................................................ 89

79.......................... Effect on visa of leaving Australia.................................... 89

80.......................... Certain persons taken not to leave Australia..................... 90

81.......................... Extent of visa authority..................................................... 90

82.......................... When visas cease to be in effect........................................ 90

83.......................... Certain persons taken to be included in spouse, de facto partner or parent’s visa    92

84.......................... Minister may suspend processing of visa applications..... 92

Subdivision AH—Limit on visas                                                                          93

85.......................... Limit on visas................................................................... 93

86.......................... Effect of limit.................................................................... 94

87.......................... Limit does not prevent visas for certain persons............... 94

87A....................... Limit does not prevent the grant of visas to certain people who are unable to meet health or character requirements before the limit applies because of circumstances beyond their control               94

88.......................... Limit does not affect processing of applications............... 95

89.......................... Determination of limit not to mean failure to decide.......... 95

90.......................... Order of dealing with limited visas................................... 95

91.......................... Order of dealing with visas............................................... 96

Subdivision AI—Safe third countries                                                                  96

91A....................... Reason for Subdivision.................................................... 96

91B........................ Interpretation..................................................................... 96

91C........................ Non‑citizens covered by Subdivision............................... 96

91D....................... Safe third countries........................................................... 97

91E........................ Non‑citizens to which this Subdivision applies unable to make valid applications for certain visas         98

91F........................ Minister may determine that section 91E does not apply to non‑citizen   98

91G....................... Applications made before regulations take effect.............. 99

Subdivision AJ—Temporary safe haven visas                                               101

91H....................... Reason for this Subdivision............................................ 101

91J......................... Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies.............. 101

91K........................ Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies are unable to make valid applications for certain visas   101

91L........................ Minister may determine that section 91K does not apply to a non‑citizen                101

Subdivision AK—Non‑citizens with access to protection from third countries              102

91M....................... Reason for this Subdivision............................................ 102

91N....................... Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies.............. 103

91P........................ Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies are unable to make valid applications for certain visas   104

91Q....................... Minister may determine that section 91P does not apply to a non‑citizen 105

Subdivision AL—Other provisions about protection visas                         106

91R........................ Persecution..................................................................... 106

91S........................ Membership of a particular social group......................... 107

91T........................ Non‑political crime......................................................... 107

91U....................... Particularly serious crime................................................ 108

91V....................... Verification of information............................................. 108

91W....................... Documentary evidence of identity, nationality or citizenship 110

91X....................... Names of applicants for protection visas not to be published by the High Court, Federal Court or Federal Circuit Court................................................................... 111

91Y....................... Secretary’s obligation to report to Minister..................... 111

Subdivision B—The “points” system                                                                114

92.......................... Operation of Subdivision................................................ 114

93.......................... Determination of applicant’s score.................................. 114

94.......................... Initial application of “points” system.............................. 114

95.......................... Applications in pool........................................................ 115

95A....................... Extension of period in pool............................................. 116

96.......................... Minister may set pool mark and pass mark..................... 116

Subdivision C—Visas based on incorrect information may be cancelled 117

97.......................... Interpretation................................................................... 117

97A....................... Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule........ 117

98.......................... Completion of visa application........................................ 117

99.......................... Information is answer..................................................... 118

100........................ Incorrect answers............................................................ 118

101........................ Visa applications to be correct........................................ 118

102........................ Passenger cards to be correct.......................................... 118

103........................ Bogus documents not to be given etc.............................. 118

104........................ Changes in circumstances to be notified......................... 119

105........................ Particulars of incorrect answers to be given.................... 119

106........................ Obligations to give etc. information is not affected by other sources of information                119

107........................ Notice of incorrect applications....................................... 120

107A..................... Possible non‑compliances in connection with a previous visa may be grounds for cancellation of current visa........................................................................................ 121

108........................ Decision about non‑compliance...................................... 121

109........................ Cancellation of visa if information incorrect................... 122

110........................ Cancellation provisions apply whatever source of knowledge of non‑compliance   122

111........................ Cancellation provisions apply whether or not non‑compliance deliberate                122

112........................ Action because of one non‑compliance not prevent action because of other non‑compliance  122

113........................ No cancellation if full disclosure..................................... 123

114........................ Effect of setting aside decision to cancel visa.................. 123

115........................ Application of Subdivision............................................. 123

Subdivision D—Visas may be cancelled on certain grounds                       124

116........................ Power to cancel............................................................... 124

117........................ When visa may be cancelled........................................... 125

118........................ Cancellation powers do not limit or affect each other...... 125

Subdivision E—Procedure for cancelling visas under Subdivision D in or outside Australia   126

118A..................... Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule........ 126

119........................ Notice of proposed cancellation...................................... 126

120........................ Certain information must be given to visa holder............ 127

121........................ Invitation to give comments etc....................................... 127

122........................ Prescribed periods.......................................................... 128

123........................ Failure to accept invitation not require action.................. 129

124........................ When decision about visa cancellation may be made...... 129

125........................ Application of Subdivision to non‑citizen in immigration clearance         129

126........................ Application of Subdivision to non‑citizen in questioning detention         129

127........................ Notification of decision................................................... 130

Subdivision F—Other procedure for cancelling visas under Subdivision D outside Australia  130

127A..................... Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule........ 130

128........................ Cancellation of visas of people outside Australia............ 131

129........................ Notice of cancellation...................................................... 131

130........................ Prescribed periods.......................................................... 131

131........................ Decision about revocation of cancellation....................... 132

132........................ Notification of decision about revocation of cancellation 132

133........................ Effect of revocation of cancellation................................. 132

Subdivision G—Cancellation of business visas                                              133

134........................ Cancellation of business visas........................................ 133

135........................ Representations concerning cancellation of business visa 137

136........................ Review of decisions........................................................ 138

137........................ Provision of information—holders of business visas..... 138

Subdivision GB—Automatic cancellation of student visas                          139

137J....................... Non‑complying students may have their visas automatically cancelled    139

137K...................... Applying for revocation of cancellation.......................... 140

137L...................... Dealing with the application............................................ 141

137M..................... Notification of decision................................................... 141

137N..................... Minister may revoke cancellation on his or her own initiative  142

137P...................... Effect of revocation......................................................... 142

Subdivision GC—Cancellation of regional sponsored employment visas 143

137Q..................... Cancellation of regional sponsored employment visas.... 143

137R...................... Representations concerning cancellation etc.................... 144

137S...................... Notice of cancellation...................................................... 144

137T...................... Cancellation of other visas.............................................. 145

Subdivision H—General provisions on cancellation                                    145

138........................ Way visa cancelled or cancellation revoked.................... 145

139........................ Visas held by 2 or more.................................................. 145

140........................ Cancellation of visa results in other cancellation............. 145

Division 3A—Sponsorship                                                                                      147

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               147

140A..................... Division applies to prescribed kinds of visa................... 147

140AA.................. Division 3A—purposes.................................................. 147

140AB................... Ministerial Advisory Council on Skilled Migration........ 148

Subdivision B—Approving sponsors and nominations                                148

140E...................... Minister to approve sponsor........................................... 148

140F...................... Process for approving sponsors..................................... 149

140G..................... Terms of approval as a sponsor...................................... 149

140GA.................. Variation of terms of approval as a sponsor................... 149

140GB................... Minister to approve nominations.................................... 150

140GC................... Work agreements............................................................ 150

Subdivision C—Sponsorship obligations                                                         151

140H..................... Sponsorship obligations—general.................................. 151

140HA.................. Sponsorship obligations—Minister’s responsibility....... 152

140J....................... Amounts payable in relation to sponsorship obligations. 153

Subdivision D—Enforcement                                                                              153

140K...................... Sanctions for failing to satisfy sponsorship obligations.. 153

140L...................... Regulations may prescribe circumstances in which sponsor may be barred or sponsor’s approval cancelled........................................................................................ 155

140M..................... Cancelling approval as a sponsor or barring a sponsor... 156

140N..................... Process for cancelling or barring approval as a sponsor. 156

140O..................... Waiving a bar.................................................................. 157

140P...................... Process for waiving a bar............................................... 157

140Q..................... Civil penalty—failing to satisfy sponsorship obligations 157

140RA................... Accepting undertakings.................................................. 158

140RB................... Enforcing undertakings................................................... 159

Subdivision E—Liability and recovery of amounts                                      159

140S...................... Liability to pay amounts.................................................. 159

140SA................... Interest up to judgment................................................... 160

140SB................... Interest on judgment....................................................... 160

140SC................... Certain plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure in magistrates courts             160

140T...................... Notice regarding amount of debt or other amount........... 161

140U..................... Liability is in addition to any other liability..................... 162

Subdivision F—Inspector powers                                                                       162

140UA.................. Exercise of inspector powers.......................................... 162

140V..................... Inspectors....................................................................... 162

140W..................... Identity cards.................................................................. 163

140X..................... Purpose for which powers of inspectors may be exercised 164

140XA.................. When powers of inspectors may be exercised................ 164

140XB................... Power of inspectors to enter premises or places............. 165

140XC................... Powers of inspectors while on premises or at a place..... 165

140XD.................. Persons assisting inspectors........................................... 166

140XE................... Power to ask for person’s name and address.................. 166

140XF................... Power to require persons to produce records or documents 167

140XG.................. Self‑incrimination........................................................... 167

140XH.................. Certain records and documents are inadmissible............. 168

140XI.................... Power to keep records or documents.............................. 168

140XJ.................... Disclosure of information by the Secretary..................... 168

Subdivision G—Application of Division to partnerships and unincorporated associations       169

140ZB................... Partnerships—sponsorship rights and obligations.......... 169

140ZC................... Partnerships—offences and civil penalties...................... 170

140ZD................... Partnership ceases to exist.............................................. 171

140ZE.................... Unincorporated associations—sponsorship rights and obligations          171

140ZF.................... Unincorporated associations—offences and civil penalties 171

140ZG................... Unincorporated association ceases to exist..................... 172

Subdivision H—Miscellaneous                                                                           173

140ZH................... Disclosure of personal information by Minister............. 173

140ZI..................... Disclosure of personal information to Minister.............. 174

140ZJ.................... Unclaimed money........................................................... 175

140ZK................... Other regulation making powers not limited................... 176

Division 4—Criminal justice visitors                                                                177

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               177

141........................ Object of Division.......................................................... 177

142........................ Interpretation................................................................... 177

143........................ Delegation by Attorney‑General..................................... 178

144........................ Authorised officials........................................................ 178

Subdivision B—Criminal justice certificates for entry                                179

145........................ Commonwealth criminal justice entry certificate............. 179

146........................ State criminal justice entry certificate.............................. 179

Subdivision C—Criminal justice certificates etc. staying removal or deportation       180

147........................ Commonwealth criminal justice stay certificate............... 180

148........................ State criminal justice stay certificate................................ 181

149........................ Application for visa not to prevent certificate.................. 181

150........................ Criminal justice stay certificates stay removal or deportation 181

151........................ Certain warrants stay removal or deportation.................. 182

152........................ Certain subjects of stay certificates and stay warrants may be detained etc.             182

153........................ Removal or deportation not contempt etc. if no stay certificate or warrant               182

154........................ Officer not liable—criminal justice stay certificates or warrants               183

Subdivision D—Criminal justice visas                                                              183

155........................ Criminal justice visas...................................................... 183

156........................ Criterion for criminal justice entry visas......................... 183

157........................ Criterion for criminal justice stay visas........................... 183

158........................ Criteria for criminal justice visas..................................... 183

159........................ Procedure for obtaining criminal justice visa.................. 184

160........................ Conditions of criminal justice visa.................................. 184

161........................ Effect of criminal justice visas........................................ 185

Subdivision E—Cancellation etc. of criminal justice certificates and criminal justice visas     185

162........................ Criminal justice certificates to be cancelled..................... 185

163........................ Stay warrant to be cancelled............................................ 186

164........................ Effect of cancellation etc. on criminal justice visa........... 186

Division 4A—Enforcement visas                                                                        188

164A..................... Definitions...................................................................... 188

164B...................... Grant of enforcement visas (fisheries matters)................ 188

164BA................... Grant of enforcement visas (environment matters)......... 191

164C...................... When enforcement visa ceases to be in effect................. 193

164D..................... Applying for other visas................................................. 194

Division 5—Immigration clearance                                                                  195

165........................ Interpretation................................................................... 195

166........................ Persons entering to present certain evidence of identity etc. 195

167........................ When and where evidence to be presented...................... 197

168........................ Section 166 not to apply................................................. 198

169........................ Section 166 not usually to apply..................................... 199

170........................ Certain persons to present evidence of identity............... 200

171........................ Assistance with evidence................................................ 201

172........................ Immigration clearance..................................................... 202

173........................ Visa ceases if holder enters in way not permitted........... 203

174........................ Visa ceases if holder remains without immigration clearance.. 204

175........................ Departing person to present certain evidence etc............. 204

175A..................... Determinations relating to kinds of passports................. 206

Division 6—Certain non‑citizens to be kept in immigration detention 207

176........................ Reason for Division........................................................ 207

177........................ Interpretation................................................................... 207

178........................ Designated persons to be in immigration detention......... 208

179........................ Beginning of immigration detention of certain designated persons          208

180........................ Detention of designated person....................................... 208

181........................ Removal from Australia of designated persons.............. 209

182........................ No immigration detention or removal after certain period 210

183........................ Courts must not release designated persons.................... 212

185........................ Effect of Division on status etc....................................... 212

186........................ Division applies despite other laws................................. 212

187........................ Evidence......................................................................... 212

Division 7—Detention of unlawful non‑citizens                                          213

Subdivision A—General provisions                                                                  213

188........................ Lawful non‑citizen to give evidence of being so............. 213

189........................ Detention of unlawful non‑citizens................................. 214

190........................ Non‑compliance with immigration clearance or section 192 basis of detention        215

191........................ End of certain detention.................................................. 216

192........................ Detention of visa holders whose visas liable to cancellation 217

192A..................... Authorisation of identification tests in certain cases........ 219

193........................ Application of law to certain non‑citizens while they remain in immigration detention            220

194........................ Detainee to be told of consequences of detention............ 222

195........................ Detainee may apply for visa............................................ 222

195A..................... Minister may grant detainee visa (whether or not on application)            222

196........................ Duration of detention...................................................... 224

197........................ Effect of escape from immigration detention................... 225

Subdivision B—Residence determinations                                                      225

197AA.................. Persons to whom Subdivision applies............................ 225

197AB................... Minister may determine that person is to reside at a specified place rather than being held in detention centre etc................................................................................... 225

197AC................... Effect of residence determination.................................... 226

197AD.................. Revocation or variation of residence determination......... 227

197AE................... Minister not under duty to consider whether to exercise powers             228

197AF................... Minister to exercise powers personally........................... 228

197AG.................. Tabling of information relating to the making of residence determinations              228

Division 7A—Offences relating to immigration detention                    230

197A..................... Detainees must not escape from detention...................... 230

197B...................... Manufacture, possession etc. of weapons by detainees.. 230

Division 8—Removal of unlawful non‑citizens etc.                                   231

Subdivision A—Removal                                                                                     231

198........................ Removal from Australia of unlawful non‑citizens.......... 231

Subdivision B—Regional processing                                                                234

198AA.................. Reason for Subdivision.................................................. 234

198AB................... Regional processing country.......................................... 234

198AC................... Documents to be laid before Parliament.......................... 236

198AD.................. Taking unauthorised maritime arrivals to a regional processing country  237

198AE................... Ministerial determination that section 198AD does not apply  239

198AF................... No regional processing country...................................... 240

198AG.................. Non‑acceptance by regional processing country............. 240

198AH.................. Application of section 198AD to certain transitory persons 240

198AI.................... Ministerial report............................................................ 241

198AJ.................... Reports about unauthorised maritime arrivals................. 241

Subdivision C—Transitory persons etc.                                                           242

198B...................... Power to bring transitory persons to Australia............... 242

199........................ Dependants of removed non‑citizens.............................. 242

Division 9—Deportation                                                                                         244

200........................ Deportation of certain non‑citizens................................. 244

201........................ Deportation of non‑citizens in Australia for less than 10 years who are convicted of crimes   244

202........................ Deportation of non‑citizens upon security grounds........ 244

203........................ Deportation of non‑citizens who are convicted of certain serious offences              246

204........................ Determination of time for sections 201 and 202............. 248

205........................ Dependants of deportee.................................................. 249

206........................ Deportation order to be executed.................................... 249

Division 10—Costs etc. of removal and deportation                               250

207........................ Interpretation................................................................... 250

210........................ Removed or deported non‑citizen liable for costs of removal or deportation            250

212........................ Costs of removed or deported spouses, de facto partners and dependants               250

213........................ Carriers may be liable for costs of removal and deportation 251

214........................ Non‑citizens and carriers jointly liable............................ 252

215........................ Costs are debts due to the Commonwealth..................... 252

216........................ Use of existing ticket for removal or deportation............ 252

217........................ Vessels required to convey certain removees.................. 252

218........................ Vessels required to convey deportees or other removees 253

219........................ Exemption from complying............................................ 253

220........................ Waiver of requirement.................................................... 254

221........................ Cost of removal under notice.......................................... 254

222........................ Orders restraining certain non‑citizens from disposing etc. of property   254

223........................ Secretary may give direction about valuables of detained non‑citizens     256

224........................ Dealing with seized valuables......................................... 259

Division 11—Duties of masters in relation to crews                                261

225........................ Production of identity documents and mustering of crew 261

226........................ Production of identity documents by persons on board resources installation         261

227........................ Production of identity documents by persons on board sea installation   262

228........................ Master to report absences............................................... 263

Division 12—Offences etc. in relation to entry into, and remaining in, Australia           265

Subdivision A—People smuggling and related offences                              265

228A..................... Application of Subdivision............................................. 265

228B...................... Circumstances in which a non‑citizen has no lawful right to come to Australia       265

229........................ Carriage of non‑citizens to Australia without documentation 265

230........................ Carriage of concealed persons to Australia..................... 267

231........................ Master of vessel to comply with certain requests............ 268

232........................ Penalty on master, owner, agent and charterer of vessel. 269

233A..................... Offence of people smuggling.......................................... 270

233B...................... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (danger of death or serious harm etc.)     271

233C...................... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (at least 5 people) 271

233D..................... Supporting the offence of people smuggling.................. 272

233E...................... Concealing and harbouring non‑citizens etc.................... 273

234........................ False documents and false or misleading information etc. relating to non‑citizens   273

234A..................... Aggravated offence of false documents and false or misleading information etc. relating to non‑citizens (at least 5 people)................................................................. 274

235........................ Offences in relation to work........................................... 275

236........................ Offences relating to visas................................................ 277

236A..................... No discharge without conviction for certain offences..... 278

236B...................... Mandatory minimum penalties for certain offences........ 278

236C...................... Time in immigration detention counts for sentencing etc. 279

236D..................... Burden and standard of proof in relation to age.............. 279

236E...................... Evidentiary certificates in proceedings for offences........ 280

236F...................... Evidentiary certificates—procedural matters................... 281

Subdivision B—Offences relating to abuse of laws allowing spouses etc. of Australian citizens or of permanent residents to become permanent residents                           282

237........................ Reason for Subdivision.................................................. 282

238........................ Interpretation................................................................... 283

239........................ Application of Subdivision............................................. 283

240........................ Offence to arrange marriage to obtain permanent residence 283

241........................ Offence to arrange pretended de facto relationship to obtain permanent residence   284

243........................ Offences relating to application for permanent residence because of marriage or de facto relationship    284

245........................ Offences of making false or unsupported statements...... 285

Subdivision C—Offences and civil penalties in relation to work by non‑citizens          286

245AA.................. Overview........................................................................ 286

245AB................... Allowing an unlawful non‑citizen to work..................... 286

245AC................... Allowing a lawful non‑citizen to work in breach of a work‑related condition          287

245AD.................. Aggravated offences if a person allows, or continues to allow, another person to work          288

245AE................... Referring an unlawful non‑citizen for work.................... 289

245AEA................ Referring a lawful non‑citizen for work in breach of a work‑related condition        290

245AEB................ Aggravated offences if a person refers another person to a third person for work   291

245AF................... Circumstances in which this Subdivision does not apply 293

245AG.................. Meaning of work and allows to work............................. 293

245AH.................. Meaning of exploited...................................................... 294

245AJ.................... Criminal liability of executive officers of bodies corporate 294

245AK................... Civil liability of executive officers of bodies corporate... 295

245AL................... Contravening civil penalty provisions............................. 297

245AM.................. Geographical scope of offence and civil penalty provisions 297

245AN.................. Charge and trial for an aggravated offence...................... 300

245AO.................. Treatment of partnerships............................................... 301

245AP................... Treatment of unincorporated associations....................... 302

Division 12A—Chasing, boarding etc. ships and aircraft                     303

245A..................... Definitions...................................................................... 303

245B...................... Request to board a ship................................................... 304

245C...................... Power to chase foreign ships for boarding..................... 307

245D..................... Power to chase Australian ships for boarding................ 309

245E...................... Identifying an aircraft and requesting it to land for boarding 309

245F...................... Power to board and search etc. ships and aircraft........... 311

245FA................... Searches of people on certain ships or aircraft................ 318

245FB................... Returning persons to ships............................................. 319

245G..................... Boarding of certain ships on the high seas...................... 319

245H..................... Moving or destroying hazardous ships etc..................... 321

Division 12B—Reporting on passengers and crew of aircraft and ships              324

245I....................... Definitions...................................................................... 324

245J....................... Approval of primary reporting systems.......................... 325

245K...................... Approval of fall‑back reporting systems......................... 326

245L...................... Obligation to report on passengers and crew.................. 326

245M..................... Approved fall‑back reporting systems may be used in certain circumstances          328

245N..................... Offence for failure to comply with reporting obligations 329

Division 13—Examination, search and detention                                      330

246........................ Appointment of boarding stations................................... 330

247........................ Vessels to enter ports and be brought to boarding stations 330

248........................ Exemption....................................................................... 332

249........................ Certain persons may be prevented from entering or landing 332

250........................ Detention of suspected offenders.................................... 333

251........................ Powers of entry and search............................................. 334

252........................ Searches of persons........................................................ 335

252AA.................. Power to conduct a screening procedure......................... 337

252A..................... Power to conduct a strip search...................................... 338

252B...................... Rules for conducting a strip search................................. 340

252C...................... Possession and retention of certain things obtained during a screening procedure or strip search           342

252D..................... Authorised officer may apply for a thing to be retained for a further period            343

252E...................... Magistrate may order that thing be retained.................... 344

252F...................... Detainees held in State or Territory prisons or remand centres                344

252G..................... Powers concerning entry to a detention centre................ 345

253........................ Detention of deportee...................................................... 346

254........................ Removees and deportees held in other custody............... 348

255........................ Prescribed authorities...................................................... 349

256........................ Person in immigration detention may have access to certain advice, facilities etc.    349

257........................ Persons may be required to answer questions................ 350

258........................ Minister may determine that personal identifiers are not required            350

258A..................... When non‑citizen cannot be required to provide personal identifier         351

258B...................... Information to be provided—authorised officers carrying out identification tests    351

258C...................... Information to be provided—authorised officers not carrying out identification tests              352

258D..................... Regulations may prescribe manner for carrying out identification tests    352

258E...................... General rules for carrying out identification tests............ 353

258F...................... Identification tests not to be carried out in cruel, inhuman or degrading manner etc.                353

258G..................... Authorised officer may get help to carry out identification tests               353

259........................ Detention of vessel for purpose of search....................... 354

260........................ Detention of vessel pending recovery of penalty............ 354

261........................ Disposal of dilapidated vessels etc.................................. 355

Division 13AA—Identification of immigration detainees                      357

Subdivision A—Provision of personal identifiers                                         357

261AA.................. Immigration detainees must provide personal identifiers 357

261AB................... Authorised officers must require and carry out identification tests           358

261AC................... Information to be provided before carrying out identification tests          358

Subdivision B—How identification tests are carried out                             359

261AD.................. General rules for carrying out identification tests............ 359

261AE................... Use of force in carrying out identification tests............... 359

261AF................... Identification tests not to be carried out in cruel, inhuman or degrading manner etc.                361

261AG.................. Authorised officer may get help to carry out identification tests               361

261AH.................. Identification tests to be carried out by authorised officer of same sex as non‑citizen              361

261AI.................... Independent person to be present.................................... 361

261AJ.................... Recording of identification tests...................................... 362

261AK................... Retesting......................................................................... 362

Subdivision C—Obligations relating to video recordings of identification tests           364

261AKA................ Definitions...................................................................... 364

261AKB................ Accessing video recordings............................................ 365

261AKC................ Authorising access to video recordings.......................... 365

261AKD................ Providing video recordings............................................. 366

261AKE................ Unauthorised modification of video recordings.............. 367

261AKF................ Unauthorised impairment of video recordings................ 367

261AKG................ Meanings of unauthorised modification and unauthorised impairment etc.            368

261AKH................ Destroying video recordings........................................... 368

Division 13AB—Identification of minors and incapable persons      369

261AL................... Minors............................................................................ 369

261AM.................. Incapable persons........................................................... 370

Division 13A—Automatic forfeiture of things used in certain offences 371

Subdivision A—Automatic forfeiture                                                               371

261A..................... Forfeiture of things used in certain offences................... 371

Subdivision B—Seizure                                                                                        372

261B...................... Seizure of things used in certain offences....................... 372

Subdivision C—Dealing with things seized as automatically forfeited    372

261C...................... Application of this Subdivision...................................... 372

261D..................... Notice of seizure............................................................. 372

261E...................... Dealing with thing before it is condemned...................... 373

261F...................... Thing condemned if not claimed in time......................... 373

261G..................... Dealing with claim for thing........................................... 374

261H..................... What happens if thing is claimed.................................... 375

261I....................... Dealing with thing after it is condemned......................... 376

Subdivision D—Operation of Division                                                             376

261J....................... Operation of Division..................................................... 376

Subdivision E—Minister’s order that a thing not be condemned as forfeited                377

261K...................... Minister’s order that a thing not be condemned.............. 377


An Act relating to the entry into, and presence in, Australia of aliens, and the departure or deportation from Australia of aliens and certain other persons

 

Part 1Preliminary

  

1  Short title

                   This Act may be cited as the Migration Act 1958.

2  Commencement

                   The several Parts of this Act shall come into operation on such dates as are respectively fixed by Proclamation.

3  Repeal and savings

             (1)  The Acts specified in the Schedule to this Act are repealed.

             (2)  Section 9 of the War Precautions Act Repeal Act 1920‑1955 and the heading to that section, and the Schedule to that Act, are repealed.

             (3)  The War Precautions Act Repeal Act 1920‑1955, as amended by this section, may be cited as the War Precautions Act Repeal Act 1920‑1958.

             (4)  Notwithstanding the repeals effected by this section:

                     (a)  a certificate of exemption in force under the Immigration Act 1901‑1949 immediately before the date of commencement of this Part shall, for all purposes of this Act, be deemed to be a temporary visa granted under this Act to the person specified in the certificate and authorizing that person to remain in Australia for a period ending on the date on which the certificate would have expired if this Act had not been passed.

             (5)  For the purposes of paragraph (4)(a), where, before the commencement of this Part, a person who had previously entered Australia re‑entered Australia and, upon or after the re‑entry, a certificate of exemption purported to be issued to the person, the certificate shall be deemed to have been as validly issued as if the person had not previously entered Australia.

3A  Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power

             (1)  Unless the contrary intention appears, if a provision of this Act:

                     (a)  would, apart from this section, have an invalid application; but

                     (b)  also has at least one valid application;

it is the Parliament’s intention that the provision is not to have the invalid application, but is to have every valid application.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), the provision is not to have a particular valid application if:

                     (a)  apart from this section, it is clear, taking into account the provision’s context and the purpose or object underlying this Act, that the provision was intended to have that valid application only if every invalid application, or a particular invalid application, of the provision had also been within the Commonwealth’s legislative power; or

                     (b)  the provision’s operation in relation to that valid application would be different in a substantial respect from what would have been its operation in relation to that valid application if every invalid application of the provision had been within the Commonwealth’s legislative power.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the cases where a contrary intention may be taken to appear for the purposes of subsection (1).

             (4)  This section applies to a provision of this Act, whether enacted before, at or after the commencement of this section.

             (5)  In this section:

application means an application in relation to:

                     (a)  one or more particular persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases; or

                     (b)  one or more classes (however defined or determined) of persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases.

invalid application, in relation to a provision, means an application because of which the provision exceeds the Commonwealth’s legislative power.

valid application, in relation to a provision, means an application that, if it were the provision’s only application, would be within the Commonwealth’s legislative power.

3B  Compensation for acquisition of property

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  this Act would result in an acquisition of property; and

                     (b)  any provision of this Act would not be valid, apart from this section, because a particular person has not been compensated;

the Commonwealth must pay that person:

                     (c)  a reasonable amount of compensation agreed on between the person and the Commonwealth; or

                     (d)  failing agreement—a reasonable amount of compensation determined by a court of competent jurisdiction.

             (2)  Any damages or compensation recovered, or other remedy given, in a proceeding begun otherwise than under this section must be taken into account in assessing compensation payable in a proceeding begun under this section and arising out of the same event or transaction.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of property has the same meaning as in paragraph 51(xxxi) of the Constitution.

4  Object of Act

             (1)  The object of this Act is to regulate, in the national interest, the coming into, and presence in, Australia of non‑citizens.

             (2)  To advance its object, this Act provides for visas permitting non‑citizens to enter or remain in Australia and the Parliament intends that this Act be the only source of the right of non‑citizens to so enter or remain.

             (3)  To advance its object, this Act requires persons, whether citizens or non‑citizens, entering Australia to identify themselves so that the Commonwealth government can know who are the non‑citizens so entering.

             (4)  To advance its object, this Act provides for the removal or deportation from Australia of non‑citizens whose presence in Australia is not permitted by this Act.

             (5)  To advance its object, this Act provides for the taking of unauthorised maritime arrivals from Australia to a regional processing country.

4AA  Detention of minors a last resort

             (1)  The Parliament affirms as a principle that a minor shall only be detained as a measure of last resort.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the reference to a minor being detained does not include a reference to a minor residing at a place in accordance with a residence determination.

4A  Application of the Criminal Code

                   Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code (except Part 2.5) applies to all offences against this Act.

Note:          Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility.

5  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

absorbed person visa has the meaning given by section 34.

adjacent area means an adjacent area in respect of a State, of the Northern Territory, of the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands, of the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands or of the Territory of Christmas Island, as determined in accordance with section 5 of the Sea Installations Act.

adoption has the same meaning as in the regulations.

allowed inhabitant of the Protected Zone means an inhabitant of the Protected Zone, other than an inhabitant to whom a declaration under section 16 (presence declared undesirable) applies.

applicable pass mark, in relation to a visa of a particular class, means the number of points specified as the pass mark for that class in a notice, under section 96, in force at the time concerned.

applicable pool mark, in relation to a visa of a particular class, means the number of points specified as the pool mark for that class in a notice under section 96 in force at the time concerned.

appointed inspector has the meaning given by section 140V.

approved form, when used in a provision of this Act, means a form approved by the Minister in writing for the purposes of that provision.

approved sponsor means:

                     (a)  a person:

                              (i)  who has been approved by the Minister under section 140E in relation to a class prescribed by the regulations for the purpose of subsection 140E(2); and

                             (ii)  whose approval has not been cancelled under section 140M, or otherwise ceased to have effect under section 140G, in relation to that class; or

                     (b)  a person (other than a Minister) who is a party to a work agreement.

Note:          A partnership or an unincorporated association may be an approved sponsor: see subsections 140ZB(1) and 140ZE(1) respectively.

area in the vicinity of the Protected Zone means an area in respect of which a notice is in force under subsection (8).

assessed score, in relation to an applicant for a visa, means the total number of points given to the applicant in an assessment under section 93.

Australian passport means a passport issued under the Australian Passports Act 2005.

Australian resources installation means a resources installation that is deemed to be part of Australia because of the operation of section 8.

Australian seabed means so much of the seabed adjacent to Australia (other than the seabed within the Joint Petroleum Development Area) as is:

                     (a)  within the area comprising:

                              (i)  the areas described in Schedule 1 to the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006; and

                             (ii)  the Coral Sea area; and

                     (b)  part of:

                              (i)  the continental shelf of Australia;

                             (ii)  the seabed beneath the territorial sea of Australia (including the territorial sea adjacent to any island forming part of Australia); or

                            (iii)  the seabed beneath waters of the sea that are on the landward side of the territorial sea of Australia and are not within the limits of a State or Territory.

Australian sea installation means a sea installation that is deemed to be part of Australia because of the operation of section 9.

Australian waters means:

                     (a)  in relation to a resources installation—waters above the Australian seabed; and

                     (b)  in relation to a sea installation—waters comprising all of the adjacent areas and the coastal area.

authorised officer, when used in a provision of this Act, means an officer authorised in writing by the Minister or the Secretary for the purposes of that provision.

Note:          Section 5D can affect the meaning of this term for the purposes of carrying out identification tests.

authorised system, when used in a provision of this Act, means an automated system authorised in writing by the Minister or the Secretary for the purposes of that provision.

behaviour concern non‑citizen means a non‑citizen who:

                     (a)  has been convicted of a crime and sentenced to death or to imprisonment, for at least one year; or

                     (b)  has been convicted of 2 or more crimes and sentenced to imprisonment, for periods that add up to at least one year if:

                              (i)  any period concurrent with part of a longer period is disregarded; and

                             (ii)  any periods not disregarded that are concurrent with each other are treated as one period;

                            whether or not:

                            (iii)  the crimes were of the same kind; or

                            (iv)  the crimes were committed at the same time; or

                             (v)  the convictions were at the same time; or

                            (vi)  the sentencings were at the same time; or

                           (vii)  the periods were consecutive; or

                     (c)  has been charged with a crime and either:

                              (i)  found guilty of having committed the crime while of unsound mind; or

                             (ii)  acquitted on the ground that the crime was committed while the person was of unsound mind;

                     (d)  has been removed or deported from Australia or removed or deported from another country; or

                     (e)  has been excluded from another country in prescribed circumstances;

where sentenced to imprisonment includes ordered to be confined in a corrective institution.

bridging visa has the meaning given by section 37.

brought into physical contact has the same meaning as in the Sea Installations Act.

bypass immigration clearance has the meaning given by subsection 172(4).

certified printout means a printout certified by an authorised officer to be a printout of information kept in the movement records.

character concern has the meaning given by section 5C.

child of a person has a meaning affected by section 5CA.

civil penalty order has the meaning given by subsection 486R(4).

civil penalty provision means a subsection, or a section that is not divided into subsections, that has set out at its foot the words “civil penalty” and one or more amounts in penalty units.

clearance authority has the meaning given by section 165.

clearance officer has the meaning given by section 165.

coastal area has the same meaning as in the Customs Act 1901.

committee of management of an unincorporated association means a body (however described) that governs, manages or conducts the affairs of the association.

Coral Sea area has the same meaning as in section 7 of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006.

Covenant means the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a copy of the English text of which is set out in Schedule 2 to the Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986.

crime includes any offence.

criminal justice visa has the meaning given by section 38.

cruel or inhuman treatment or punishment means an act or omission by which:

                     (a)  severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person; or

                     (b)  pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person so long as, in all the circumstances, the act or omission could reasonably be regarded as cruel or inhuman in nature;

but does not include an act or omission:

                     (c)  that is not inconsistent with Article 7 of the Covenant; or

                     (d)  arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions that are not inconsistent with the Articles of the Covenant.

data base (except in Part 4A) means a discrete body of information stored by means of a computer.

Note:          Section 336A defines this term differently for the purposes of Part 4A.

de facto partner has the meaning given by section 5CB.

degrading treatment or punishment means an act or omission that causes, and is intended to cause, extreme humiliation which is unreasonable, but does not include an act or omission:

                     (a)  that is not inconsistent with Article 7 of the Covenant; or

                     (b)  that causes, and is intended to cause, extreme humiliation arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions that are not inconsistent with the Articles of the Covenant.

departure prohibition order means an order under subsection 14S(1) of the Taxation Administration Act 1953.

deportation means deportation from Australia.

deportation order means an order for the deportation of a person made under, or continued in force by, this Act.

deportee means a person in respect of whom a deportation order is in force.

detain means:

                     (a)  take into immigration detention; or

                     (b)  keep, or cause to be kept, in immigration detention;

and includes taking such action and using such force as are reasonably necessary to do so.

Note:          This definition extends to persons covered by residence determinations (see section 197AC).

detainee means a person detained.

Note:          This definition extends to persons covered by residence determinations (see section 197AC).

diplomatic or consular representative, in relation to a country other than Australia, means a person who has been appointed to, or is the holder of, a post or position in a diplomatic or consular mission of that country in Australia, not being a person who was ordinarily resident in Australia when he or she was appointed to be a member of the mission.

eligible court means:

                     (a)  the Federal Court; or

                     (b)  the Federal Circuit Court; or

                     (c)  a District, County or Local Court; or

                     (d)  a magistrates court; or

                     (e)  any other State or Territory court that is prescribed by the regulations.

enforcement visa has the meaning given by section 38A.

enter includes re‑enter.

enter Australia, in relation to a person, means enter the migration zone.

entered includes re‑entered.

entry includes re‑entry.

environment detention offence means:

                     (a)  an offence against the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, or against regulations made for the purposes of that Act; or

                     (b)  an offence against section 6 of the Crimes Act 1914 relating to an offence described in paragraph (a).

environment officer means an authorised officer, within the meaning of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, but does not include a person who is an authorised officer because of subsection 397(3) of that Act.

environment related activity has the same meaning as in the Sea Installations Act.

evidential burden, in relation to a matter, means the burden of adducing or pointing to evidence that suggests a reasonable possibility that the matter exists or does not exist.

excised offshore place means any of the following:

                     (a)  the Territory of Christmas Island;

                     (b)  the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands;

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands;

                     (d)  any other external Territory that is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph;

                     (e)  any island that forms part of a State or Territory and is prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph;

                      (f)  an Australian sea installation;

                     (g)  an Australian resources installation.

excision time, for an excised offshore place, means:

                     (a)  for the Territory of Christmas Island—2 pm on 8 September 2001 by legal time in the Australian Capital Territory; or

                     (b)  for the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands—2 pm on 8 September 2001 by legal time in the Australian Capital Territory; or

                     (c)  for the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands—12 noon on 17 September 2001 by legal time in the Australian Capital Territory; or

                     (d)  for any other external Territory that is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of the definition of excised offshore place—the time when the regulations commence; or

                     (e)  for any island that forms part of a State or Territory and is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of the definition of excised offshore place—the time when the regulations commence; or

                      (f)  for an Australian sea installation—the commencement of the Migration Amendment (Excision from Migration Zone) Act 2001; or

                     (g)  for an Australian resources installation—the commencement of the Migration Amendment (Excision from Migration Zone) Act 2001.

ex‑citizen visa has the meaning given by section 35.

Fair Work Inspector has the same meaning as in the Fair Work Act 2009.

Federal Circuit Court means the Federal Circuit Court of Australia.

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

fisheries detention offence means:

                     (a)  an offence against section 99, 100, 100A, 100B, 101, 101A, 101AA, 101B, 105E, 105EA, 105H or 105I of the Fisheries Management Act 1991; or

                     (b)  an offence against section 45, 46A, 46B, 46C, 46D, 48, 49, 49A, 51 or 51A of the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984; or

                     (c)  an offence against section 6 of the Crimes Act 1914 relating to an offence described in paragraph (a) or (b).

fisheries officer means an officer as defined in the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984.

foreign aircraft (environment matters) means an aircraft, within the meaning of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, that is not an Australian aircraft (within the meaning of that Act).

foreign boat has the same meaning as in the Fisheries Management Act 1991.

health concern non‑citizen means a non‑citizen who is suffering from a prescribed disease or a prescribed physical or mental condition.

health criterion, in relation to a visa, means a prescribed criterion for the visa that:

                     (a)  relates to the applicant for the visa, or the members of the family unit of that applicant; and

                     (b)  deals with:

                              (i)  a prescribed disease; or

                             (ii)  a prescribed kind of disease; or

                            (iii)  a prescribed physical or mental condition; or

                            (iv)  a prescribed kind of physical or mental condition; or

                             (v)  a prescribed kind of examination; or

                            (vi)  a prescribed kind of treatment.

holder, in relation to a visa, means, subject to section 77 (visas held during visa period) the person to whom it was granted or a person included in it.

identification test means a test carried out in order to obtain a personal identifier.

identity document, in relation to a member of the crew of a vessel, means:

                     (a)  an identification card, in accordance with a form approved by the Minister, in respect of the member signed by the master of the vessel; or

                     (b)  a document, of a kind approved by the Minister as an identity document for the purposes of this Act, in respect of the member.

immigration cleared has the meaning given by subsection 172(1).

immigration detention means:

                     (a)  being in the company of, and restrained by:

                              (i)  an officer; or

                             (ii)  in relation to a particular detainee—another person directed by the Secretary to accompany and restrain the detainee; or

                     (b)  being held by, or on behalf of, an officer:

                              (i)  in a detention centre established under this Act; or

                             (ii)  in a prison or remand centre of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory; or

                            (iii)  in a police station or watch house; or

                            (iv)  in relation to a non‑citizen who is prevented, under section 249, from leaving a vessel—on that vessel; or

                             (v)  in another place approved by the Minister in writing;

but does not include being restrained as described in subsection 245F(8A), or being dealt with under paragraph 245F(9)(b).

Note 1:       Subsection 198AD(11) provides that being dealt with under subsection 198AD(3) does not amount to immigration detention.

Note 2:       This definition extends to persons covered by residence determinations (see section 197AC).

incapable person means a person who is incapable of understanding the general nature and effect of, and purposes of, a requirement to provide a personal identifier.

independent person means a person (other than an officer or an authorised officer) who:

                     (a)  is capable of representing the interests of a non‑citizen who is providing, or is to provide, a personal identifier; and

                     (b)  as far as practicable, is acceptable to the non‑citizen who is providing, or is to provide, the personal identifier; and

                     (c)  if the non‑citizen is a minor—is capable of representing the minor’s best interests.

inhabitant of the Protected Zone means a person who is a citizen of Papua New Guinea and who is a traditional inhabitant.

in immigration clearance has the meaning given by subsection 172(2).

inspector has the meaning given by section 140V.

installation means:

                     (a)  a resources installation; or

                     (b)  a sea installation.

Joint Petroleum Development Area has the same meaning as in the Petroleum (Timor Sea Treaty) Act 2003.

lawful non‑citizen has the meaning given by section 13.

lawyer means:

                     (a)  a barrister; or

                     (b)  a solicitor; or

                     (c)  a barrister and solicitor; or

                     (d)  a legal practitioner;

of the High Court or of the Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

leave Australia, in relation to a person, means, subject to section 80 (leaving without going to other country), leave the migration zone.

maritime crew visa has the meaning given by section 38B.

master, in relation to a vessel, means the person in charge or command of the vessel.

member of the crew means:

                     (a)  in relation to a vessel other than an aircraft—the master of the vessel, or a person whose name is on the articles of the vessel as a member of the crew; or

                     (b)  in relation to an aircraft—the master of the aircraft, or a person employed by the operator of the aircraft and whose name is included in a list of members of the crew of the aircraft furnished by the master as prescribed.

member of the family unit of a person has the meaning given by the regulations made for the purposes of this definition.

member of the same family unit: one person is a member of the same family unit as another if either is a member of the family unit of the other or each is a member of the family unit of a third person.

migration decision means:

                     (a)  a privative clause decision; or

                     (b)  a purported privative clause decision; or

                     (c)  a non‑privative clause decision.

Migration Review Tribunal means the Migration Review Tribunal established by section 394.

migration zone means the area consisting of the States, the Territories, Australian resource installations and Australian sea installations and, to avoid doubt, includes:

                     (a)  land that is part of a State or Territory at mean low water; and

                     (b)  sea within the limits of both a State or a Territory and a port; and

                     (c)  piers, or similar structures, any part of which is connected to such land or to ground under such sea;

but does not include sea within the limits of a State or Territory but not in a port.

minor means a person who is less than 18 years old.

movement records means information stored in a notified data base.

natural resources means the mineral and other non‑living resources of the seabed and its subsoil.

non‑citizen means a person who is not an Australian citizen.

non‑disclosable information means information or matter:

                     (a)  whose disclosure would, in the Minister’s opinion, be contrary to the national interest because it would:

                              (i)  prejudice the security, defence or international relations of Australia; or

                             (ii)  involve the disclosure of deliberations or decisions of the Cabinet or of a committee of the Cabinet; or

                     (b)  whose disclosure would, in the Minister’s opinion, be contrary to the public interest for a reason which could form the basis of a claim by the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in judicial proceedings; or

                     (c)  whose disclosure would found an action by a person, other than the Commonwealth, for breach of confidence;

and includes any document containing, or any record of, such information or matter.

non‑political crime:

                     (a)  subject to paragraph (b), means a crime where a person’s motives for committing the crime were wholly or mainly non‑political in nature; and

                     (b)  includes an offence that, under paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of the definition of political offence in section 5 of the Extradition Act 1988, is not a political offence in relation to a country for the purposes of that Act.

non‑privative clause decision has the meaning given by subsection 474(6).

notified data base means a data base declared to be a notified data base under section 489.

offence against this Act includes:

                     (a)  an offence against section 6 of the Crimes Act 1914 that relates to an offence against a provision of this Act; and

                     (b)  an ancillary offence (within the meaning of the Criminal Code) that is, or relates to, an offence against a provision of this Act.

officer means:

                     (a)  an officer of the Department, other than an officer specified by the Minister in writing for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                     (b)  a person who is an officer for the purposes of the Customs Act 1901, other than such an officer specified by the Minister in writing for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                     (c)  a person who is a protective service officer for the purposes of the Australian Federal Police Act 1979, other than such a person specified by the Minister in writing for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                     (d)  a member of the Australian Federal Police or of the police force of a State or an internal Territory; or

                     (e)  a member of the police force of an external Territory; or

                      (f)  a person who is authorised in writing by the Minister to be an officer for the purposes of this Act; or

                     (g)  any person who is included in a class of persons authorised in writing by the Minister to be officers for the purposes of this Act, including a person who becomes a member of the class after the authorisation is given.

old visa means a visa, document, or notation, that:

                     (a)  permits a person to travel to Australia; and

                     (b)  was issued before 1 September 1994; and

                     (c)  has not been cancelled or otherwise stopped being in effect.

parent: without limiting who is a parent of a person for the purposes of this Act, someone is the parent of a person if the person is his or her child because of the definition of child in section 5CA.

passport includes a document of identity issued from official sources, whether in or outside Australia, and having the characteristics of a passport, but does not include a document, which may be a document called or purporting to be a passport, that the regulations declare is not to be taken to be a passport.

penalty unit has the meaning given by section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

permanent visa has the meaning given by subsection 30(1).

personal identifier has the meaning given by section 5A.

personal information has the same meaning as in the Privacy Act 1988.

port means:

                     (a)  a proclaimed port; or

                     (b)  a proclaimed airport.

pre‑cleared flight means a flight declared under section 17 to be a pre‑cleared flight.

prescribed means prescribed by the regulations.

printout means a mechanically or electronically made reproduction of part or all of the movement records.

privative clause decision has the meaning given by subsection 474(2).

proclaimed airport means:

                     (a)  an airport appointed under section 15 of the Customs Act 1901; or

                     (b)  an airport appointed by the Minister under subsection (5).

proclaimed port means:

                     (a)  a port appointed under section 15 of the Customs Act 1901; or

                     (b)  a port appointed by the Minister under subsection (5).

protected area means an area that is:

                     (a)  part of the migration zone; and

                     (b)  in, or in an area in the vicinity of, the Protected Zone.

Protected Zone means the zone established under Article 10 of the Torres Strait Treaty, being the area bounded by the line described in Annex 9 to that treaty.

purported privative clause decision has the meaning given by section 5E.

questioning detention means detention under section 192.

receiving country, in relation to a non‑citizen, means:

                     (a)  a country of which the non‑citizen is a national; or

                     (b)  if the non‑citizen has no country of nationality—the country of which the non‑citizen is an habitual resident;

to be determined solely by reference to the law of the relevant country.

Refugee Review Tribunal means the Refugee Review Tribunal established by section 457.

Refugees Convention means the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees done at Geneva on 28 July 1951.

Refugees Protocol means the Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees done at New York on 31 January 1967.

refused immigration clearance has the meaning given by subsection 172(3).

regional processing country means a country designated by the Minister under subsection 198AB(1) as a regional processing country.

remain in Australia, in relation to a person, means remain in the migration zone.

remove means remove from Australia.

removee means an unlawful non‑citizen removed, or to be removed, under Division 8 of Part 2.

residence determination has the meaning given by subsection 197AB(1).

resources installation means:

                     (a)  a resources industry fixed structure within the meaning of subsection (10); or

                     (b)  a resources industry mobile unit within the meaning of subsection (11).

RRT‑reviewable decision has the meaning given by section 411.

score, in relation to a visa applicant, means the total number of points given to the applicant under section 93 in the most recent assessment or re‑assessment under Subdivision B of Division 3 of Part 2.

sea installation has the same meaning as in the Sea Installations Act.

Sea Installations Act means the Sea Installations Act 1987.

Secretary means the Secretary of the Department.

serious Australian offence means an offence against a law in force in Australia, where:

                     (a)  the offence:

                              (i)  involves violence against a person; or

                             (ii)  is a serious drug offence; or

                            (iii)  involves serious damage to property; or

                            (iv)  is an offence against section 197A or 197B (offences relating to immigration detention); and

                     (b)  the offence is punishable by:

                              (i)  imprisonment for life; or

                             (ii)  imprisonment for a fixed term of not less than 3 years; or

                            (iii)  imprisonment for a maximum term of not less than 3 years.

serious foreign offence means an offence against a law in force in a foreign country, where:

                     (a)  the offence:

                              (i)  involves violence against a person; or

                             (ii)  is a serious drug offence; or

                            (iii)  involves serious damage to property; and

                     (b)  if it were assumed that the act or omission constituting the offence had taken place in the Australian Capital Territory, the act or omission would have constituted an offence (the Territory offence) against a law in force in that Territory, and the Territory offence would have been punishable by:

                              (i)  imprisonment for life; or

                             (ii)  imprisonment for a fixed term of not less than 3 years; or

                            (iii)  imprisonment for a maximum term of not less than 3 years.

significant harm means harm of a kind mentioned in subsection 36(2A).

special category visa has the meaning given by section 32.

special purpose visa has the meaning given by section 33.

spouse has the meaning given by section 5F.

student visa has the meaning given by the regulations.

substantive visa means a visa other than:

                     (a)  a bridging visa; or

                     (b)  a criminal justice visa; or

                     (c)  an enforcement visa.

temporary visa has the meaning given by subsection 30(2).

Territory means:

                     (a)  an internal Territory; or

                     (b)  an external Territory to which this Act extends.

ticket includes a travel document in respect of the conveyance of a person from one place to another place.

Torres Strait Treaty means the Treaty between Australia and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea that was signed at Sydney on 18 December 1978.

torture means an act or omission by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person:

                     (a)  for the purpose of obtaining from the person or from a third person information or a confession; or

                     (b)  for the purpose of punishing the person for an act which that person or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed; or

                     (c)  for the purpose of intimidating or coercing the person or a third person; or

                     (d)  for a purpose related to a purpose mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c); or

                     (e)  for any reason based on discrimination that is inconsistent with the Articles of the Covenant;

but does not include an act or omission arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions that are not inconsistent with the Articles of the Covenant.

traditional activities has the same meaning as in the Torres Strait Treaty.

traditional inhabitants has the same meaning as in the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984.

transitory person means:

                     (a)  a person who was taken to another country under repealed section 198A; or

                    (aa)  a person who was taken to a regional processing country under section 198AD; or

                     (b)  a person who was taken to a place outside Australia under paragraph 245F(9)(b); or

                     (c)  a person who, while a non‑citizen and during the period from 27 August 2001 to 6 October 2001:

                              (i)  was transferred to the ship HMAS Manoora from the ship Aceng or the ship MV Tampa; and

                             (ii)  was then taken by HMAS Manoora to another country; and

                            (iii)  disembarked in that other country.

unauthorised maritime arrival has the meaning given by section 5AA.

unlawful non‑citizen has the meaning given by section 14.

vessel includes an aircraft or an installation.

vessel (environment matters) means a vessel, within the meaning of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

visa has the meaning given by section 29 and includes an old visa.

visa applicant means an applicant for a visa and, in relation to a visa, means the applicant for the visa.

visa application charge means the charge payable under section 45A.

visa application charge limit is the amount determined under the Migration (Visa Application) Charge Act 1997.

visa evidence charge means visa evidence charge imposed by the Migration (Visa Evidence) Charge Act 2012.

visa evidence charge limit for a request made under section 70 has the meaning given by the Migration (Visa Evidence) Charge Act 2012.

visa holder means the holder of a visa and, in relation to a visa, means the holder of the visa.

visa period, in relation to a visa, means the period:

                     (a)  beginning when the visa is granted; and

                     (b)  ending:

                              (i)  in the case of a visa other than a bridging visa—when the visa ceases to be in effect; or

                             (ii)  in the case of a bridging visa—when the visa ceases to be in effect otherwise than under subsection 82(3).

work agreement means an agreement that satisfies the requirements prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

working day, in relation to a place, means any day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday or a public holiday in that place.

work‑related condition means a condition:

                     (a)  prohibiting the holder of a visa from working in Australia; or

                     (b)  restricting the work that the holder of a visa may do in Australia.

          (1A)  The Minister has power to give authorisations as provided by paragraphs (f) and (g) of the definition of officer in subsection (1) and, if such an authorisation is given:

                     (a)  the Minister is to cause notice of the authorisation to be published in the Gazette; but

                     (b)  without affecting the obligation of the Minister to cause a notice to be so published:

                              (i)  the authorisation takes effect when it is given; and

                             (ii)  the validity of the authorisation is not affected if such a notice is not published.

          (1B)  The Minister or the Secretary has the power to give authorisations as provided by the definition of authorised system.

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, a person has functional English at a particular time if:

                     (a)  the person passes a test that:

                              (i)  is approved in writing by the Minister for the purposes of this subsection; and

                             (ii)  is conducted by a person, or organisation, approved for the purposes of this subsection by the Minister by notice in the Gazette; or

                     (b)  the person provides the Minister with prescribed evidence of the person’s English language proficiency.

             (3)  Any power that may be exercised by an authorized officer or by an officer under this Act may also be exercised by the Minister.

             (4)  Where, in any provision of this Act, reference is made to the exercise of a power by an authorized officer or by an officer and that power is a power which, by virtue of subsection (3), may also be exercised by the Minister, that reference shall be construed as including a reference to the exercise of that power by the Minister.

          (4A)  A reference in the definition of independent person in subsection (1) of this section, in sections 258 to 258G or in Division 13AB of Part 2 to a non‑citizen includes a reference to a person whom an officer, in the course of exercising or considering the exercising of his or her powers under section 188, reasonably suspects is a non‑citizen.

             (5)  The Minister may, by notice published in the Gazette:

                     (a)  appoint ports in an external Territory to which this Act extends as proclaimed ports for the purposes of this Act and fix the limits of those ports; and

                     (b)  appoint airports in an external Territory to which this Act extends as proclaimed airports for the purposes of this Act and fix the limits of those airports.

             (6)  For the purposes of this Act, where a resources installation that has been brought into Australian waters from a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters becomes attached to the Australian seabed:

                     (a)  the installation shall be deemed to have entered Australia at the time when it becomes so attached;

                     (b)  any person on board the installation at the time when it becomes so attached shall be deemed to have travelled to Australia on board that installation, to have entered Australia at that time and to have been brought into Australia at that time.

             (7)  For the purposes of this Act, where a sea installation that has been brought into Australian waters from a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters is installed in an adjacent area or in a coastal area:

                     (a)  the installation shall be deemed to have entered Australia at the time that it becomes so installed; and

                     (b)  any person on board the installation at the time that it becomes so installed shall be deemed to have travelled to Australia on board that installation, to have entered Australia at that time and to have been brought into Australia at that time.

             (8)  The Minister may, by notice published in the Gazette, declare an area adjacent to the Protected Zone and to the south of the line described in Annex 5 to the Torres Strait Treaty to be an area in the vicinity of the Protected Zone for the purposes of this Act.

             (9)  For the purposes of this Act, an application under this Act is finally determined when either:

                     (a)  a decision that has been made in respect of the application is not, or is no longer, subject to any form of review under Part 5 or 7; or

                     (b)  a decision that has been made in respect of the application was subject to some form of review under Part 5 or 7, but the period within which such a review could be instituted has ended without a review having been instituted as prescribed.

           (10)  A reference in this Act to a resources industry fixed structure shall be read as a reference to a structure (including a pipeline) that:

                     (a)  is not able to move or be moved as an entity from one place to another; and

                     (b)  is used or is to be used off‑shore in, or in any operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, exploring or exploiting natural resources.

           (11)  A reference in this Act to a resources industry mobile unit shall be read as a reference to:

                     (a)  a vessel that is used or is to be used wholly or principally in:

                              (i)  exploring or exploiting natural resources by drilling the seabed or its subsoil with equipment on or forming part of the vessel or by obtaining substantial quantities of material from the seabed or its subsoil with equipment of that kind; or

                             (ii)  operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, activities of the kind referred to in subparagraph (i); or

                     (b)  a structure (not being a vessel) that:

                              (i)  is able to float or be floated;

                             (ii)  is able to move or be moved as an entity from one place to another; and

                            (iii)  is used or is to be used off‑shore wholly or principally in:

                                        (A)  exploring or exploiting natural resources by drilling the seabed or its subsoil with equipment on or forming part of the structure or by obtaining substantial quantities of material from the seabed or its subsoil with equipment of that kind; or

                                        (B)  operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, activities of the kind referred to in sub‑subparagraph (A).

           (12)  A vessel of a kind referred to in paragraph (11)(a) or a structure of a kind referred to in paragraph (11)(b) shall not be taken not to be a resources industry mobile unit by reason only that the vessel or structure is also used or to be used in, or in any operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, exploring or exploiting resources other than natural resources.

           (13)  The reference in subparagraph (11)(a)(ii) to a vessel that is used or is to be used wholly or principally in operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, activities of the kind referred to in subparagraph (11)(a)(i) shall be read as not including a reference to a vessel that is used or is to be used wholly or principally in:

                     (a)  transporting persons or goods to or from a resources installation; or

                     (b)  manoeuvring a resources installation, or in operations relating to the attachment of a resources installation to the Australian seabed.

           (14)  A resources installation shall be taken to be attached to the Australian seabed if:

                     (a)  the installation:

                              (i)  is in physical contact with, or is brought into physical contact with, a part of the Australian seabed; and

                             (ii)  is used or is to be used, at that part of the Australian seabed, wholly or principally in or in any operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, exploring or exploiting natural resources; or

                     (b)  the installation:

                              (i)  is in physical contact with, or is brought into physical contact with, another resources installation that is taken to be attached to the Australian seabed by virtue of the operation of paragraph (a); and

                             (ii)  is used or is to be used, at the place where it is brought into physical contact with the other installation, wholly or principally in or in any operations or activities associated with, or incidental to, exploring or exploiting natural resources.

           (15)  Subject to subsection (17), for the purposes of this Act, a sea installation shall be taken to be installed in an adjacent area if:

                     (a)  the installation is in, or is brought into, physical contact with a part of the seabed in the adjacent area; or

                     (b)  the installation is in, or is brought into, physical contact with another sea installation that is to be taken to be installed in the adjacent area because of paragraph (a).

           (16)  For the purposes of this Act, a sea installation shall be taken to be installed in an adjacent area at a particular time if the whole or part of the installation:

                     (a)  is in that adjacent area at that time; and

                     (b)  has been in a particular locality:

                              (i)  that is circular and has a radius of 20 nautical miles; and

                             (ii)  the whole or part of which is in that adjacent area;

                            for:

                            (iii)  a continuous period, of at least 30 days, that immediately precedes that time; or

                            (iv)  one or more periods, during the 60 days that immediately precede that time, that in sum amount to at least 40 days.

           (17)  Where a sea installation, being a ship or an aircraft:

                     (a)  is brought into physical contact with a part of the seabed in an adjacent area; or

                     (b)  is in, or is brought into, physical contact with another sea installation that is to be taken to be installed in an adjacent area;

for less than:

                     (c)  in the case of a ship, or an aircraft, registered under the law of a foreign country—30 days; or

                     (d)  in any other case—5 days;

it shall not be taken to be installed in that adjacent area under subsection (15).

           (18)  A sea installation shall not be taken to be installed in an adjacent area for the purposes of this Act unless it is to be taken to be so installed under this section.

           (19)  Subject to subsection (21), for the purposes of this Act, a sea installation shall be taken to be installed in a coastal area if:

                     (a)  the installation is in, or is brought into, physical contact with a part of the seabed in the coastal area; or

                     (b)  the installation is in, or is brought into, physical contact with another sea installation that is to be taken to be installed in the coastal area because of paragraph (a).

           (20)  For the purposes of this Act, a sea installation (other than an installation installed in an adjacent area) shall be taken to be installed at a particular time in a coastal area if the whole or part of the installation:

                     (a)  is in that coastal area at that time; and

                     (b)  has been in a particular locality:

                              (i)  that is circular and has a radius of 20 nautical miles; and

                             (ii)  the whole or part of which is in that coastal area;

                            for:

                            (iii)  a continuous period, of at least 30 days, that immediately precedes that time; or

                            (iv)  one or more periods, during the 60 days that immediately precede that time, that in sum amount to at least 40 days.

           (21)  Where a sea installation, being a ship or an aircraft:

                     (a)  is brought into physical contact with a part of the seabed in a coastal area; or

                     (b)  is in, or is brought into, physical contact with another sea installation that is to be taken to be installed in a coastal area;

for less than:

                     (c)  in the case of a ship, or an aircraft, registered under the law of a foreign country—30 days; or

                     (d)  in any other case—5 days;

it shall not be taken to be installed in that coastal area under subsection (19).

           (22)  A sea installation shall not be taken to be installed in a coastal area for the purposes of this Act unless it is to be taken to be so installed under this section.

           (23)  To avoid doubt, in this Act is taken, when followed by the infinitive form of a verb, has the same force and effect as is deemed when followed by the infinitive form of that verb.

5AA  Meaning of unauthorised maritime arrival

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a person is an unauthorised maritime arrival if:

                     (a)  the person entered Australia by sea:

                              (i)  at an excised offshore place at any time after the excision time for that place; or

                             (ii)  at any other place at any time on or after the commencement of this section; and

                     (b)  the person became an unlawful non‑citizen because of that entry; and

                     (c)  the person is not an excluded maritime arrival.

Entered Australia by sea

             (2)  A person entered Australia by sea if:

                     (a)  the person entered the migration zone except on an aircraft that landed in the migration zone; or

                     (b)  the person entered the migration zone as a result of being found on a ship detained under section 245F and being dealt with under paragraph 245F(9)(a); or

                     (c)  the person entered the migration zone after being rescued at sea.

Excluded maritime arrival

             (3)  A person is an excluded maritime arrival if the person:

                     (a)  is a New Zealand citizen who holds and produces a New Zealand passport that is in force; or

                     (b)  is a non‑citizen who holds and produces a passport that is in force and is endorsed with an authority to reside indefinitely on Norfolk Island; or

                     (c)  is included in a prescribed class of persons.

Definitions

             (4)  In this section:

aircraft has the same meaning as in section 245A.

ship has the meaning given by section 245A.

5A  Meaning of personal identifier

             (1)  In this Act:

personal identifier means any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                     (a)  fingerprints or handprints of a person (including those taken using paper and ink or digital livescanning technologies);

                     (b)  a measurement of a person’s height and weight;

                     (c)  a photograph or other image of a person’s face and shoulders;

                     (d)  an audio or a video recording of a person (other than a video recording under section 261AJ);

                     (e)  an iris scan;

                      (f)  a person’s signature;

                     (g)  any other identifier prescribed by the regulations, other than an identifier the obtaining of which would involve the carrying out of an intimate forensic procedure within the meaning of section 23WA of the Crimes Act 1914.

             (2)  Before the Governor‑General makes regulations for the purposes of paragraph (1)(g) prescribing an identifier, the Minister must be satisfied that:

                     (a)  obtaining the identifier would not involve the carrying out of an intimate forensic procedure within the meaning of section 23WA of the Crimes Act 1914; and

                     (b)  the identifier is an image of, or a measurement or recording of, an external part of the body; and

                     (c)  obtaining the identifier will promote one or more of the purposes referred to in subsection (3).

             (3)  The purposes are:

                     (a)  to assist in the identification of, and to authenticate the identity of, any person who can be required under this Act to provide a personal identifier; and

                     (b)  to assist in identifying, in the future, any such person; and

                     (c)  to improve the integrity of entry programs, including passenger processing at Australia’s border; and

                     (d)  to facilitate a visa‑holder’s access to his or her rights under this Act or the regulations; and

                     (e)  to improve the procedures for determining visa applications; and

                      (f)  to improve the procedures for determining claims for protection under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; and

                     (g)  to enhance the Department’s ability to identify non‑citizens who have a criminal history, who are of character concern or who are of national security concern; and

                     (h)  to combat document and identity fraud in immigration matters; and

                      (i)  to detect forum shopping by applicants for visas; and

                      (j)  to ascertain whether:

                              (i)  an applicant for a protection visa; or

                             (ii)  an unauthorised maritime arrival who makes a claim for protection under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; or

                            (iii)  an unauthorised maritime arrival who makes a claim for protection on the basis that the person will suffer significant harm;

                            had sufficient opportunity to avail himself or herself of protection before arriving in Australia; and

                     (k)  to complement anti‑people smuggling measures; and

                      (l)  to inform the governments of foreign countries of the identity of non‑citizens who are, or are to be, removed or deported from Australia.

5B  When personal identifier taken not to have been provided

                   A person is taken, for the purposes of sections 40, 46, 166, 170, 175, 188 and 192, not to have provided a personal identifier if:

                     (a)  the personal identifier that is provided is unusable; or

                     (b)  an authorised officer or an officer is not satisfied:

                              (i)  about the integrity of the personal identifier that is provided; or

                             (ii)  about the procedure followed to obtain the personal identifier; or

                     (c)  in a case to which subsection 40(5), 46(2C), 166(8), 170(5), 175(5), 188(7) or 192(2C) applies—the quality of the personal identifier that is provided does not satisfy an officer who uses the personal identifier for the purpose of making a decision under this Act or the regulations.

5C  Meaning of character concern

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a non‑citizen is of character concern if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has a substantial criminal record (as defined by subsection (2)); or

                     (b)  the non‑citizen has or has had an association with someone else, or with a group or organisation, who is reasonably suspected of having been or being involved in criminal conduct; or

                     (c)  having regard to either or both of the following:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen’s past and present criminal conduct;

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen’s past and present general conduct;

                            the non‑citizen is not of good character; or

                     (d)  in the event that the non‑citizen were allowed to enter or to remain in Australia, there is a significant risk that the non‑citizen would:

                              (i)  engage in criminal conduct in Australia; or

                             (ii)  harass, molest, intimidate or stalk another person in Australia; or

                            (iii)  vilify a segment of the Australian community; or

                            (iv)  incite discord in the Australian community or in a segment of that community; or

                             (v)  represent a danger to the Australian community or to a segment of that community, whether by way of being liable to become involved in activities that are disruptive to, or in violence threatening harm to, that community or segment, or in any other way.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), a non‑citizen has a substantial criminal record if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has been sentenced to death; or

                     (b)  the non‑citizen has been sentenced to imprisonment for life; or

                     (c)  the non‑citizen has been sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 12 months or more; or

                     (d)  the non‑citizen has been sentenced to 2 or more terms of imprisonment (whether on one or more occasions), and the total of those terms is 2 years or more; or

                     (e)  the non‑citizen has been acquitted of an offence on the grounds of unsoundness of mind or insanity, and as a result the person has been detained in a facility or institution.

5CA  Child of a person

             (1)  Without limiting who is a child of a person for the purposes of this Act, each of the following is the child of a person:

                     (a)  someone who is a child of the person within the meaning of the Family Law Act 1975 (other than someone who is an adopted child of the person within the meaning of that Act);

                     (b)  someone who is an adopted child of the person within the meaning of this Act.

             (2)  The regulations may provide that, for the purposes of this Act, a person specified by the regulations is not a child of another person specified by the regulations in circumstances in which the person would, apart from this subsection, be the child of more than 2 persons for the purposes of this Act.

             (3)  Subsection (2), and regulations made for the purposes of that subsection, have effect whether the person specified as not being a child of another person would, apart from that subsection and those regulations, be the child of the other person because of subsection (1) or otherwise.

5CB  De facto partner

De facto partners

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a person is the de facto partner of another person (whether of the same sex or a different sex) if, under subsection (2), the person is in a de facto relationship with the other person.

De facto relationship

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), a person is in a de facto relationship with another person if they are not in a married relationship (for the purposes of section 5F) with each other but:

                     (a)  they have a mutual commitment to a shared life to the exclusion of all others; and

                     (b)  the relationship between them is genuine and continuing; and

                     (c)  they:

                              (i)  live together; or

                             (ii)  do not live separately and apart on a permanent basis; and

                     (d)  they are not related by family (see subsection (4)).

             (3)  The regulations may make provision in relation to the determination of whether one or more of the conditions in paragraphs (2)(a), (b), (c) and (d) exist. The regulations may make different provision in relation to the determination for different purposes whether one or more of those conditions exist.

Definition

             (4)  For the purposes of paragraph (2)(d), 2 persons are related by family if:

                     (a)  one is the child (including an adopted child) of the other; or

                     (b)  one is another descendant of the other (even if the relationship between them is traced through an adoptive parent); or

                     (c)  they have a parent in common (who may be an adoptive parent of either or both of them).

For this purpose, disregard whether an adoption is declared void or has ceased to have effect.

5D  Limiting the types of identification tests that authorised officers may carry out

             (1)  The Minister or Secretary may, in an instrument authorising an officer as an authorised officer for the purposes of carrying out identification tests under this Act, specify the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out.

             (2)  Such an authorised officer is not an authorised officer in relation to carrying out an identification test that is not of a type so specified.

5E  Meaning of purported privative clause decision

             (1)  In this Act, purported privative clause decision means a decision purportedly made, proposed to be made, or required to be made, under this Act or under a regulation or other instrument made under this Act (whether in purported exercise of a discretion or not), that would be a privative clause decision if there were not:

                     (a)  a failure to exercise jurisdiction; or

                     (b)  an excess of jurisdiction;

in the making of the decision.

             (2)  In this section, decision includes anything listed in subsection 474(3).

5F  Spouse

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a person is the spouse of another person if, under subsection (2), the 2 persons are in a married relationship.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), persons are in a married relationship if:

                     (a)  they are married to each other under a marriage that is valid for the purposes of this Act; and

                     (b)  they have a mutual commitment to a shared life as husband and wife to the exclusion of all others; and

                     (c)  the relationship between them is genuine and continuing; and

                     (d)  they:

                              (i)  live together; or

                             (ii)  do not live separately and apart on a permanent basis.

             (3)  The regulations may make provision in relation to the determination of whether one or more of the conditions in paragraphs (2)(a), (b), (c) and (d) exist. The regulations may make different provision in relation to the determination for different purposes whether one or more of those conditions exist.

Note:          Section 12 also affects the determination of whether the condition in paragraph (2)(a) of this section exists.

5G  Relationships and family members

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, if one person is the child of another person because of the definition of child in section 5CA, relationships traced to or through that person are to be determined on the basis that the person is the child of the other person.

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, the members of a person’s family and relatives of a person are taken to include the following:

                     (a)  a de facto partner of the person;

                     (b)  someone who is the child of the person, or of whom the person is the child, because of the definition of child in section 5CA;

                     (c)  anyone else who would be a member of the person’s family or a relative of the person if someone mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) is taken to be a member of the person’s family or a relative of the person.

This does not limit who is a member of a person’s family or relative of a person.

6  Effect of limited meaning of enter Australia etc.

                   To avoid doubt, although subsection 5(1) limits, for the purposes of this Act, the meanings of enter Australia, leave Australia and remain in Australia and as well, because of section 18A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, the meaning of parts of speech and grammatical forms of those phrases, this does not mean:

                     (a)  that, for those purposes, the meaning of in Australia, to Australia or any other phrase is limited; or

                     (b)  that this Act does not extend to parts of Australia outside the migration zone; or

                     (c)  that this Act does not apply to persons in those parts.

7  Act to extend to certain Territories

             (1)  In this section, prescribed Territory means the Coral Sea Islands Territory, the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands.

             (2)  This Act extends to a prescribed Territory.

             (3)  Subject to this Act, a prescribed Territory:

                     (a)  shall be deemed to be part of Australia for the purposes of this Act; and

                     (b)  shall be deemed not to be a place outside Australia.

7A  Effect on executive power to protect Australia’s borders

                   The existence of statutory powers under this Act does not prevent the exercise of any executive power of the Commonwealth to protect Australia’s borders, including, where necessary, by ejecting persons who have crossed those borders.

8  Certain resources installations to be part of Australia

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a resources installation that:

                     (a)  becomes attached to the Australian seabed after the commencement of this subsection; or

                     (b)  at the commencement of this subsection, is attached to the Australian seabed;

shall, subject to subsection (2), be deemed to be part of Australia and shall be deemed not to be a place outside Australia.

             (2)  A resources installation that is deemed to be part of Australia by virtue of the operation of this section shall, for the purposes of this Act, cease to be part of Australia if:

                     (a)  the installation is detached from the Australian seabed, or from another resources installation that is attached to the Australian seabed, for the purpose of being taken to a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters (whether or not the installation is to be taken to a place in Australia before being taken outside those outer limits); or

                     (b)  after having been detached from the Australian seabed otherwise than for the purpose referred to in paragraph (a), the installation is moved for the purpose of being taken to a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters (whether or not the installation is to be taken to a place in Australia before being taken outside those outer limits).

9  Certain sea installations to be part of Australia

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a sea installation that:

                     (a)  becomes installed in an adjacent area or in a coastal area after the commencement of this subsection; or

                     (b)  at the commencement of this subsection, is installed in an adjacent area or in a coastal area;

shall, subject to subsection (2), be deemed to be part of Australia and shall be deemed not to be a place outside Australia.

             (2)  A sea installation that is deemed to be part of Australia because of the operation of this section shall, for the purposes of this Act, cease to be part of Australia if:

                     (a)  the installation is detached from its location for the purpose of being taken to a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters; or

                     (b)  after having been detached from its location otherwise than for the purpose referred to in paragraph (a), the installation is moved for the purpose of being taken to a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters.

10  Certain children taken to enter Australia at birth

                   A child who:

                     (a)  was born in the migration zone; and

                     (b)  was a non‑citizen when he or she was born;

shall be taken to have entered Australia when he or she was born.

11  Visa applicable to 2 or more persons

                   Where:

                     (a)  2 or more persons who are the holders of the same visa travel to Australia on board the same vessel; and

                     (b)  on entering Australia, one of those persons is in possession of evidence of that visa;

each of them shall, for the purposes of this Act, be taken to be in possession of that evidence on entering Australia.

12  Application of Part VA of the Marriage Act

                   For the purpose of deciding whether a marriage is to be recognised as valid for the purposes of this Act, Part VA of the Marriage Act 1961 applies as if section 88E of that Act were omitted.

Part 2Control of arrival and presence of non‑citizens

Division 1Immigration status

13  Lawful non‑citizens

             (1)  A non‑citizen in the migration zone who holds a visa that is in effect is a lawful non‑citizen.

             (2)  An allowed inhabitant of the Protected Zone who is in a protected area in connection with the performance of traditional activities is a lawful non‑citizen.

14  Unlawful non‑citizens

             (1)  A non‑citizen in the migration zone who is not a lawful non‑citizen is an unlawful non‑citizen.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a non‑citizen in the migration zone who, immediately before 1 September 1994, was an illegal entrant within the meaning of the Migration Act as in force then became, on that date, an unlawful non‑citizen.

15  Effect of cancellation of visa on status

                   To avoid doubt, subject to subsection 13(2) (certain inhabitants of protected zone), if a visa is cancelled its former holder, if in the migration zone, becomes, on the cancellation, an unlawful non‑citizen unless, immediately after the cancellation, the former holder holds another visa that is in effect.

16  Removal of immigration rights of inhabitant of Protected Zone

                   The Minister may declare, in writing, that it is undesirable that a specified inhabitant of the Protected Zone continue to be permitted to enter or remain in Australia.

17  Pre‑cleared flights

             (1)  The Minister may, in writing, declare a specified flight by an aircraft on a specified day between a specified foreign country and Australia to be a pre‑cleared flight for the purposes of this Act.

             (2)  The Minister may declare, in writing, a specified class of flights conducted by a specified air transport enterprise or by another specified person to be pre‑cleared flights for the purposes of this Act.

             (3)  A particular flight to which a declaration under subsection (1) or (2) applies is not a pre‑cleared flight if an authorised officer decides, before the passengers on it disembark in Australia, that it is inappropriate to treat it as such.

Division 2Power to obtain information and documents about unlawful non‑citizens

18  Power to obtain information and documents about unlawful non‑citizens

             (1)  If the Minister has reason to believe that a person (in this subsection called the first person) is capable of giving information which the Minister has reason to believe is, or producing documents (including documents that are copies of other documents) which the Minister has reason to believe are, relevant to ascertaining the identity or whereabouts of another person whom the Minister has reason to believe is an unlawful non‑citizen, the Minister may, by notice in writing served on the first person, require the first person:

                     (a)  to give to the Minister, within the period and in the manner specified in the notice, any such information; or

                     (b)  to produce to the Minister, within the period and in the manner specified in the notice, any such documents; or

                     (c)  to make copies of any such documents and to produce to the Minister, within the period and in the manner specified in the notice, those copies.

             (2)  A notice under subsection (1) must set out the effects of section 21 of this Act and sections 137.1 and 137.2 of the Criminal Code.

19  Scales of expenses

                   The regulations may prescribe scales of expenses to be allowed to persons required to give information or produce documents under this Division.

20  Reasonable compensation

                   A person is entitled to be paid by the Commonwealth reasonable compensation for complying with a requirement covered by paragraph 18(1)(c).

21  Failure to comply with section 18 notice

             (1)  A person must not refuse or fail to comply with a notice under subsection 18(1).

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply:

                     (a)  to the extent that the person is not capable of complying with the notice; or

                     (b)  if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matters in subsection (1A) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

             (2)  The following are 2 of the reasonable excuses for refusing or failing to comply with a notice:

                     (a)  the person whom the Minister had reason to believe was an unlawful non‑citizen was not an unlawful non‑citizen at the time the notice was given;

                     (b)  the information or documents which the Minister had reason to believe were relevant to ascertaining the identity or whereabouts of a person were not relevant to ascertaining the identity or whereabouts of the person.

             (3)  An offence against subsection (1) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

24  Information and documents that incriminate a person

                   A person is not excused from giving information or producing a document or a copy of a document under this Division on the ground that the information or the production of the document or copy might tend to incriminate the person, but:

                     (a)  giving the information or producing the document or copy; or

                     (b)  any information, document or thing obtained as a direct or indirect consequence of giving the information or producing the document or copy;

is not admissible in evidence against the person in any criminal proceedings other than a prosecution for:

                     (c)  an offence against, or arising out of, this Division; or

                     (d)  an offence against section 137.1 or 137.2 of the Criminal Code that relates to this Division.

25  Copies of documents

             (1)  The Minister may inspect a document or copy produced under this Division and may make and retain copies of, or take and retain extracts from, such a document or copy.

             (2)  The Minister may retain possession of a copy of a document produced in accordance with a requirement covered by paragraph 18(1)(c).

26  Minister may retain documents

             (1)  The Minister may, for the purposes of this Act, take, and retain for as long as is necessary for those purposes, possession of a document produced under this Division.

             (2)  The person otherwise entitled to possession of the document is entitled to be supplied, as soon as practicable, with a copy certified by the Minister to be a true copy.

             (3)  The certified copy must be received in all courts and tribunals as evidence as if it were the original.

             (4)  Until a certified copy is supplied, the Minister must, at such times and places as the Minister thinks appropriate, permit the person otherwise entitled to possession of the document, or a person authorised by that person, to inspect and make copies of, or take extracts from, the document.

27  Division binds the Crown

             (1)  This Division binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth, of each of the States, of the Australian Capital Territory and of the Northern Territory.

             (2)  Nothing in this Division permits the Crown in right of the Commonwealth, of a State, of the Australian Capital Territory or of the Northern Territory to be prosecuted for an offence.

Division 3Visas for non‑citizens

Subdivision AGeneral provisions about visas

28  Interpretation

                   In this Division:

specified period includes the period until a specified date.

29  Visas

             (1)  Subject to this Act, the Minister may grant a non‑citizen permission, to be known as a visa, to do either or both of the following:

                     (a)  travel to and enter Australia;

                     (b)  remain in Australia.

Note:          A maritime crew visa is generally permission to travel to and enter Australia only by sea (as well as being permission to remain in Australia) (see section 38B).

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), a visa to travel to, enter and remain in Australia may be one to:

                     (a)  travel to and enter Australia during a prescribed or specified period; and

                     (b)  if, and only if, the holder travels to and enters during that period, remain in Australia during a prescribed or specified period or indefinitely.

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), a visa to travel to, enter and remain in Australia may be one to:

                     (a)  travel to and enter Australia during a prescribed or specified period; and

                     (b)  if, and only if, the holder travels to and enters during that period:

                              (i)  remain in it during a prescribed or specified period or indefinitely; and

                             (ii)  if the holder leaves Australia during a prescribed or specified period, travel to and re‑enter it during a prescribed or specified period.

             (4)  Without limiting section 83 (person taken to be included in visa), the regulations may provide for a visa being held by 2 or more persons.

30  Kinds of visas

             (1)  A visa to remain in Australia (whether also a visa to travel to and enter Australia) may be a visa, to be known as a permanent visa, to remain indefinitely.

             (2)  A visa to remain in Australia (whether also a visa to travel to and enter Australia) may be a visa, to be known as a temporary visa, to remain:

                     (a)  during a specified period; or

                     (b)  until a specified event happens; or

                     (c)  while the holder has a specified status.

31  Classes of visas

             (1)  There are to be prescribed classes of visas.

             (2)  As well as the prescribed classes, there are the classes provided for by sections 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 37A, 38, 38A and 38B.

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe criteria for a visa or visas of a specified class (which, without limiting the generality of this subsection, may be a class provided for by section 32, 36, 37, 37A or 38B but not by section 33, 34, 35, 38 or 38A).

             (4)  The regulations may prescribe whether visas of a class are visas to travel to and enter Australia, or to remain in Australia, or both.

             (5)  A visa is a visa of a particular class if this Act or the regulations specify that it is a visa of that class.

32  Special category visas

             (1)  There is a class of temporary visas to be known as special category visas.

             (2)  A criterion for a special category visa is that the Minister is satisfied the applicant is:

                     (a)  a non‑citizen:

                              (i)  who is a New Zealand citizen and holds, and has presented to an officer or an authorised system, a New Zealand passport that is in force; and

                             (ii)  is neither a behaviour concern non‑citizen nor a health concern non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  a person declared by the regulations, to be a person for whom a visa of another class would be inappropriate; or

                     (c)  a person in a class of persons declared by the regulations, to be persons for whom a visa of another class would be inappropriate.

             (3)  A person may comply with subparagraph (2)(a)(i) by presenting a New Zealand passport to an authorised system only if:

                     (a)  the New Zealand passport is of a kind determined under section 175A to be an eligible passport for the purposes of Division 5 of Part 2; and

                     (c)  before the person is granted a special category visa, neither the system nor an officer requires the person to present the passport to an officer.

33  Special purpose visas

             (1)  There is a class of temporary visas to travel to, enter and remain in Australia, to be known as special purpose visas.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (3), a non‑citizen is taken to have been granted a special purpose visa if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen:

                              (i)  has a prescribed status; or

                             (ii)  is a member of a class of persons that has a prescribed status; or

                     (b)  the Minister declares, in writing, that:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen is taken to have been granted a special purpose visa; or

                             (ii)  persons of a class, of which the non‑citizen is a member, are taken to have been granted special purpose visas.

             (3)  A non‑citizen is not taken to have been granted a special purpose visa if a declaration under subsection (9) is in force in relation to the non‑citizen or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member.

             (4)  A special purpose visa granted under subsection (2) is granted at the beginning of the later or latest of the following days:

                     (a)  if paragraph (2)(a) applies:

                              (i)  the day the non‑citizen commences to have the prescribed status;

                             (ii)  the day the class of persons, of which the non‑citizen is a member, commences to have the prescribed status;

                            (iii)  the day the non‑citizen commences to be a member of the class of persons that has a prescribed status;

                     (b)  if paragraph (2)(b) applies:

                              (i)  the day the declaration is made;

                             (ii)  if a day is specified in the declaration as the day the visa comes into effect—that day;

                            (iii)  the day the non‑citizen commences to be a member of the class of persons specified in the declaration.

             (5)  A special purpose visa ceases to be in effect at the earliest of the following times:

                     (a)  if paragraph (2)(a) applies:

                              (i)  if the non‑citizen ceases to have a prescribed status—the end of the day on which the non‑citizen so ceases; or

                             (ii)  if the non‑citizen ceases to be a member of a class of persons that has a prescribed status—the end of the day on which the non‑citizen so ceases; or

                            (iii)  if the Minister makes a declaration under subsection (9) in relation to the non‑citizen, or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member—the time when that declaration takes effect;

                     (b)  if paragraph (2)(b) applies:

                              (i)  if a day is specified in the declaration as the day the visa ceases to be in effect—the end of that day; or

                             (ii)  if an event is specified in the declaration as the event that causes the visa to cease to be in effect—the end of the day on which the event happens; or

                            (iii)  if the non‑citizen ceases to be a member of a class of persons specified in the declaration—the end of the day on which the non‑citizen so ceases; or

                            (iv)  if the declaration is revoked—the end of the day of the revocation; or

                             (v)  if the Minister makes a declaration under subsection (9) in relation to the non‑citizen, or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member—the time when that declaration takes effect.

          (5A)  For the purposes of subsection (5), the time when a declaration made by the Minister under subsection (9) takes effect is:

                     (a)  if the Minister specifies a time in the declaration (which must be after the time when the declaration is made) as the time the declaration takes effect—the time so specified; or

                     (b)  if the Minister does not specify such a time in the declaration—the end of the day on which the declaration is made.

             (6)  If the Minister makes a declaration under paragraph (2)(b), he or she is to cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the contents of the declaration; and

                     (b)  sets out the Minister’s reasons for the declaration.

             (7)  A statement under subsection (6) is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person.

             (8)  A statement under subsection (6) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the declaration is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the declaration is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (9)  The Minister may make a written declaration, for the purposes of this section, that it is undesirable that a person, or any persons in a class of persons, travel to and enter Australia or remain in Australia.

           (10)  Section 43 and Subdivisions AA, AB, AC (other than section 68), AE, AG, AH, C, D, E, F and H do not apply in relation to special purpose visas.

34  Absorbed person visas

             (1)  There is a class of permanent visas to remain in, but not re‑enter, Australia, to be known as absorbed person visas.

             (2)  A non‑citizen in the migration zone who:

                     (a)  on 2 April 1984 was in Australia; and

                     (b)  before that date, had ceased to be an immigrant; and

                     (c)  on or after that date, has not left Australia, where left Australia has the meaning it had in this Act before 1 September 1994; and

                     (d)  immediately before 1 September 1994, was not a person to whom section 20 of this Act as in force then applied;

is taken to have been granted an absorbed person visa on 1 September 1994.

             (3)  Subdivisions AA, AB, AC (other than section 68), AE and AH do not apply in relation to absorbed person visas.

35  Ex‑citizen visas

             (1)  There is a class of permanent visas to remain in, but not re‑enter, Australia, to be known as ex‑citizen visas.

             (2)  A person who:

                     (a)  before 1 September 1994, ceased to be an Australian citizen while in the migration zone; and

                     (b)  did not leave Australia after ceasing to be a citizen and before that date;

is taken to have been granted an ex‑citizen visa on that date.

             (3)  A person who, on or after 1 September 1994, ceases to be an Australian citizen while in the migration zone is taken to have been granted an ex‑citizen visa when that citizenship ceases.

             (4)  Subdivisions AA, AB, AC (other than section 68), AE and AH do not apply in relation to ex‑citizen visas.

36  Protection visas

             (1)  There is a class of visas to be known as protection visas.

Note:          See also Subdivision AL.

             (2)  A criterion for a protection visa is that the applicant for the visa is:

                     (a)  a non‑citizen in Australia in respect of whom the Minister is satisfied Australia has protection obligations under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; or

                    (aa)  a non‑citizen in Australia (other than a non‑citizen mentioned in paragraph (a)) in respect of whom the Minister is satisfied Australia has protection obligations because the Minister has substantial grounds for believing that, as a necessary and foreseeable consequence of the non‑citizen being removed from Australia to a receiving country, there is a real risk that the non‑citizen will suffer significant harm; or

                     (b)  a non‑citizen in Australia who is a member of the same family unit as a non‑citizen who:

                              (i)  is mentioned in paragraph (a); and

                             (ii)  holds a protection visa; or

                     (c)  a non‑citizen in Australia who is a member of the same family unit as a non‑citizen who:

                              (i)  is mentioned in paragraph (aa); and

                             (ii)  holds a protection visa.

          (2A)  A non‑citizen will suffer significant harm if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen will be arbitrarily deprived of his or her life; or

                     (b)  the death penalty will be carried out on the non‑citizen; or

                     (c)  the non‑citizen will be subjected to torture; or

                     (d)  the non‑citizen will be subjected to cruel or inhuman treatment or punishment; or

                     (e)  the non‑citizen will be subjected to degrading treatment or punishment.

          (2B)  However, there is taken not to be a real risk that a non‑citizen will suffer significant harm in a country if the Minister is satisfied that:

                     (a)  it would be reasonable for the non‑citizen to relocate to an area of the country where there would not be a real risk that the non‑citizen will suffer significant harm; or

                     (b)  the non‑citizen could obtain, from an authority of the country, protection such that there would not be a real risk that the non‑citizen will suffer significant harm; or

                     (c)  the real risk is one faced by the population of the country generally and is not faced by the non‑citizen personally.

Ineligibility for grant of a protection visa

          (2C)  A non‑citizen is taken not to satisfy the criterion mentioned in paragraph (2)(aa) if:

                     (a)  the Minister has serious reasons for considering that:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen has committed a crime against peace, a war crime or a crime against humanity, as defined by international instruments prescribed by the regulations; or

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen committed a serious non‑political crime before entering Australia; or

                            (iii)  the non‑citizen has been guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations; or

                     (b)  the Minister considers, on reasonable grounds, that:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen is a danger to Australia’s security; or

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen, having been convicted by a final judgment of a particularly serious crime (including a crime that consists of the commission of a serious Australian offence or serious foreign offence), is a danger to the Australian community.

Protection obligations

             (3)  Australia is taken not to have protection obligations in respect of a non‑citizen who has not taken all possible steps to avail himself or herself of a right to enter and reside in, whether temporarily or permanently and however that right arose or is expressed, any country apart from Australia, including countries of which the non‑citizen is a national.

             (4)  However, subsection (3) does not apply in relation to a country in respect of which:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has a well‑founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion; or

                     (b)  the Minister has substantial grounds for believing that, as a necessary and foreseeable consequence of the non‑citizen availing himself or herself of a right mentioned in subsection (3), there would be a real risk that the non‑citizen will suffer significant harm in relation to the country.

             (5)  Subsection (3) does not apply in relation to a country if the non‑citizen has a well‑founded fear that:

                     (a)  the country will return the non‑citizen to another country; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen will be persecuted in that other country for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.

          (5A)  Also, subsection (3) does not apply in relation to a country if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has a well‑founded fear that the country will return the non‑citizen to another country; and

                     (b)  the Minister has substantial grounds for believing that, as a necessary and foreseeable consequence of the non‑citizen availing himself or herself of a right mentioned in subsection (3), there would be a real risk that the non‑citizen will suffer significant harm in relation to the other country.

Determining nationality

             (6)  For the purposes of subsection (3), the question of whether a non‑citizen is a national of a particular country must be determined solely by reference to the law of that country.

             (7)  Subsection (6) does not, by implication, affect the interpretation of any other provision of this Act.

37  Bridging visas

                   There are classes of temporary visas, to be known as bridging visas, to be granted under Subdivision AF.

37A  Temporary safe haven visas

             (1)  There is a class of temporary visas to travel to, enter and remain in Australia, to be known as temporary safe haven visas.

Note:          A temporary safe haven visa is granted to a person to give the person temporary safe haven in Australia.

             (2)  The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, extend the visa period of a temporary safe haven visa so that the visa ceases to be in effect on the day specified in the notice.

             (3)  The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, shorten the visa period of a temporary safe haven visa so that the visa ceases to be in effect on the day specified in the notice if, in the Minister’s opinion, temporary safe haven in Australia is no longer necessary for the holder of the visa because of changes of a fundamental, durable and stable nature in the country concerned.

             (4)  If a notice under subsection (3) is published in the Gazette, the Minister must cause a copy of the notice to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 3 sitting days of that House after the publication of the notice, together with a statement that sets out the reasons for the notice, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that changes of a fundamental, durable and stable nature have occurred in the country concerned.

             (5)  If a notice under subsection (2) or (3) is published in the Gazette and has not been revoked, then the visa ceases to be in effect on the day specified in the notice, despite any other provision of this Act.

             (6)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (2) in respect of any non‑citizen, whether he or she is requested to do so by the non‑citizen or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

             (7)  In this section:

country concerned means the country or countries in which the circumstances exist that give rise to the grant of temporary safe haven visas.

38  Criminal justice visas

                   There is a class of temporary visas, to be known as criminal justice visas, to be granted under Subdivision D of Division 4.

38A  Enforcement visas

                   There is a class of temporary visas to travel to, enter and remain in Australia, to be known as enforcement visas.

Note:          Division 4A deals with these visas.

38B  Maritime crew visas

             (1)  There is a class of temporary visas to travel to and enter Australia by sea, and to remain in Australia, to be known as maritime crew visas.

             (2)  Subject to subsection 43(1B), a maritime crew visa held by a non‑citizen does not grant the non‑citizen permission to travel to or enter Australia by air.

Note:          However, a non‑citizen might also hold another class of visa that allows the non‑citizen to travel to and enter Australia by air.

             (3)  The Minister may make a written declaration, for the purposes of this section, that it is undesirable that a person, or any persons in a class of persons, travel to and enter Australia, or remain in Australia.

             (4)  If the Minister makes a declaration under subsection (3) in relation to a person, or a class of persons of which a person is a member, a maritime crew visa held by that person ceases to be in effect:

                     (a)  if the Minister specifies a time in the declaration (which must be after the time when the declaration is made) as the time the declaration takes effect—at the time so specified; or

                     (b)  if the Minister does not specify such a time in the declaration—at the end of the day on which the declaration is made.

Note:          A maritime crew visa can also cease to be in effect under other sections (see for example section 82).

             (5)  If the Minister revokes a declaration made under subsection (4), the Minister is taken never to have made the declaration.

Note:          Under subsection 33(3) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, the Minister may revoke a declaration made under subsection (4).

             (6)  Despite subsection (5), any detention of the non‑citizen that occurred during any part of the period:

                     (a)  beginning when the Minister made the declaration; and

                     (b)  ending at the time of the revocation of the declaration;

is lawful and the non‑citizen is not entitled to make any claim against the Commonwealth, an officer or any other person because of the detention.

39  Criterion limiting number of visas

             (1)  In spite of section 14 of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003, a prescribed criterion for visas of a class, other than protection visas, may be the criterion that the grant of the visa would not cause the number of visas of that class granted in a particular financial year to exceed whatever number is fixed by the Minister, by legislative instrument, as the maximum number of such visas that may be granted in that year (however the criterion is expressed).

             (2)  For the purposes of this Act, when a criterion allowed by subsection (1) prevents the grant in a financial year of any more visas of a particular class, any outstanding applications for the grant in that year of visas of that class are taken not to have been made.

40  Circumstances for granting visas

             (1)  The regulations may provide that visas or visas of a specified class may only be granted in specified circumstances.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), the circumstances may be, or may include, that, when the person is granted the visa, the person:

                     (a)  is outside Australia; or

                     (b)  is in immigration clearance; or

                     (c)  has been refused immigration clearance and has not subsequently been immigration cleared; or

                     (d)  is in the migration zone and, on last entering Australia:

                              (i)  was immigration cleared; or

                             (ii)  bypassed immigration clearance and had not subsequently been immigration cleared.

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), if:

                     (a)  prescribed circumstances exist; and

                     (b)  the Minister has not waived the operation of this subsection in relation to granting the visa to the person;

the circumstances under subsection (1) may be, or may include, that the person has complied with any requirement of an officer to provide one or more personal identifiers in relation to the application for the visa.

          (3A)  An officer must not require, for the purposes of subsection (3), a person to provide a personal identifier other than:

                     (a)  if the person is an applicant for a protection visa—any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                              (i)  fingerprints or handprints of the person (including those taken using paper and ink or digital livescanning technologies);

                             (ii)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                            (iii)  an audio or a video recording of the person;

                            (iv)  an iris scan;

                             (v)  the person’s signature;

                            (vi)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                           (vii)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (3C)(a); or

                     (b)  if the person is an applicant for a temporary safe haven visa within the meaning of section 37A, or any other visa of a class that the regulations designate as a class of humanitarian visas—any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                              (i)  fingerprints or handprints of the person (including those taken using paper and ink or digital livescanning technologies);

                             (ii)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                            (iii)  an iris scan;

                            (iv)  the person’s signature;

                             (v)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                            (vi)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (3C)(a); or

                     (c)  if paragraphs (a) and (b) do not apply—any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                              (i)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                             (ii)  the person’s signature;

                            (iii)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                            (iv)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (3C)(a).

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

          (3B)  In requiring, for the purposes of subsection (3), a person to provide a personal identifier, an officer must not contravene regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (3C)(b).

          (3C)  The regulations:

                     (a)  may prescribe other types of personal identifiers; and

                     (b)  may provide that a particular personal identifier referred to in subsection (3A), or a particular combination of such personal identifiers, must not be required except in the circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

             (4)  A person is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in subsection (3) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided to an authorised officer by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

             (5)  However, subsection (4) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the person:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

41  Conditions on visas

             (1)  The regulations may provide that visas, or visas of a specified class, are subject to specified conditions.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), the regulations may provide that a visa, or visas of a specified class, are subject to:

                     (a)  a condition that, despite anything else in this Act, the holder of the visa will not, after entering Australia, be entitled to be granted a substantive visa (other than a protection visa, or a temporary visa of a specified kind) while he or she remains in Australia; or

                     (b)  a condition imposing restrictions about the work that may be done in Australia by the holder, which, without limiting the generality of this paragraph, may be restrictions on doing:

                              (i)  any work; or

                             (ii)  work other than specified work; or

                            (iii)  work of a specified kind.

          (2A)  The Minister may, in prescribed circumstances, by writing, waive a condition of a kind described in paragraph (2)(a) to which a particular visa is subject under regulations made for the purposes of that paragraph or under subsection (3).

             (3)  In addition to any conditions specified under subsection (1), the Minister may specify that a visa is subject to such conditions as are permitted by the regulations for the purposes of this subsection.

42  Visa essential for travel

             (1)  Subject to subsections (2), (2A) and (3), a non‑citizen must not travel to Australia without a visa that is in effect.

Note:          A maritime crew visa is generally permission to travel to Australia only by sea (see section 38B).

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply to an allowed inhabitant of the Protected Zone travelling to a protected area in connection with traditional activities.

          (2A)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a non‑citizen in relation to travel to Australia:

                     (a)  if the travel is by a New Zealand citizen who holds and produces a New Zealand passport that is in force; or

                     (b)  if the travel is by a non‑citizen who holds and produces a passport that is in force and is endorsed with an authority to reside indefinitely on Norfolk Island; or

                     (c)  if:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen is brought to the migration zone under subsection 245F(9) of this Act or 185(3A) of the Customs Act 1901; and

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen is a person who would, if in the migration zone, be an unlawful non‑citizen; or

                    (ca)  the non‑citizen is brought to Australia under section 198B; or

                     (d)  if:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen has been removed under section 198 to another country but has been refused entry by that country; and

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen travels to Australia as a direct result of that refusal; and

                            (iii)  the non‑citizen is a person who would, if in the migration zone, be an unlawful non‑citizen; or

                     (e)  if:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen has been removed under section 198; and

                             (ii)  before the removal the High Court, the Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court had made an order in relation to the non‑citizen, or the Minister had given an undertaking to the High Court, the Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court in relation to the non‑citizen; and

                            (iii)  the non‑citizen’s travel to Australia is required in order to give effect to the order or undertaking; and

                            (iv)  the Minister has made a declaration that this paragraph is to apply in relation to the non‑citizen’s travel; and

                             (v)  the non‑citizen is a person who would, if in the migration zone, be an unlawful non‑citizen; or

                      (f)  if:

                              (i)  the travel is from Norfolk Island to Australia; and

                             (ii)  the Minister has made a declaration that this paragraph is to apply in relation to the non‑citizen’s travel; and

                            (iii)  the non‑citizen is a person who would, if in the migration zone, be an unlawful non‑citizen.

             (3)  The regulations may permit a specified non‑citizen or a non‑citizen in a specified class to travel to Australia without a visa that is in effect.

             (4)  Nothing in subsection (2A) or (3) is to be taken to affect the non‑citizen’s status in the migration zone as an unlawful non‑citizen.

Note:          Section 189 provides that an unlawful non‑citizen in the migration zone must be detained.

43  Visa holders must usually enter at a port

             (1)  Subject to subsections (1A) and (3) and the regulations, a visa to travel to and enter Australia that is in effect is permission for the holder to enter Australia:

                     (a)  at a port; or

                     (b)  on a pre‑cleared flight; or

                     (c)  if the holder travels to Australia on a vessel and the health or safety of a person or a prescribed reason, make it necessary to enter in another way, that way; or

                     (d)  in a way authorised in writing by an authorised officer.

          (1A)  Subject to the regulations, a maritime crew visa that is in effect is permission for the holder to enter Australia:

                     (a)  at a proclaimed port; or

                     (b)  if the health or safety of a person, or a prescribed reason, make it necessary to enter Australia in another way, that way; or

                     (c)  in a way authorised by an authorised officer.

          (1B)  Despite subsections 38B(1) and (2):

                     (a)  the holder of a maritime crew visa may enter Australia as mentioned in paragraph (1A)(b) by air; and

                     (b)  the authorised officer may, for the purposes of paragraph (1A)(c), authorise the holder to enter Australia by air.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), a holder who travels to and enters Australia on an aircraft is taken to have entered Australia when that aircraft lands.

             (3)  This section does not apply to:

                     (a)  the holder of an enforcement visa; or

                     (b)  an Australian resident entering Australia on a foreign boat as a result of a fisheries officer:

                              (i)  making a requirement of the boat’s master under subparagraph 84(1)(k)(ii) or paragraph 84(1)(l) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or paragraph 42(1)(g) of the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984; or

                             (ii)  exercising his or her power under paragraph 84(1)(m) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or paragraph 42(1)(h) of the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984 in relation to the boat;

                            because a fisheries officer had reasonable grounds to believe that the boat was used, or was intended to be used, in the commission of a fisheries detention offence; or

                     (c)  an Australian resident entering Australia on a vessel (environment matters) as a result of an environment officer, or the person in command of a Commonwealth ship or a Commonwealth aircraft:

                              (i)  exercising his or her power under paragraph 403(3)(a) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 in relation to the vessel; or

                             (ii)  making a requirement of the person in charge of the vessel under paragraph 403(3)(b) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999;

                            because the environment officer, or person in command, had reasonable grounds to suspect that the vessel had been used or otherwise involved in the commission of an environment detention offence.

Note:          Subsection 33(10) also disapplies this section.

             (4)  In subsection (3):

Australian resident has the same meaning as in the Fisheries Management Act 1991.

Commonwealth aircraft has the same meaning as in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Commonwealth ship has the same meaning as in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

master has the same meaning as in the Fisheries Management Act 1991.

             (5)  The references in subsection (3) to subparagraph 84(1)(k)(ii) and paragraphs 84(1)(l) and (m) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 are to those provisions:

                     (a)  as they apply of their own force; and

                     (b)  as they apply because of section 87 or 87HA of that Act.

Subdivision AAApplications for visas

44  Extent of following Subdivisions

             (1)  This Subdivision and the later Subdivisions of this Division, other than this section, Subdivision AG and subsection 138(1), do not apply to criminal justice visas.

             (2)  This Subdivision and the later Subdivisions of this Division, other than this section and Subdivision AG, do not apply to enforcement visas.

45  Application for visa

             (1)  Subject to this Act and the regulations, a non‑citizen who wants a visa must apply for a visa of a particular class.

45A  Visa application charge

                   A non‑citizen who makes an application for a visa is liable to pay visa application charge if, assuming the charge were paid, the application would be a valid visa application.

45B  Amount of visa application charge

             (1)  The amount of visa application charge is the amount, not exceeding the visa application charge limit, prescribed in relation to the application.

Note:          The visa application charge limit is determined under the Migration (Visa Application) Charge Act 1997.

             (2)  The amount prescribed in relation to an application may be nil.

             (3)  The Minister must publish the Contributory Parent Visa Composite Index (within the meaning of the Migration (Visa Application) Charge Act 1997) for a financial year in the Gazette before the start of the financial year.

Note:          The Contributory Parent Visa Composite Index affects the visa application charge limit in relation to contributory parent visas (within the meaning of the Migration (Visa Application) Charge Act 1997).

             (4)  If the Contributory Parent Visa Composite Index for a financial year is not published as required by subsection (3), it is not to be taken, merely because of that fact, to be invalid or to be a figure other than that published by the Australian Government Actuary for the financial year.

45C  Regulations about visa application charge

             (1)  The regulations may:

                     (a)  provide that visa application charge may be payable in instalments; and

                     (b)  specify how those instalments are to be calculated; and

                     (c)  specify when instalments are payable.

             (2)  The regulations may also:

                     (a)  make provision for and in relation to:

                              (i)  the recovery of visa application charge in relation to visa applications; or

                             (ii)  the way, including the currency, in which visa application charge is to be paid; or

                            (iii)  working out how much visa application charge is to be paid; or

                            (iv)  the time when visa application charge is to be paid; or

                             (v)  the persons who may be paid visa application charge on behalf of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  make provision for the remission, refund or waiver of visa application charge or an amount of visa application charge; or

                     (c)  make provision for exempting persons from the payment of visa application charge or an amount of visa application charge; or

                     (d)  make provision for crediting visa application charge, or an amount of visa application charge, paid in respect of one application against visa application charge payable in respect of another application.

46  Valid visa application

             (1)  Subject to subsections (1A), (2) and (2A), an application for a visa is valid if, and only if:

                     (a)  it is for a visa of a class specified in the application; and

                     (b)  it satisfies the criteria and requirements prescribed under this section; and

                   (ba)  subject to the regulations providing otherwise, any visa application charge that the regulations require to be paid at the time when the application is made, has been paid; and

                     (c)  any fees payable in respect of it under the regulations have been paid; and

                     (d)  it is not prevented by section 48 (visa refused or cancelled earlier), 48A (protection visa), 91E (CPA and safe third countries), 91K (temporary safe haven visa), 91P (non‑citizens with access to protection from third countries), 161 (criminal justice), 164D (enforcement visa), 195 (detainees) or 501E (visa refused or cancelled on character grounds).

          (1A)  Subject to subsection (2), an application for a visa is invalid if:

                     (a)  the applicant is in the migration zone; and

                     (b)  since last entering Australia, the applicant has held a visa subject to a condition described in paragraph 41(2)(a); and

                     (c)  the Minister has not waived that condition under subsection 41(2A); and

                     (d)  the application is for a visa of a kind that, under that condition, the applicant is not or was not entitled to be granted.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (2A), an application for a visa is valid if:

                     (a)  it is an application for a visa of a class prescribed for the purposes of this subsection; and

                     (b)  under the regulations, the application is taken to have been validly made.

          (2A)  An application for a visa is invalid if:

                     (a)  prescribed circumstances exist; and

                    (aa)  the Minister has not waived the operation of this subsection in relation to the application for the visa; and

                   (ab)  the applicant has been required by an officer to provide one or more personal identifiers in relation to the application; and

                     (b)  the applicant has not complied with the requirement.

Note:          An invalid application for a visa cannot give rise to an obligation under section 65 to grant a visa: see subsection 47(3).

       (2AA)  An officer must not require, for the purposes of paragraph (2A)(ab), a person to provide a personal identifier other than:

                     (a)  if the person is an applicant for a protection visa—any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                              (i)  fingerprints or handprints of the person (including those taken using paper and ink or digital livescanning technologies);

                             (ii)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                            (iii)  an audio or a video recording of the person;

                            (iv)  an iris scan;

                             (v)  the person’s signature;

                            (vi)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                           (vii)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (2AC)(a); or

                     (b)  if the person is an applicant for a temporary safe haven visa within the meaning of section 37A, or any other visa of a class that the regulations designate as a class of humanitarian visas—any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                              (i)  fingerprints or handprints of the person (including those taken using paper and ink or digital livescanning technologies);

                             (ii)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                            (iii)  an iris scan;

                            (iv)  the person’s signature;

                             (v)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                            (vi)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (2AC)(a); or

                     (c)  if paragraphs (a) and (b) do not apply—any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                              (i)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                             (ii)  the person’s signature;

                            (iii)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                            (iv)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of paragraph (2AC)(a).

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

       (2AB)  In requiring, for the purposes of paragraph (2A)(ab), a person to provide a personal identifier, an officer must not contravene regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (2AC)(b).

       (2AC)  The regulations:

                     (a)  may prescribe other types of personal identifiers; and

                     (b)  may provide that a particular personal identifier referred to in subsection (2AA), or a particular combination of such personal identifiers, must not be required except in the circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

          (2B)  The applicant is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in paragraph (2A)(ab) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

          (2C)  However, subsection (2B) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the applicant:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe criteria that must be satisfied for an application for a visa of a specified class to be a valid application.

             (4)  Without limiting subsection (3), the regulations may also prescribe:

                     (a)  the circumstances that must exist for an application for a visa of a specified class to be a valid application; and

                     (b)  how an application for a visa of a specified class must be made; and

                     (c)  where an application for a visa of a specified class must be made; and

                     (d)  where an applicant must be when an application for a visa of a specified class is made.

46A  Visa applications by unauthorised maritime arrivals

             (1)  An application for a visa is not a valid application if it is made by an unauthorised maritime arrival who:

                     (a)  is in Australia; and

                     (b)  is an unlawful non‑citizen.

             (2)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, by written notice given to an unauthorised maritime arrival, determine that subsection (1) does not apply to an application by the unauthorised maritime arrival for a visa of a class specified in the determination.

             (3)  The power under subsection (2) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (4)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (2), the Minister must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that the Minister’s actions are in the public interest.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (4) must not include:

                     (a)  the name of the unauthorised maritime arrival; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the unauthorised maritime arrival; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (6)  A statement under subsection (4) must be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (7)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (2) in respect of any unauthorised maritime arrival whether the Minister is requested to do so by the unauthorised maritime arrival or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

46B  Visa applications by transitory persons

             (1)  An application for a visa is not a valid application if it is made by a transitory person who:

                     (a)  is in Australia; and

                     (b)  is an unlawful non‑citizen.

             (2)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, by written notice given to a transitory person, determine that subsection (1) does not apply to an application by the person for a visa of a class specified in the determination.

             (3)  The power under subsection (2) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (4)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (2), the Minister must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that the Minister’s actions are in the public interest.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (4) must not include:

                     (a)  the name of the transitory person; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the transitory person; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (6)  A statement under subsection (4) must be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (7)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (2) in respect of any transitory person whether the Minister is requested to do so by the transitory person or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

47  Consideration of valid visa application

             (1)  The Minister is to consider a valid application for a visa.

             (2)  The requirement to consider an application for a visa continues until:

                     (a)  the application is withdrawn; or

                     (b)  the Minister grants or refuses to grant the visa; or

                     (c)  the further consideration is prevented by section 39 (limiting number of visas) or 84 (suspension of consideration).

             (3)  To avoid doubt, the Minister is not to consider an application that is not a valid application.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, a decision by the Minister that an application is not valid and cannot be considered is not a decision to refuse to grant the visa.

48  Non‑citizen refused a visa or whose visa cancelled may only apply for particular visas

             (1)  A non‑citizen in the migration zone who:

                     (a)  does not hold a substantive visa; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  after last entering Australia, was refused a visa, other than a refusal of a bridging visa or a refusal under section 501, 501A or 501B, for which the non‑citizen had applied (whether or not the application has been finally determined); or

                             (ii)  held a visa that was cancelled under section 109 (incorrect information), 116 (general power to cancel), 134 (business visas), 137J (student visas) or 137Q (regional sponsored employment visas);

may, subject to the regulations, apply for a visa of a class prescribed for the purposes of this section, but not for a visa of any other class.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section (which applies only in respect of applications made while a non‑citizen is in the migration zone), a non‑citizen who:

                     (a)  has been removed from the migration zone under section 198; and

                     (b)  is again in the migration zone as a result of travel to Australia that is covered by paragraph 42(2A)(d) or (e);

is taken to have been continuously in the migration zone despite the removal referred to in paragraph (a).

Note:          Paragraphs 42(2A)(d) and (e) cover limited situations where people are returned to Australia despite their removal under section 198.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section (which applies only in respect of applications made while a non‑citizen is in the migration zone), a non‑citizen who, while holding a bridging visa, leaves and re‑enters the migration zone is taken to have been continuously in the migration zone despite that travel.

48A  Non‑citizen refused a protection visa may not make further application for protection visa

             (1)  Subject to section 48B, a non‑citizen who, while in the migration zone, has made:

                     (a)  an application for a protection visa, where the grant of the visa has been refused (whether or not the application has been finally determined); or

                     (b)  applications for protection visas, where the grants of the visas have been refused (whether or not the applications have been finally determined);

may not make a further application for a protection visa while in the migration zone.

          (1A)  For the purposes of this section, a non‑citizen who:

                     (a)  has been removed from the migration zone under section 198; and

                     (b)  is again in the migration zone as a result of travel to Australia that is covered by paragraph 42(2A)(d) or (e);

is taken to have been continuously in the migration zone despite the removal referred to in paragraph (a).

Note:          Paragraphs 42(2A)(d) and (e) cover limited situations where people are returned to Australia despite their removal under section 198.

          (1B)  Subject to section 48B, a non‑citizen in the migration zone who held a protection visa that was cancelled may not make a further application for a protection visa while in the migration zone.

             (2)  In this section:

application for a protection visa includes:

                    (aa)  an application for a visa, a criterion for which is mentioned in paragraph 36(2)(a), (aa), (b) or (c); and

                     (a)  an application for a visa, or entry permit (within the meaning of this Act as in force immediately before 1 September 1994), a criterion for which is that the applicant is a non‑citizen who has been determined to be a refugee under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; and

                     (b)  an application for a decision that a non‑citizen is a refugee under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; and

                     (c)  an application covered by paragraph (a) or (b) that is also covered by section 39 of the Migration Reform Act 1992.

48B  Minister may determine that section 48A does not apply to non‑citizen

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, by written notice given to a particular non‑citizen, determine that section 48A does not apply to prevent an application for a protection visa made by the non‑citizen in the period starting when the notice is given and ending at the end of the seventh working day after the day on which the notice is given.

             (2)  The power under subsection (1) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (3)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (1), he or she is to cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that his or her actions are in the public interest.

             (4)  A statement under subsection (3) is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the non‑citizen; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (3) is to laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (6)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (1) in respect of any non‑citizen, whether he or she is requested to do so by the non‑citizen or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

49  Withdrawal of visa application

             (1)  An applicant for a visa may, by written notice given to the Minister, withdraw the application.

             (2)  An application that is withdrawn is taken to have been disposed of.

             (3)  For the purposes of sections 48 and 48A, the Minister is not taken to have refused to grant the visa if the application is withdrawn before the refusal.

             (4)  Subject to the regulations, fees payable in respect of an application that is withdrawn are not refundable.

50  Only new information to be considered in later protection visa applications

                   If a non‑citizen who has made:

                     (a)  an application for a protection visa, where the grant of the visa has been refused and the application has been finally determined; or

                     (b)  applications for protection visas, where the grants of the visas have been refused and the applications have been finally determined;

makes a further application for a protection visa, the Minister, in considering the further application:

                     (c)  is not required to reconsider any information considered in the earlier application or an earlier application; and

                     (d)  may have regard to, and take to be correct, any decision that the Minister made about or because of that information.

Note:          Section 48A prevents repeat applications for protection visas in most circumstances where the applicant is in the migration zone.

51  Order of consideration

             (1)  The Minister may consider and dispose of applications for visas in such order as he or she considers appropriate.

             (2)  The fact that an application has not yet been considered or disposed of although an application that was made later has been considered or disposed of does not mean that the consideration or disposal of the earlier application is unreasonably delayed.

Subdivision ABCode of procedure for dealing fairly, efficiently and quickly with visa applications

51A  Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule

             (1)  This Subdivision is taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters it deals with.

             (2)  Sections 494A to 494D, in so far as they relate to this Subdivision, are taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters they deal with.

52  Communication with Minister

             (1)  A visa applicant or interested person must communicate with the Minister in the prescribed way.

             (2)  The regulations may prescribe different ways of communicating and specify the circumstances when communication is to be in a particular way. For this purpose, a way of communicating includes any associated process for authenticating identity.

             (3)  If the applicant or interested person purports to communicate anything to the Minister in a way that is not the prescribed way, the communication is taken not to have been received unless the Minister in fact receives it.

          (3A)  A visa applicant must tell the Minister the address at which the applicant intends to live while the application is being dealt with.

          (3B)  If the applicant proposes to change the address at which he or she intends to live for a period of 14 days or more, the applicant must tell the Minister the address and the period of proposed residence.

          (3C)  If, in accordance with the regulations, 2 or more non‑citizens apply for visas together, notifications given to any of them about the application are taken to be given to each of them.

Note 1:       If the Minister gives a person a document by a method specified in section 494B, the person is taken to have received the document at the time specified in section 494C in respect of that method.

Note 2:       Section 494D deals with giving documents to a person’s authorised recipient.

             (4)  In this section, interested person means a person who wants, or who is requested, to give information about the applicant to the Minister.

54  Minister must have regard to all information in application

             (1)  The Minister must, in deciding whether to grant or refuse to grant a visa, have regard to all of the information in the application.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), information is in an application if the information is:

                     (a)  set out in the application; or

                     (b)  in a document attached to the application when it is made; or

                     (c)  given under section 55.

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), a decision to grant or refuse to grant a visa may be made without giving the applicant an opportunity to make oral or written submissions.

55  Further information may be given

             (1)  Until the Minister has made a decision whether to grant or refuse to grant a visa, the applicant may give the Minister any additional relevant information and the Minister must have regard to that information in making the decision.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not mean that the Minister is required to delay making a decision because the applicant might give, or has told the Minister that the applicant intends to give, further information.

56  Further information may be sought

             (1)  In considering an application for a visa, the Minister may, if he or she wants to, get any information that he or she considers relevant but, if the Minister gets such information, the Minister must have regard to that information in making the decision whether to grant or refuse the visa.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), the Minister may invite, orally or in writing, the applicant for a visa to give additional information in a specified way.

57  Certain information must be given to applicant

             (1)  In this section, relevant information means information (other than non‑disclosable information) that the Minister considers:

                     (a)  would be the reason, or a part of the reason, for refusing to grant a visa; and

                     (b)  is specifically about the applicant or another person and is not just about a class of persons of which the applicant or other person is a member; and

                     (c)  was not given by the applicant for the purpose of the application.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (3), the Minister must:

                     (a)  give particulars of the relevant information to the applicant in the way that the Minister considers appropriate in the circumstances; and

                     (b)  ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, that the applicant understands why it is relevant to consideration of the application; and

                     (c)  invite the applicant to comment on it.

             (3)  This section does not apply in relation to an application for a visa unless:

                     (a)  the visa can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone; and

                     (b)  this Act provides, under Part 5 or 7, for an application for review of a decision to refuse to grant the visa.

58  Invitation to give further information or comments

             (1)  If a person is:

                     (a)  invited under section 56 to give additional information; or

                     (b)  invited under section 57 to comment on information;

the invitation is to specify whether the additional information or the comments may be given:

                     (c)  in writing; or

                     (d)  at an interview between the applicant and an officer; or

                     (e)  by telephone.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (4), if the invitation is to give additional information or comments otherwise than at an interview, the information or comments are to be given within a period specified in the invitation, being a prescribed period or, if no period is prescribed, a reasonable period.

             (3)  Subject to subsection (5), if the invitation is to give information or comments at an interview, the interview is to take place:

                     (a)  at a place specified in the invitation, being a prescribed place or if no place is prescribed, a reasonable place; and

                     (b)  at a time specified in the invitation, being a time within a prescribed period or, if no period is prescribed, a reasonable period.

             (4)  If a person is to respond to an invitation within a prescribed period, that period may be extended by the Minister for a prescribed further period, and then the response is to be made in the extended period.

             (5)  If a person is to respond to an invitation at an interview at a time within a prescribed period, that time may be changed by the Minister to:

                     (a)  a later time within that period; or

                     (b)  a time within that period as extended by the Minister for a prescribed further period;

and then the response is to be made at an interview at the new time.

59  Interviews

             (1)  An applicant must make every reasonable effort to be available for, and attend, an interview.

             (2)  Section 58 and this section do not mean that the Minister cannot obtain information from an applicant by telephone or in any other way.

60  Medical examination

             (1)  If the health or physical or mental condition of an applicant for a visa is relevant to the grant of a visa, the Minister may require the applicant to visit, and be examined by, a specified person, being a person qualified to determine the applicant’s health, physical condition or mental condition, at a specified reasonable time and specified reasonable place.

             (2)  An applicant must make every reasonable effort to be available for, and attend, an examination.

61  Prescribed periods

                   If this Subdivision requires or allows the regulations to prescribe a period or other time limit relating to a step in considering an application for a visa, the regulations may prescribe different limits relating to that step and specify when that specified limit is to apply, which, without limiting the generality of the power, may be to:

                     (a)  applications for a visa of a specified class; or

                     (b)  applications in specified circumstances; or

                     (c)  applicants in a specified class of persons; or

                     (d)  applicants in a specified class of persons in specified circumstances.

62  Failure to receive information not require action

             (1)  If an applicant for a visa:

                     (a)  is invited to give additional information; and

                     (b)  does not give the information before the time for giving it has passed;

the Minister may make a decision to grant or refuse to grant the visa without taking any action to obtain the additional information.

             (2)  If an applicant for a visa:

                     (a)  is invited to comment on information; and

                     (b)  does not give the comments before the time for giving them has passed;

the Minister may make a decision to grant or refuse to grant the visa without taking any further action to obtain the applicant’s views on the information.

63  When decision about visa may be made

             (1)  Subject to sections 39 (criterion limiting number of visas), 57 (give applicant information), 84 (no further processing), 86 (effect of limit on visas) and 94 (put aside under points system) and subsections (2) and (3) of this section, the Minister may grant or refuse to grant a visa at any time after the application has been made.

             (2)  The Minister is not to refuse to grant a visa after inviting the applicant to give information and before whichever of the following happens first:

                     (a)  the information is given;

                     (b)  the applicant tells the Minister that the applicant does not wish to give the information or does not have it;

                     (c)  the time in which the information may be given ends.

             (3)  The Minister is not to refuse to grant a visa after inviting the applicant to comment on information and before whichever of the following happens first:

                     (a)  the comments are given;

                     (b)  the applicant tells the Minister that the applicant does not wish to comment;

                     (c)  the time in which the comments are to be given ends.

             (4)  The Minister is not to refuse to grant a visa after giving a notice under section 64 and before whichever of the following happens first:

                     (a)  the applicant pays the visa application charge; or

                     (b)  the applicant tells the Minister that the applicant does not intend to pay the visa application charge; or

                     (c)  the end of the period set out in the notice.

64  Notice that visa application charge is payable

             (1)  This section applies to a valid application for a visa if the Minister, after considering the application, has made an assessment that:

                     (a)  the health criteria for it (if any) have been satisfied; and

                     (b)  the other criteria for it, prescribed by this Act or the regulations, have been satisfied.

             (2)  If this section applies and an amount of visa application charge is unpaid, the Minister must give the applicant written notice stating that:

                     (a)  an amount of visa application charge is payable within the prescribed period; and

                     (b)  subject to the regulations providing otherwise, a visa cannot be granted unless that amount is paid; and

                     (c)  the Minister may refuse to grant the visa unless that amount is paid within the prescribed period.

             (3)  If, in accordance with the regulations, 2 or more non‑citizens apply for a visa together, the Minister may give notices under this section in the same document.

Subdivision ACGrant of visas

65  Decision to grant or refuse to grant visa

             (1)  After considering a valid application for a visa, the Minister:

                     (a)  if satisfied that:

                              (i)  the health criteria for it (if any) have been satisfied; and

                             (ii)  the other criteria for it prescribed by this Act or the regulations have been satisfied; and

                            (iii)  the grant of the visa is not prevented by section 40 (circumstances when granted), 500A (refusal or cancellation of temporary safe haven visas), 501 (special power to refuse or cancel) or any other provision of this Act or of any other law of the Commonwealth; and

                            (iv)  any amount of visa application charge payable in relation to the application has been paid;

                            is to grant the visa; or

                     (b)  if not so satisfied, is to refuse to grant the visa.

Note:          See also section 195A, under which the Minister has a non‑compellable power to grant a visa to a person in detention under section 189 (whether or not the person has applied for the visa). Subdivision AA, this Subdivision, Subdivision AF and the regulations do not apply to the Minister’s power under that section.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, an application put aside under section 94 is not taken for the purposes of subsection (1) to have been considered until it has been removed from the pool under subsection 95(3).

65A  Period within which Minister must make decision on protection visas

             (1)  If an application for a protection visa:

                     (a)  was validly made under section 46; or

                     (b)  was remitted by any court or tribunal to the Minister for reconsideration;

then the Minister must make a decision under section 65 within 90 days starting on:

                     (c)  the day on which the application for the protection visa was made or remitted; or

                     (d)  in the circumstances prescribed by the regulations—the day prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  Failure to comply with this section does not affect the validity of a decision made under section 65 on an application for a protection visa.

66  Notification of decision

             (1)  When the Minister grants or refuses to grant a visa, he or she is to notify the applicant of the decision in the prescribed way.

             (2)  Notification of a decision to refuse an application for a visa must:

                     (a)  if the grant of the visa was refused because the applicant did not satisfy a criterion for the visa—specify that criterion; and

                     (b)  if the grant of the visa was refused because a provision of this Act or the regulations prevented the grant of the visa—specify that provision; and

                     (c)  unless subsection (3) applies to the application—give written reasons (other than non‑disclosable information) why the criterion was not satisfied or the provision prevented the grant of the visa; and

                     (d)  if the applicant has a right to have the decision reviewed under Part 5 or 7 or section 500—state:

                              (i)  that the decision can be reviewed; and

                             (ii)  the time in which the application for review may be made; and

                            (iii)  who can apply for the review; and

                            (iv)  where the application for review can be made.

             (3)  This subsection applies to an application for a visa if:

                     (a)  the visa is a visa that cannot be granted while the applicant is in the migration zone; and

                     (b)  this Act does not provide, under Part 5 or 7, for an application for review of a decision to refuse to grant the visa.

             (4)  Failure to give notification of a decision does not affect the validity of the decision.

             (5)  This section does not apply to a decision under section 501, 501A, 501B or 501F to refuse to grant a visa to a person.

Note:          Sections 501C and 501G provide for notification of a decision under section 501, 501A, 501B or 501F to refuse to grant a visa to a person.

67  Way visa granted

                   A visa is to be granted by the Minister causing a record of it to be made.

68  When visa is in effect

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), a visa has effect as soon as it is granted.

             (2)  A visa may provide that it comes into effect at the beginning of a day, being a day after its grant:

                     (a)  specified in the visa; or

                     (b)  when an event, specified in the visa, happens.

             (3)  A visa can only be in effect during the visa period for the visa.

             (4)  A bridging visa (the reactivated bridging visa), held by a non‑citizen, that has ceased to be in effect under subsection 82(3), will come into effect again during the visa period for the visa if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen does not hold a substantive visa that is in effect; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen does not hold any other bridging visa; or

                             (ii)  the reactivated bridging visa is determined, in accordance with the regulations, to be the most beneficial of the bridging visas held by the applicant.

69  Effect of compliance or non‑compliance

             (1)  Non‑compliance by the Minister with Subdivision AA or AB or section 494D in relation to a visa application does not mean that a decision to grant or refuse to grant the visa is not a valid decision but only means that the decision might have been the wrong one and might be set aside if reviewed.

             (2)  If the Minister deals with a visa application in a way that complies with Subdivision AA, AB and this Subdivision, the Minister is not required to take any other action in dealing with it.

Subdivision AEEvidence of visas

70  Request for evidence of a visa

             (1)  Any of the following persons may request to be given a prescribed form of evidence of a visa at any time while the visa is in effect:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen who holds the visa;

                     (b)  a parent or guardian of the non‑citizen who holds the visa if the non‑citizen is a minor or the non‑citizen is incapable of managing his or her affairs;

                     (c)  a person authorised, in writing, by the non‑citizen who holds the visa to make a request under this section on the non‑citizen’s behalf.

             (2)  The request must:

                     (a)  be made in the prescribed way; and

                     (b)  be lodged at the prescribed place; and

                     (c)  be accompanied by the amount of visa evidence charge payable in relation to the request.

             (3)  The person may withdraw the request at any time before the prescribed form of evidence of the visa is given.

71  Liability to pay visa evidence charge

             (1)  A person who makes a request under section 70 is liable to pay visa evidence charge.

             (2)  The amount of visa evidence charge is the prescribed amount which must not exceed the visa evidence charge limit for the request.

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (2), regulations made for the purposes of that subsection may do any one or more of the following:

                     (a)  specify a different amount of visa evidence charge for different prescribed forms of evidence of a visa;

                     (b)  specify a different amount of visa evidence charge in relation to different classes of visas;

                     (c)  specify a different amount of visa evidence charge for different methods of payment of the charge;

                     (d)  specify a different amount of visa evidence charge where the person elects to have the request dealt with expeditiously;

                     (e)  specify a different amount of visa evidence charge for requests made in different circumstances;

                      (f)  specify circumstances in which the amount of the visa evidence charge is nil;

                     (g)  specify a way for working out the amount of visa evidence charge.

71A  Officer must give evidence of a visa

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a person makes a request under section 70 in relation to a visa; and

                     (b)  the amount of visa evidence charge for the request has been paid;

an officer must, within a reasonable time after the request is made, give the person a prescribed form of evidence of the visa.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply if:

                     (a)  the request has been withdrawn; or

                     (b)  the visa has ceased to be in effect.

71B  Regulations about visa evidence charge

             (1)  The regulations may make provision for, or in relation to, any of the following matters relating to the visa evidence charge:

                     (a)  the circumstances in which a prescribed form of evidence of a visa may be requested or given;

                     (b)  the method of payment (including the currency in which the charge must be paid);

                     (c)  the persons who may be paid the charge on behalf of the Commonwealth;

                     (d)  the remission, refund or waiver (in whole or in part) of the charge;

                     (e)  the exemption (in whole or in part) of a person from the liability to pay the charge.

             (2)  If the regulations provide that a prescribed form of evidence of a visa may be given by endorsing a valid passport, or other valid travel document, that has been issued to:

                     (a)  a non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  another non‑citizen associated with that non‑citizen;

the Minister may direct, in writing, that a specified document is not to be taken to be a passport or travel document for the purposes of the regulations.

             (3)  A direction under subsection (2) is not a legislative instrument.

Subdivision AFBridging visas

72  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Subdivision:

eligible non‑citizen means a non‑citizen who:

                     (a)  has been immigration cleared; or

                     (b)  is in a prescribed class of persons; or

                     (c)  the Minister has determined to be an eligible non‑citizen.

             (2)  The Minister may make a determination under paragraph (1)(c) that a non‑citizen is an eligible non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen was an unlawful non‑citizen when he or she entered the migration zone; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen made a valid application for a protection visa after he or she arrived in Australia; and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen has been in immigration detention for a period of more than 6 months after the application for a protection visa was made; and

                     (d)  the Minister has not made a primary decision in relation to the application for a protection visa; and

                     (e)  the Minister thinks that the determination would be in the public interest.

             (3)  The power to make a determination under paragraph (1)(c) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (4)  If the Minister makes a determination under paragraph (1)(c), he or she is to cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that his or her actions are in the public interest.

             (5)  A statement made under subsection (4) is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of any non‑citizen who is the subject of the determination; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the non‑citizen; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person, or any information that may identify the person.

             (6)  A statement under subsection (4) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (7)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to make a determination under paragraph (1)(c) in respect of any non‑citizen, whether he or she is requested to do so by the non‑citizen or any other person, or in any other circumstances.

73  Bridging visas

                   If the Minister is satisfied that an eligible non‑citizen satisfies the criteria for a bridging visa as prescribed under subsection 31(3), the Minister may grant a bridging visa permitting the non‑citizen to remain in, or to travel to, enter and remain in Australia:

                     (a)  during a specified period; or

                     (b)  until a specified event happens.

74  Further applications for bridging visa

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), if:

                     (a)  an eligible non‑citizen who is in immigration detention makes an application for a bridging visa; and

                     (b)  the Minister refuses to grant the visa;

the eligible non‑citizen may make a further application for a bridging visa.

             (2)  Unless the further application for a bridging visa is made in prescribed circumstances, the further application may be made not earlier than 30 days after:

                     (a)  if the eligible non‑citizen did not make an application for review of the decision to refuse to grant the visa—the refusal; or

                     (b)  if the eligible non‑citizen made an application for such review—the application is finally determined.

75  When eligible non‑citizen in immigration detention granted visa

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  an eligible non‑citizen who is in immigration detention makes an application for a bridging visa of a prescribed class; and

                     (b)  the Minister does not make a decision, within the prescribed period, to grant or refuse to grant the bridging visa;

the non‑citizen is taken to have been granted a bridging visa of the prescribed class on prescribed conditions (if any) at the end of that period.

             (2)  The period in subsection (1) may be extended in relation to a particular application by agreement between the applicant and the Minister.

76  Bridging visa not affect visa applications

             (1)  The fact that a non‑citizen holds a bridging visa does not prevent or affect:

                     (a)  an application by the non‑citizen for a visa of another class; or

                     (b)  the grant of such a visa.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, the holding by a non‑citizen of a bridging visa is not to be taken to be, for the purposes of an application for a visa of another class, the holding of a visa.

Subdivision AGOther provisions about visas

77  Visas held during visa period

                   To avoid doubt, for the purposes of this Act, a non‑citizen holds a visa at all times during the visa period for the visa.

78  Children born in Australia

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a child born in Australia is a non‑citizen when born; and

                     (b)  at the time of the birth:

                              (i)  one of the child’s parents holds a visa (other than a special purpose visa); and

                             (ii)  the other parent is, under section 83, included in that visa or does not hold a visa (other than a special purpose visa);

the child is taken to have been granted, at the time of the birth, a visa of the same kind and class and on the same terms and conditions (if any) as that visa.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a child born in Australia is a non‑citizen when born; and

                     (b)  at the time of the birth, each of the child’s parents holds a visa (other than a special purpose visa);

the child is taken to have been granted, at the time of the birth, visas of the same kind and class and on the same terms and conditions (if any) as each of those visas.

             (3)  Subdivisions AA, AB, AC (other than section 68), AE and AH do not apply in relation to visas granted under this section.

79  Effect on visa of leaving Australia

                   If the holder of a visa leaves Australia the holder may only re‑enter Australia because of the visa if:

                     (a)  the visa is permission for the re‑entry; and

                     (b)  the visa is in effect on re‑entry.

80  Certain persons taken not to leave Australia

                   A person is taken not to leave Australia if the person goes outside the migration zone on a vessel and:

                     (a)  does not go (other than for transit purposes) to a foreign country; and

                     (b)  remains a passenger, or a member of the crew, of that vessel while outside the migration zone; and

                     (c)  is outside the migration zone for no longer than the prescribed period.

81  Extent of visa authority

             (1)  A visa to travel to Australia during a period is not permission to travel to it outside that period.

             (2)  A visa to enter Australia within a period is not permission to so enter outside that period.

             (3)  A visa to remain in Australia during a period is not permission to so remain outside that period.

82  When visas cease to be in effect

             (1)  A visa that is cancelled ceases to be in effect on cancellation.

             (2)  A substantive visa held by a non‑citizen ceases to be in effect if another substantive visa (other than a special purpose visa) for the non‑citizen comes into effect.

       (2AA)  Despite subsection (2):

                     (a)  a maritime crew visa held by a non‑citizen does not cease to be in effect if a substantive visa for the non‑citizen that is of a class specified by the Minister, by legislative instrument, for the purposes of this subsection comes into effect; and

                     (b)  a substantive visa held by a non‑citizen that is of a class specified by the Minister, by legislative instrument, for the purposes of this subsection does not cease to be in effect if a maritime crew visa for the non‑citizen comes into effect.

          (2A)  A temporary visa held by a non‑citizen ceases to be in effect if an enforcement visa for the non‑citizen comes into effect.

             (3)  A bridging visa held by a non‑citizen ceases to be in effect if another visa (other than a special purpose visa or a maritime crew visa) for the non‑citizen comes into effect.

             (4)  A visa ceases to be in effect when the holder leaves Australia because of a deportation order made under section 200.

             (5)  A visa to travel to and enter Australia (whether also a visa to remain in Australia) during a particular period or until a particular date ceases to be in effect at the end of that period or on that date unless the holder of the visa:

                     (a)  has entered Australia in that period or on or before that date; and

                     (b)  is in Australia at the end of that period or on that date.

             (6)  A visa to travel to and enter Australia (whether also a visa to remain in Australia) during a particular period or until a particular date ceases to be in effect if the holder leaves Australia after that period or date.

             (7)  A visa to remain in Australia (whether also a visa to travel to and enter Australia) during a particular period or until a particular date ceases to be in effect at the end of that period or on that date.

          (7A)  A bridging visa permitting the holder to remain in, or to travel to, enter and remain in, Australia until a specified event happens, ceases to be in effect the moment the event happens.

             (8)  A visa to remain in, but not re‑enter, Australia that is granted to a non‑citizen in Australia ceases to be in effect if the holder leaves Australia.

             (9)  This section does not affect the operation of other provisions of this Act under which a visa ceases to be in effect (such as sections 173 and 174).

           (10)  For the purposes of subsections (5), (6) and (7), particular date includes:

                     (a)  the date an event, specified in the visa, happens; or

                     (b)  the date the holder ceases to have a status specified in the visa or the regulations.

83  Certain persons taken to be included in spouse, de facto partner or parent’s visa

             (1)  Where:

                     (a)  a person’s name is included in the passport or other document of identity of the person’s spouse or de facto partner; and

                     (b)  the person accompanies his or her spouse or de facto partner to Australia (whether before or after the commencement of this section);

the person shall be taken to be included in any visa granted to the spouse or de facto partner evidence of which is endorsed on the passport or other document of identity if, and only if, the person’s name is included in the endorsement.

Note:          Subsection 5(1) defines de facto partner and spouse. For the purposes of this section, those definitions apply only in relation to visas granted on or after 1 July 2009: see the Same‑Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws—General Law Reform) Act 2008. This section as in force before the amendment of this Act by that Act continues to apply in relation to visas granted before 1 July 2009.

             (2)  Where:

                     (a)  the name of a child is included in the passport or other document of identity of a parent of the child; and

                     (b)  the child accompanies that parent to Australia (whether before or after the commencement of this section);

the child shall be taken to be included in any visa granted to the parent evidence of which is endorsed on the passport or other document of identity if, and only if, the child’s name is included in the endorsement.

Note:          Subsection 5(1) defines child and parent. For the purposes of this section, those definitions apply only in relation to visas granted on or after 1 July 2009: see the Same‑Sex Relationships (Equal Treatment in Commonwealth Laws—General Law Reform) Act 2008.

84  Minister may suspend processing of visa applications

             (1)  The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, determine that dealing with applications for visas of a specified class is to stop until a day specified in the notice (in this section called the resumption day).

             (2)  Where a notice under subsection (1) is published in the Gazette, no act is to be done in relation to any application for a visa of the class concerned until the resumption day.

             (3)  A notice under this section does not have any effect in relation to an application for a visa made by a person on the ground that he or she is the spouse, de facto partner or dependent child of:

                     (a)  an Australian citizen; or

                     (b)  the holder of a permanent visa that is in effect; or

                     (c)  a person who is usually resident in Australia and whose continued presence in Australia is not subject to a limitation as to time imposed by law.

             (4)  Nothing in this section prevents an act being done to implement a decision to grant or to refuse to grant a visa if the decision had been made before the date of the notice concerned.

             (5)  For the purposes of this section, a child of a person is a dependent child if the child:

                     (a)  does not have a spouse or de facto partner; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  is under 18; or

                             (ii)  is 18, 19 or 20 and is dependent on the person for:

                                        (A)  financial and psychological support; or

                                        (B)  physical support.

             (6)  In this section:

act means an act connected with performing functions or exercising powers under or for the purposes of this Act.

Subdivision AHLimit on visas

85  Limit on visas

                   The Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, determine the maximum number of:

                     (a)  the visas of a specified class; or

                     (b)  the visas of specified classes;

that may be granted in a specified financial year.

86  Effect of limit

                   If:

                     (a)  there is a determination of the maximum number of visas of a class or classes that may be granted in a financial year; and

                     (b)  the number of visas of the class or classes granted in the year reaches that maximum number;

no more visas of the class or classes may be granted in the year.

87  Limit does not prevent visas for certain persons

             (1)  Section 86 does not prevent the grant of a visa to a person who applied for it on the ground that he or she is the spouse, de facto partner or dependent child of:

                     (a)  an Australian citizen; or

                     (b)  the holder of a permanent visa that is in effect; or

                     (c)  a person who is usually resident in Australia and whose continued presence in Australia is not subject to a limitation as to time imposed by law.

             (2)  For the purposes of this section, a child of a person is a dependent child if the child:

                     (a)  does not have a spouse or de facto partner; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  is under 18; or

                             (ii)  is 18, 19 or 20 and is dependent on the person for:

                                        (A)  financial and psychological support; or

                                        (B)  physical support.

87A  Limit does not prevent the grant of visas to certain people who are unable to meet health or character requirements before the limit applies because of circumstances beyond their control

                   If:

                     (a)  a person has applied, whether before or after the commencement of this section, for the grant of a visa; and

                     (b)  a time was or is reached when the grant of the visa to the person in a particular financial year was or is prevented by section 86; and

                     (c)  the person was requested by the Minister after that time to satisfy requirements for the grant of the visa that relate to health or character; and

                     (d)  after the making of the request referred to in paragraph (c) the person satisfies the requirements referred to in that paragraph in a financial year subsequent to the financial year in which the time referred to in paragraph (b) occurred; and

                     (e)  the grant of the visa to the person at the time when the requirements referred to in paragraph (c) are satisfied would, apart from this section, be prevented by section 86; and

                      (f)  the person was unable to satisfy the requirements referred to in paragraph (c) at a time when, apart from this section, section 86 would not have prevented the grant of the visa to the person; and

                     (g)  the Minister is satisfied that the person’s inability to satisfy the requirements referred to in paragraph (c) at a time mentioned in paragraph (e) was due to circumstances beyond the person’s control;

section 86 does not prevent the grant of the visa to the person.

88  Limit does not affect processing of applications

                   Section 86’s prevention of the grant of a visa does not prevent any other action related to the application for it.

89  Determination of limit not to mean failure to decide

                   The fact that the Minister has neither granted nor refused to grant a visa of a class or classes to which a determination under section 85 applies does not mean, for any purpose, that the Minister has failed to make a decision to grant or refuse to grant the visa.

90  Order of dealing with limited visas

                   The fact that an application for a visa of a class or classes to which a determination under section 85 applies has not been considered or disposed of although an application for another visa of the class or classes that was made later has been considered or disposed of does not mean, for any purpose, that the consideration or disposal of the earlier application is unreasonably delayed.

91  Order of dealing with visas

                   If a determination under section 85 applies, or has applied, to visas of a class or classes, the Minister may consider or, subject to section 86, dispose of outstanding and further applications for such visas in such order as he or she considers appropriate.

Subdivision AISafe third countries

91A  Reason for Subdivision

                   This Subdivision is enacted because the Parliament considers that certain non‑citizens who are covered by the CPA, or in relation to whom there is a safe third country, should not be allowed to apply for a protection visa or, in some cases, any other visa. Any such non‑citizen who is an unlawful non‑citizen will be subject to removal under Division 8.

91B  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Subdivision:

agreement includes a written arrangement or understanding, whether or not binding.

CPA means the Comprehensive Plan of Action approved by the International Conference on Indo‑Chinese Refugees, held at Geneva, Switzerland, from 13 to 14 June 1989.

             (2)  For the purposes of this Subdivision, if, apart from this section:

                     (a)  a colony, overseas territory or protectorate of a foreign country; or

                     (b)  an overseas territory for the international relations of which a foreign country is responsible;

is not a country in its own right, the colony, territory or protectorate is taken to be a country in its own right.

91C  Non‑citizens covered by Subdivision

             (1)  This Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is in Australia at that time; and

                     (b)  at that time, the non‑citizen is covered by:

                              (i)  the CPA; or

                             (ii)  an agreement, relating to persons seeking asylum, between Australia and a country that is, or countries that include a country that is, at that time, a safe third country in relation to the non‑citizen (see section 91D); and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen is not excluded by the regulations from the application of this Subdivision.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a country does not need to be prescribed as a safe third country at the time that the agreement referred to in subparagraph (1)(b)(ii) is made.

91D  Safe third countries

             (1)  A country is a safe third country in relation to a non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the country is prescribed as a safe third country in relation to the non‑citizen, or in relation to a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen has a prescribed connection with the country.

             (2)  Without limiting paragraph (1)(b), the regulations may provide that a person has a prescribed connection with a country if:

                     (a)  the person is or was present in the country at a particular time or at any time during a particular period; or

                     (b)  the person has a right to enter and reside in the country (however that right arose or is expressed).

             (3)  The Minister must, within 2 sitting days after a regulation under paragraph (1)(a) is laid before a House of the Parliament, cause to be laid before that House a statement, covering the country, or each of the countries, prescribed as a safe third country by the regulation, about:

                     (a)  the compliance by the country, or each of the countries, with relevant international law concerning the protection of persons seeking asylum; and

                     (b)  the meeting by the country, or each of the countries, of relevant human rights standards for the persons in relation to whom the country is prescribed as a safe third country; and

                     (c)  the willingness of the country, or each of the countries, to allow any person in relation to whom the country is prescribed as a safe third country:

                              (i)  to go to the country; and

                             (ii)  to remain in the country during the period in which any claim by the person for asylum is determined; and

                            (iii)  if the person is determined to be a refugee while in the country—to remain in the country until a durable solution relating to the permanent settlement of the person is found.

             (4)  A regulation made for the purposes of paragraph (1)(a) ceases to be in force at the end of 2 years after the regulation commences.

91E  Non‑citizens to which this Subdivision applies unable to make valid applications for certain visas

                   Despite any other provision of this Act, if this Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time and, at that time, the non‑citizen applies, or purports to apply, for a protection visa then, subject to section 91F:

                     (a)  if the non‑citizen has not been immigration cleared at that time—neither that application nor any other application made by the non‑citizen for a visa is a valid application; or

                     (b)  if the non‑citizen has been immigration cleared at that time—neither that application nor any other application made by the non‑citizen for a protection visa is a valid application.

91F  Minister may determine that section 91E does not apply to non‑citizen

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, by written notice given to a particular non‑citizen, determine:

                     (a)  that section 91E does not apply to an application for a visa made by the non‑citizen in the period starting when the notice is given and ending at the end of the seventh working day after the day that the notice is given; or

                     (b)  that section 91G does not apply to an application for a visa made by the non‑citizen during the transitional period referred to in that section.

             (2)  The power under subsection (1) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (3)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (1), he or she is to cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that his or her actions are in the public interest.

             (4)  A statement under subsection (3) is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the non‑citizen; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (3) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (6)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (1) in respect of any non‑citizen, whether he or she is requested to do so by the non‑citizen or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

91G  Applications made before regulations take effect

             (1)  Subject to section 91F and subsection (3), if:

                     (a)  this Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen immediately after a regulation prescribing a country as a safe third country takes effect and did not apply to the non‑citizen immediately before that time; and

                     (b)  the regulation prescribes a day as the cut off day; and

                     (c)  during the period (the transitional period) from the beginning of the cut off day until immediately before that regulation takes effect, the non‑citizen made an application for a protection visa;

then:

                     (d)  if the non‑citizen had not been immigration cleared at the time of making the application—that application, and any other application made by the non‑citizen for a visa made during the transitional period, ceases to be a valid application when the regulation takes effect; and

                     (e)  if the non‑citizen had been immigration cleared at the time of making the application—that application, and any other application made by the non‑citizen for a protection visa made during the transitional period, ceases to be a valid application when the regulation takes effect; and

                      (f)  on and after the regulation takes effect, this Act applies as if the non‑citizen had applied for a protection visa immediately after the regulation takes effect.

             (2)  To avoid doubt:

                     (a)  paragraphs (1)(d) and (e) apply even if an application referred to in the paragraph concerned, or a decision in relation to such an application, is the subject of a review by, or an appeal or application to, the Migration Review Tribunal, the Refugee Review Tribunal, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal, a Federal Court or any other body or court; and

                     (b)  no visa may be granted to the non‑citizen as a direct, or indirect, result of such an application.

             (3)  Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to a non‑citizen who, before the regulation referred to in that subsection takes effect, has:

                     (a)  been granted a substantive visa as a result of an application referred to in that subsection; or

                     (b)  been determined under this Act to be a non‑citizen who satisfies the criterion mentioned in subsection 36(2).

             (4)  The cut off day specified in the regulation must not be:

                     (a)  before a day on which the Minister, by notice in the Gazette, announces that he or she intends that such a regulation will be made; or

                     (b)  more than 6 months before the regulation takes effect.

Subdivision AJTemporary safe haven visas

91H  Reason for this Subdivision

                   This Subdivision is enacted because the Parliament considers that a non‑citizen who holds a temporary safe haven visa, or who has not left Australia since ceasing to hold such a visa, should not be allowed to apply for a visa other than another temporary safe haven visa. Any such non‑citizen who ceases to hold a visa will be subject to removal under Division 8.

Note:          For temporary safe haven visas, see section 37A.

91J  Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies

                   This Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen in Australia at a particular time if, at that time, the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  holds a temporary safe haven visa; or

                     (b)  has not left Australia since ceasing to hold a temporary safe haven visa.

91K  Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies are unable to make valid applications for certain visas

                   Despite any other provision of this Act but subject to section 91L, if this Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time and, at that time, the non‑citizen applies, or purports to apply, for a visa (other than a temporary safe haven visa), then that application is not a valid application.

91L  Minister may determine that section 91K does not apply to a non‑citizen

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, by written notice given to a particular non‑citizen, determine that section 91K does not apply to an application for a visa made by the non‑citizen in the period starting when the notice is given and ending at the end of the seventh working day after the day that the notice is given.

             (2)  The power under subsection (1) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (3)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (1), he or she is to cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that his or her actions are in the public interest.

             (4)  A statement under subsection (3) is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the non‑citizen; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (3) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (6)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (1) in respect of any non‑citizen, whether he or she is requested to do so by the non‑citizen or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

Subdivision AKNon‑citizens with access to protection from third countries

91M  Reason for this Subdivision

                   This Subdivision is enacted because the Parliament considers that a non‑citizen who can avail himself or herself of protection from a third country, because of nationality or some other right to re‑enter and reside in the third country, should seek protection from the third country instead of applying in Australia for a protection visa, or, in some cases, any other visa. Any such non‑citizen who is an unlawful non‑citizen will be subject to removal under Division 8.

Note:          For protection visas, see section 36.

91N  Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies

             (1)  This Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time if, at that time, the non‑citizen is a national of 2 or more countries.

             (2)  This Subdivision also applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time if, at that time:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has a right to re‑enter and reside in, whether temporarily or permanently and however that right arose or is expressed, any country (the available country) apart from:

                              (i)  Australia; or

                             (ii)  a country of which the non‑citizen is a national; or

                            (iii)  if the non‑citizen has no country of nationality—the country of which the non‑citizen is an habitual resident; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen has ever resided in the available country for a continuous period of at least 7 days or, if the regulations prescribe a longer continuous period, for at least that longer period; and

                     (c)  a declaration by the Minister is in effect under subsection (3) in relation to the available country.

             (3)  The Minister may, after considering any advice received from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees:

                     (a)  declare in writing that a specified country:

                              (i)  provides access, for persons seeking protection, to effective procedures for assessing their need for protection; and

                             (ii)  provides protection to persons to whom that country has protection obligations; and

                            (iii)  meets relevant human rights standards for persons to whom that country has protection obligations; or

                     (b)  in writing, revoke a declaration made under paragraph (a).

             (4)  A declaration made under paragraph (3)(a):

                     (a)  takes effect when it is made by the Minister; and

                     (b)  ceases to be in effect if and when it is revoked by the Minister under paragraph (3)(b).

             (5)  The Minister must cause a copy of a declaration, or of a revocation of a declaration, to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 2 sitting days of that House after the Minister makes the declaration or revokes the declaration.

Determining nationality

             (6)  For the purposes of this section, the question of whether a non‑citizen is a national of a particular country must be determined solely by reference to the law of that country.

             (7)  Subsection (6) does not, by implication, affect the interpretation of any other provision of this Act.

91P  Non‑citizens to whom this Subdivision applies are unable to make valid applications for certain visas

             (1)  Despite any other provision of this Act but subject to section 91Q, if:

                     (a)  this Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time; and

                     (b)  at that time, the non‑citizen applies, or purports to apply, for a visa; and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen is in the migration zone and has not been immigration cleared at that time;

neither that application, nor any other application the non‑citizen makes for a visa while he or she remains in the migration zone, is a valid application.

             (2)  Despite any other provision of this Act but subject to section 91Q, if:

                     (a)  this Subdivision applies to a non‑citizen at a particular time; and

                     (b)  at that time, the non‑citizen applies, or purports to apply, for a protection visa; and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen is in the migration zone and has been immigration cleared at that time;

neither that application, nor any other application made by the non‑citizen for a protection visa while he or she remains in the migration zone, is a valid application.

91Q  Minister may determine that section 91P does not apply to a non‑citizen

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, by written notice given to a particular non‑citizen, determine that section 91P does not apply to an application for a visa made by the non‑citizen in the period starting when the notice is given and ending at the end of the seventh working day after the day that the notice is given.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the matters that the Minister may consider include information that raises the possibility that, although the non‑citizen satisfies the description set out in subsection 91N(1) or (2), the non‑citizen might not be able to avail himself or herself of protection from the country, or any of the countries, by reference to which the non‑citizen satisfies that description.

             (3)  The power under subsection (1) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (4)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (1), he or she is to cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that his or her actions are in the public interest.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (4) is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the non‑citizen; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (6)  A statement under subsection (4) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (7)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (1) in respect of any non‑citizen, whether he or she is requested to do so by the non‑citizen or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

Subdivision ALOther provisions about protection visas

91R  Persecution

             (1)  For the purposes of the application of this Act and the regulations to a particular person, Article 1A(2) of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol does not apply in relation to persecution for one or more of the reasons mentioned in that Article unless:

                     (a)  that reason is the essential and significant reason, or those reasons are the essential and significant reasons, for the persecution; and

                     (b)  the persecution involves serious harm to the person; and

                     (c)  the persecution involves systematic and discriminatory conduct.

             (2)  Without limiting what is serious harm for the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), the following are instances of serious harm for the purposes of that paragraph:

                     (a)  a threat to the person’s life or liberty;

                     (b)  significant physical harassment of the person;

                     (c)  significant physical ill‑treatment of the person;

                     (d)  significant economic hardship that threatens the person’s capacity to subsist;

                     (e)  denial of access to basic services, where the denial threatens the person’s capacity to subsist;

                      (f)  denial of capacity to earn a livelihood of any kind, where the denial threatens the person’s capacity to subsist.

             (3)  For the purposes of the application of this Act and the regulations to a particular person:

                     (a)  in determining whether the person has a well‑founded fear of being persecuted for one or more of the reasons mentioned in Article 1A(2) of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol;

disregard any conduct engaged in by the person in Australia unless:

                     (b)  the person satisfies the Minister that the person engaged in the conduct otherwise than for the purpose of strengthening the person’s claim to be a refugee within the meaning of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol.

91S  Membership of a particular social group

                   For the purposes of the application of this Act and the regulations to a particular person (the first person), in determining whether the first person has a well‑founded fear of being persecuted for the reason of membership of a particular social group that consists of the first person’s family:

                     (a)  disregard any fear of persecution, or any persecution, that any other member or former member (whether alive or dead) of the family has ever experienced, where the reason for the fear or persecution is not a reason mentioned in Article 1A(2) of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; and

                     (b)  disregard any fear of persecution, or any persecution, that:

                              (i)  the first person has ever experienced; or

                             (ii)  any other member or former member (whether alive or dead) of the family has ever experienced;

                            where it is reasonable to conclude that the fear or persecution would not exist if it were assumed that the fear or persecution mentioned in paragraph (a) had never existed.

Note:          Section 5G may be relevant for determining family relationships for the purposes of this section.

91T  Non‑political crime

                   For the purposes of the application of this Act and the regulations to a particular person, Article 1F of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol has effect as if the reference in that Article to a non‑political crime were a reference to a non‑political crime within the meaning of this Act.

91U  Particularly serious crime

                   For the purposes of the application of this Act and the regulations to a particular person, Article 33(2) of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol has effect as if a reference in that Article to a particularly serious crime included a reference to a crime that consists of the commission of:

                     (a)  a serious Australian offence; or

                     (b)  a serious foreign offence.

91V  Verification of information

Applicant for protection visa

             (1)  If an applicant for a protection visa has given information to the Minister or an officer in, or in connection with, the application for the visa, the Minister or an officer may, either orally or in writing, request the applicant to make an oral statement, on oath or affirmation, to the effect that the information is true.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the applicant has been given a request under subsection (1); and

                     (b)  the applicant refuses or fails to comply with the request; and

                     (c)  when the request was made, the applicant was given a warning, either orally or in writing, that the Minister may draw an inference unfavourable to the applicant’s credibility in the event that the applicant refuses or fails to comply with the request;

then, in making a decision whether to grant the protection visa to the applicant, the Minister may draw any reasonable inference unfavourable to the applicant’s credibility.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  the applicant has been given a request under subsection (1); and

                     (b)  the applicant complies with the request; and

                     (c)  the Minister has reason to believe that, because of:

                              (i)  the manner in which the applicant complied with the request; or

                             (ii)  the applicant’s demeanour in relation to compliance with the request;

                            the applicant was not sincere;

then, in making a decision whether to grant the protection visa to the applicant, the Minister may draw any reasonable inference unfavourable to the applicant’s credibility.

Non‑citizen refused immigration clearance

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  either:

                              (i)  a non‑citizen gave information to an officer when the non‑citizen was in immigration clearance, and the non‑citizen is subsequently refused immigration clearance; or

                             (ii)  a non‑citizen was refused immigration clearance and subsequently gave information to an officer; and

                     (b)  the information is relevant to the administration or enforcement of this Act or the regulations;

an officer may, either orally or in writing, request the non‑citizen to make an oral statement, on oath or affirmation, to the effect that the information is true.

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has been given a request under subsection (4); and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen refuses or fails to comply with the request; and

                     (c)  when the request was made, the non‑citizen was given a warning, either orally or in writing, that the Minister may draw an inference unfavourable to the non‑citizen’s credibility in the event that the non‑citizen refuses or fails to comply with the request;

then, in making a decision about the non‑citizen under this Act or the regulations, the Minister may draw any reasonable inference unfavourable to the non‑citizen’s credibility.

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen has been given a request under subsection (4); and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen complies with the request; and

                     (c)  the Minister has reason to believe that, because of:

                              (i)  the manner in which the non‑citizen complied with the request; or

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen’s demeanour in relation to compliance with the request;

                            the non‑citizen was not sincere;

then, in making a decision about the non‑citizen under this Act or the regulations, the Minister may draw any reasonable inference unfavourable to the non‑citizen’s credibility.

Officer

             (7)  A reference in this section to an officer includes a reference to a person who is a clearance officer within the meaning of section 165.

Oaths or affirmations

             (8)  The Minister or an officer may administer an oath or affirmation for the purposes of this section.

91W  Documentary evidence of identity, nationality or citizenship

             (1)  The Minister or an officer may, either orally or in writing, request an applicant for a protection visa to produce, for inspection by the Minister or the officer, documentary evidence of the applicant’s identity, nationality or citizenship.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the applicant has been given a request under subsection (1); and

                     (b)  the applicant refuses or fails to comply with the request; and

                     (c)  the applicant does not have a reasonable explanation for refusing or failing to comply with the request; and

                     (d)  when the request was made, the applicant was given a warning, either orally or in writing, that the Minister may draw an inference unfavourable to the applicant’s identity, nationality or citizenship in the event that the applicant refuses or fails to comply with the request;

then, in making a decision whether to grant the protection visa to the applicant, the Minister may draw any reasonable inference unfavourable to the applicant’s identity, nationality or citizenship.

91X  Names of applicants for protection visas not to be published by the High Court, Federal Court or Federal Circuit Court

             (1)  This section applies to a proceeding before the High Court, the Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court if the proceeding relates to a person in the person’s capacity as:

                     (a)  a person who applied for a protection visa; or

                     (b)  a person who applied for a protection‑related bridging visa; or

                     (c)  a person whose protection visa has been cancelled; or

                     (d)  a person whose protection‑related bridging visa has been cancelled.

             (2)  The court must not publish (in electronic form or otherwise), in relation to the proceeding, the person’s name.

             (3)  In this section:

application for a protection‑related bridging visa means an application for a bridging visa, where the applicant for the bridging visa is, or has been, an applicant for a protection visa.

proceeding means a proceeding in a court, whether between parties or not, and includes an incidental proceeding in the course of, or in connection with, a proceeding, and also includes an appeal.

protection‑related bridging visa means a bridging visa granted as a result of an application for a protection‑related bridging visa.

91Y  Secretary’s obligation to report to Minister

Secretary must give periodic reports to Minister

             (1)  The Secretary must give a report under this section to the Minister within 45 days after the end of each of the following periods (each of which is a reporting period):

                     (a)  the period that started on 1 July 2005 and ends, or ended, on 31 October 2005; and

                     (b)  each subsequent period of 4 months.

Secretary must give additional reports to Minister as required

             (2)  The Minister may give to the Secretary a notice requiring the Secretary to give to the Minister a report under this section in addition to the reports required under subsection (1). The notice must specify the period to which the report is to relate (also a reporting period).

             (3)  The Secretary must give the report under subsection (2) to the Minister:

                     (a)  within 45 days after the day on which the reporting period ends; or

                     (b)  within 45 days after the day on which the Minister gives the notice to the Secretary;

whichever is later.

             (4)  A notice under subsection (2) is not a legislative instrument.

Information that must be included in report

             (5)  A report under this section relating to a reporting period must include information about each application for a protection visa:

                     (a)  that:

                              (i)  an applicant has validly made under section 46; or

                             (ii)  a court or tribunal has remitted to the Minister for reconsideration; and

                     (b)  for which:

                              (i)  the Minister has made a decision under section 65 during the reporting period, but has not made the decision within the decision period; or

                             (ii)  the Minister has not made a decision under section 65 before or during the reporting period, and the decision period has ended (whether before or during the reporting period).

             (6)  The report must also include:

                     (a)  the date on which each application was made that:

                              (i)  was validly made under section 46; and

                             (ii)  paragraph (5)(b) applies to; and

                     (b)  the reasons why decisions were not made within the decision period.

Note:          The reasons mentioned in paragraph (6)(b) may relate to aspects of processing applications that are beyond the Department’s control.

Information that must not be included in the report

             (7)  A report under this section must not include:

                     (a)  the name of any current or former applicant for a protection visa; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify such an applicant; or

                     (c)  the name of any other person connected in any way with any application for a protection visa made by the applicant mentioned in paragraph (a); or

                     (d)  any information that may identify that other person.

Information that may be included in the report

             (8)  The report may include any other information that the Secretary thinks appropriate.

Reports to be tabled in Parliament

             (9)  The Minister must cause a copy of a report under this section to be tabled in each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after the day on which the Minister receives the report from the Secretary.

Definition

           (10)  In this section:

decision period for an application for a protection visa means the period of 90 days starting on:

                     (a)  the day on which the application for the protection visa was made or remitted as mentioned in subsection (5); or

                     (b)  in the circumstances prescribed by the regulations—the day prescribed by the regulations.

Subdivision BThe “points” system

92  Operation of Subdivision

                   This Subdivision has effect where one of the prescribed criteria in relation to a visa of a particular class is the criterion that the applicant receives the qualifying score when assessed as provided by this Subdivision.

93  Determination of applicant’s score

             (1)  The Minister shall make an assessment by giving the applicant the prescribed number of points for each prescribed qualification that is satisfied in relation to the applicant.

             (2)  In this section:

prescribed means prescribed by regulations in force at the time the assessment is made.

94  Initial application of “points” system

             (1)  An applicant whose assessed score is more than or equal to the applicable pass mark at the time when the score is assessed is taken to have received the qualifying score.

             (2)  An applicant whose assessed score is less than the applicable pool mark at the time when the score is assessed is taken not to have received the qualifying score.

             (3)  If an applicant’s assessed score is more than or equal to the applicable pool mark, but less than the applicable pass mark, at the time when the score is assessed:

                     (a)  the Minister must, unless the application is withdrawn, put the application aside and deal with it in accordance with section 95; and

                     (b)  if the Minister puts the application aside—the Minister is taken to have put the application into a pool.

             (4)  Where, in accordance with this section, the Minister puts an application aside, he or she shall be taken for all purposes not to have failed to make a decision to grant or refuse to grant a visa.

95  Applications in pool

When section applies

             (1)  This section applies if the Minister puts an application into a pool.

How applications to be dealt with

             (2)  If, within 12 months after the assessment of the applicant’s assessed score, the Minister gives a notice under section 96 varying the applicable pass mark or the applicable pool mark:

                     (a)  the Minister must, without re‑assessing that score, compare that score with the applicable pass mark and the applicable pool mark; and

                     (b)  if that score is more than or equal to the applicable pass mark—the applicant is taken to have received the qualifying score; and

                     (c)  if that score is less than the applicable pool mark—the applicant is taken not to have received the qualifying score; and

                     (d)  if that score is more than or equal to the applicable pool mark but less than the applicable pass mark—the application remains in the pool until it is removed from the pool (see subsection (3)).

Removal of applications from pool

             (3)  An application in the pool is taken to have been removed from the pool at whichever is the earliest of the following times:

                     (a)  the end of 12 months after the assessment of the applicant’s assessed score;

                     (b)  the earliest time (if any) when the applicant is taken to have received the qualifying score as the result of the operation of subsection (2);

                     (c)  the earliest time (if any) when the applicant is taken not to have received the qualifying score as the result of the operation of subsection (2).

Removal from pool under paragraph (3)(a) treated as failure to receive qualifying score

             (4)  If an application is removed from the pool because of paragraph (3)(a), the applicant is taken not to have received the qualifying score.

Section to be subject to section 95A

             (5)  This section has effect subject to section 95A.

95A  Extension of period in pool

             (1)  This section applies to an application that:

                     (a)  is in the pool at the commencement of this section; or

                     (b)  is put in the pool after that commencement.

             (2)  Section 95 has effect in relation to the application as if references in subsections 95(2) and (3) to 12 months were references to 2 years.

96  Minister may set pool mark and pass mark

             (1)  The Minister may, from time to time, by notice in the Gazette, specify, in relation to a class of visas, the pool mark for the purposes of this Act and the regulations.

             (2)  The Minister may, from time to time, by notice in the Gazette, specify, in relation to applications for visas of a particular class, the pass mark for the purposes of this Act and the regulations.

             (3)  A notice under subsection (1) or (2) operates to revoke the previous notice under that subsection in relation to the same class of visas and also operates as a variation of the mark specified in the previous notice.

             (4)  The Minister shall cause copies of each notice under subsection (1) or (2) to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after the publication of the notice in the Gazette.

             (5)  This Act does not prevent a pool mark and a pass mark from being equal.

             (6)  This Act does not prevent a pool mark and a pass mark from being varied independently of each other.

Subdivision CVisas based on incorrect information may be cancelled

97  Interpretation

                   In this Subdivision:

application form, in relation to a non‑citizen, means a form on which a non‑citizen applies for a visa, being a form that regulations made for the purposes of section 46 allow to be used for making the application.

bogus document, in relation to a person, means a document that the Minister reasonably suspects is a document that:

                     (a)  purports to have been, but was not, issued in respect of the person; or

                     (b)  is counterfeit or has been altered by a person who does not have authority to do so; or

                     (c)  was obtained because of a false or misleading statement, whether or not made knowingly.

passenger card has the meaning given by subsection 506(2) and, for the purposes of section 115, includes any document provided for by regulations under paragraph 504(1)(c).

97A  Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule

             (1)  This Subdivision is taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters it deals with.

             (2)  Sections 494A to 494D, in so far as they relate to this Subdivision, are taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters they deal with.

98  Completion of visa application

                   A non‑citizen who does not fill in his or her application form or passenger card is taken to do so if he or she causes it to be filled in or if it is otherwise filled in on his or her behalf.

99  Information is answer

                   Any information that a non‑citizen gives or provides, causes to be given or provided, or that is given or provided on his or her behalf, to the Minister, an officer, an authorised system or a person or Tribunal reviewing a decision under this Act in relation to the non‑citizen’s application for a visa is taken for the purposes of section 100, paragraphs 101(b) and 102(b) and sections 104 and 105 to be an answer to a question in the non‑citizen’s application form, whether the information is given or provided orally or in writing and whether at an interview or otherwise.

100  Incorrect answers

                   For the purposes of this Subdivision, an answer to a question is incorrect even though the person who gave or provided the answer, or caused the answer to be given or provided, did not know that it was incorrect.

101  Visa applications to be correct

                   A non‑citizen must fill in or complete his or her application form in such a way that:

                     (a)  all questions on it are answered; and

                     (b)  no incorrect answers are given or provided.

102  Passenger cards to be correct

                   A non‑citizen must fill in his or her passenger card in such a way that:

                     (a)  all questions on it are answered; and

                     (b)  no incorrect answers are given.

103  Bogus documents not to be given etc.

                   A non‑citizen must not give, present or provide to an officer, an authorised system, the Minister, or a tribunal performing a function or purpose under this Act, a bogus document or cause such a document to be so given, presented or provided.

104  Changes in circumstances to be notified

             (1)  If circumstances change so that an answer to a question on a non‑citizen’s application form or an answer under this section is incorrect in the new circumstances, he or she must, as soon as practicable, inform an officer in writing of the new circumstances and of the correct answer in them.

             (2)  If the applicant is in Australia at the time the visa is granted, subsection (1) only applies to changes in circumstance before the visa is granted.

             (3)  If the applicant is outside Australia at the time the visa is granted, subsection (1) only applies to changes in circumstances after the application and before the applicant is immigration cleared.

             (4)  Subsection (1) applies despite the grant of any visa.

105  Particulars of incorrect answers to be given

             (1)  If a non‑citizen becomes aware that:

                     (a)  an answer given or provided in his or her application form; or

                     (b)  an answer given in his or her passenger card; or

                     (c)  information given by him or her under section 104 about the form or card; or

                     (d)  a response given by him or her under section 107;

was incorrect when it was given or provided, he or she must, as soon as practicable, notify an officer in writing of the incorrectness and of the correct answer.

             (2)  Subsection (1) applies despite the grant of any visa.

106  Obligations to give etc. information is not affected by other sources of information

                   The requirement for a non‑citizen to comply with sections 101, 102, 103, 104 and 105, is not removed or otherwise affected by the fact that the Minister or an officer had, or had access to:

                     (a)  any information given by the non‑citizen for purposes unrelated to the non‑citizen’s visa application; or

                     (b)  any other information.

107  Notice of incorrect applications

             (1)  If the Minister considers that the holder of a visa who has been immigration cleared (whether or not because of that visa) did not comply with section 101, 102, 103, 104 or 105 or with subsection (2) in a response to a notice under this section, the Minister may give the holder a notice:

                     (a)  giving particulars of the possible non‑compliance; and

                     (b)  stating that, within a period stated in the notice as mentioned in subsection (1A), the holder may give the Minister a written response to the notice that:

                              (i)  if the holder disputes that there was non‑compliance:

                                        (A)  shows that there was compliance; and

                                        (B)  in case the Minister decides under section 108 that, in spite of the statement under sub‑subparagraph (A), there was non‑compliance—shows cause why the visa should not be cancelled; or

                             (ii)  if the holder accepts that there was non‑compliance:

                                        (A)  give reasons for the non‑compliance; and

                                        (B)  shows cause why the visa should not be cancelled; and

                     (c)  stating that the Minister will consider cancelling the visa:

                              (i)  if the holder gives the Minister oral or written notice, within the period stated as mentioned in subsection (1A), that he or she will not give a written response—when that notice is given; or

                             (ii)  if the holder gives the Minister a written response within that period—when the response is given; or

                            (iii)  otherwise—at the end of that period; and

                     (d)  setting out the effect of sections 108, 109, 111 and 112; and

                     (e)  informing the holder that the holder’s obligations under section 104 or 105 are not affected by the notice under this section; and

                      (f)  requiring the holder:

                              (i)  to tell the Minister the address at which the holder is living; and

                             (ii)  if the holder changes that address before the Minister notifies the holder of the Minister’s decision on whether there was non‑compliance by the holder—to tell the Minister the changed address.

          (1A)  The period to be stated in the notice under subsection (1) must be:

                     (a)  in respect of the holder of a temporary visa—the period prescribed by the regulations or, if no period is prescribed, a reasonable period; or

                     (b)  otherwise—14 days.

          (1B)  Regulations prescribing a period for the purposes of paragraph (1A)(a) may prescribe different periods and state when a particular period is to apply, which, without limiting the generality of the power, may be to:

                     (a)  visas of a stated class; or

                     (b)  visa holders in stated circumstances; or

                     (c)  visa holders in a stated class of people (who may be visa holders in a particular place); or

                     (d)  visa holders in a stated class of people (who may be visa holders in a particular place) in stated circumstances.

             (2)  If the visa holder responds to the notice, he or she must do so without making any incorrect statement.

107A  Possible non‑compliances in connection with a previous visa may be grounds for cancellation of current visa

                   The possible non‑compliances that:

                     (a)  may be specified in a notice by the Minister under section 107 to a person who is the holder of a visa; and

                     (b)  if so specified, can constitute a ground for the cancellation of that visa under section 109;

include non‑compliances that occurred at any time, including non‑compliances in respect of any previous visa held by the person.

108  Decision about non‑compliance

                   The Minister is to:

                     (a)  consider any response given by a visa holder in the way required by paragraph 107(1)(b); and

                     (b)  decide whether there was non‑compliance by the visa holder in the way described in the notice.

109  Cancellation of visa if information incorrect

             (1)  The Minister, after:

                     (a)  deciding under section 108 that there was non‑compliance by the holder of a visa; and

                     (b)  considering any response to the notice about the non‑compliance given in a way required by paragraph 107(1)(b); and

                     (c)  having regard to any prescribed circumstances;

may cancel the visa.

             (2)  If the Minister may cancel a visa under subsection (1), the Minister must do so if there exist circumstances declared by the regulations to be circumstances in which a visa must be cancelled.

110  Cancellation provisions apply whatever source of knowledge of non‑compliance

                   To avoid doubt, sections 107, 108 and 109 apply whether or not the Minister became aware of the non‑compliance because of information given by the holder.

111  Cancellation provisions apply whether or not non‑compliance deliberate

                   To avoid doubt, sections 107, 108 and 109 apply whether the non‑compliance was deliberate or inadvertent.

112  Action because of one non‑compliance not prevent action because of other non‑compliance

             (1)  A notice under section 107 to a person because of an instance of possible non‑compliance does not prevent another notice under that section to that person because of another instance of possible non‑compliance.

             (2)  The non‑cancellation of a visa under section 109 despite an instance of non‑compliance does not prevent the cancellation, or steps for the cancellation, of the visa because of another instance of non‑compliance.

113  No cancellation if full disclosure

                   If the holder of a visa who has been immigration cleared complied with sections 101, 102, 103, 104 and 105 in relation to the visa, it cannot be cancelled under this Subdivision because of any matter that was fully disclosed in so complying.

114  Effect of setting aside decision to cancel visa

             (1)  If the Federal Court, the Federal Circuit Court, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal, the Migration Review Tribunal or the Refugee Review Tribunal sets aside a decision under section 109 to cancel a person’s visa, the visa is taken never to have been cancelled.

             (2)  In spite of subsection (1), any detention of the non‑citizen between the purported cancellation of the visa and the decision to set aside the decision to cancel is lawful and the non‑citizen is not entitled to make any claim against the Commonwealth or an officer because of the detention.

115  Application of Subdivision

             (1)  This Subdivision applies to:

                     (a)  applications for visas made; and

                     (b)  passenger cards filled in;

on or after 1 September 1994.

             (2)  This Subdivision, other than sections 101 and 102, applies to:

                     (a)  applications for visas, or entry permits, within the meaning of the Migration Act 1958 as in force before 1 September 1994, that under the regulations are taken to be applications for visas and that have not been finally determined before that date; and

                     (b)  passenger cards filled in before 1 September 1994.

             (3)  This Subdivision applies to a visa granted otherwise than because of an application on or after 1 September 1994 and does so as if:

                     (a)  this Subdivision had applied to:

                              (i)  the application for the visa; and

                             (ii)  passenger cards filled in before that date; and

                     (b)  the application for any other visa, or entry permit, (within the meaning of the Migration Act 1958 as in force immediately before that date) because of which the visa is held had been the application for the visa; and

                     (c)  for the purposes of sections 107 to 114, non‑compliance by the holder of the visa with the sections referred to in section 107 included any action or condition of the holder because of which section 20 of that Act as so in force applied to the holder.

Subdivision DVisas may be cancelled on certain grounds

116  Power to cancel

             (1)  Subject to subsections (2) and (3), the Minister may cancel a visa if he or she is satisfied that:

                     (a)  any circumstances which permitted the grant of the visa no longer exist; or

                     (b)  its holder has not complied with a condition of the visa; or

                     (c)  another person required to comply with a condition of the visa has not complied with that condition; or

                     (d)  if its holder has not entered Australia or has so entered but has not been immigration cleared—it would be liable to be cancelled under Subdivision C (incorrect information given by holder) if its holder had so entered and been immigration cleared; or

                     (e)  the presence of its holder in Australia is, or would be, a risk to the health, safety or good order of the Australian community; or

                      (f)  the visa should not have been granted because the application for it or its grant was in contravention of this Act or of another law of the Commonwealth; or

                    (fa)  in the case of a student visa:

                              (i)  its holder is not, or is likely not to be, a genuine student; or

                             (ii)  its holder has engaged, is engaging, or is likely to engage, while in Australia, in conduct (including omissions) not contemplated by the visa; or

                     (g)  a prescribed ground for cancelling a visa applies to the holder.

          (1A)  The regulations may prescribe matters to which the Minister may have regard in determining whether he or she is satisfied as mentioned in paragraph (1)(fa). Such regulations do not limit the matters to which the Minister may have regard for that purpose.

             (2)  The Minister is not to cancel a visa if there exist prescribed circumstances in which a visa is not to be cancelled.

             (3)  If the Minister may cancel a visa under subsection (1), the Minister must do so if there exist prescribed circumstances in which a visa must be cancelled.

117  When visa may be cancelled

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), a visa held by a non‑citizen may be cancelled under section 116:

                     (a)  before the non‑citizen enters Australia; or

                     (b)  when the non‑citizen is in immigration clearance (see section 172); or

                     (c)  when the non‑citizen leaves Australia; or

                     (d)  while the non‑citizen is in the migration zone.

             (2)  A permanent visa cannot be cancelled under section 116 if the holder of the visa:

                     (a)  is in the migration zone; and

                     (b)  was immigration cleared on last entering Australia.

118  Cancellation powers do not limit or affect each other

                   The powers to cancel a visa under:

                     (a)  section 109 (incorrect information); or

                     (b)  section 116 (general power to cancel); or

                     (c)  section 128 (when holder outside Australia); or

                     (d)  section 134 (cancellation of business visas); or

                   (da)  section 137Q (cancellation of regional sponsored employment visas); or

                     (e)  section 140 (consequential cancellation of other visas); or

                    (ea)  section 500A (refusal or cancellation of temporary safe haven visas); or

                      (f)  section 501, 501A or 501B (special power to refuse or cancel);

are not limited, or otherwise affected, by each other.

Subdivision EProcedure for cancelling visas under Subdivision D in or outside Australia

118A  Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule

             (1)  This Subdivision is taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters it deals with.

             (2)  Sections 494A to 494D, in so far as they relate to this Subdivision, are taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters they deal with.

119  Notice of proposed cancellation

             (1)  Subject to Subdivision F (non‑citizens outside Australia), if the Minister is considering cancelling a visa, whether its holder is in or outside Australia, under section 116, the Minister must notify the holder that there appear to be grounds for cancelling it and:

                     (a)  give particulars of those grounds and of the information (not being non‑disclosable information) because of which the grounds appear to exist; and

                     (b)  invite the holder to show within a specified time that:

                              (i)  those grounds do not exist; or

                             (ii)  there is a reason why it should not be cancelled.

             (2)  The holder is to be notified in the prescribed way or, if there is no prescribed way, a way that the Minister considers to be appropriate.

             (3)  The way of notifying the holder, whether prescribed or considered appropriate, may, without limiting the generality of subsection (2), be orally.

             (4)  The other provisions of this Subdivision do not apply to a cancellation:

                     (a)  under a provision other than section 116; or

                     (b)  to which Subdivision F applies.

120  Certain information must be given to visa holder

             (1)  In this section, relevant information means information (other than non‑disclosable information) that the Minister considers:

                     (a)  would be the reason, or a part of the reason, for cancelling a visa; and

                     (b)  is specifically about the holder or another person and is not just about a class of persons of which the holder or other person is a member; and

                     (c)  was not given by the holder; and

                     (d)  was not disclosed to the holder in the notification under section 119.

             (2)  The Minister must:

                     (a)  give particulars of the relevant information to the holder; and

                     (b)  ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that the holder understands why it is relevant to the cancellation; and

                     (c)  invite the holder to comment on it.

             (3)  The particulars and invitation are to be given in the way that the Minister considers appropriate in the circumstances.

121  Invitation to give comments etc.

             (1)  An invitation under paragraph 119(1)(b) or 120(2)(c) is to specify whether the response to the invitation may be given:

                     (a)  in writing; or

                     (b)  at an interview between the holder and an officer; or

                     (c)  by telephone.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (4), if the invitation is to respond otherwise than at an interview, the response is to be given within a period specified in the invitation, being a prescribed period or, if no period is prescribed, a reasonable period.

             (3)  Subject to subsection (5), if the invitation is to respond at an interview, the interview is to take place:

                     (a)  at a place specified in the invitation, being a prescribed place or, if no place is prescribed, a reasonable place; and

                     (b)  at a time specified in the invitation, being a time within a prescribed period or, if no period is prescribed, within a reasonable period.

             (4)  If a person is to respond to an invitation within a prescribed period, that period may be extended by the Minister for a prescribed further period, and then the response is to be given in the extended period.

             (5)  If a person is to respond to an invitation at an interview at a time within a prescribed period, that time may be changed by the Minister to:

                     (a)  a later time within that period; or

                     (b)  a time within that period as extended by the Minister for a prescribed further period;

and then the response is to be given at an interview at the new time.

             (6)  This section is subject to sections 125 and 126.

122  Prescribed periods

                   Regulations prescribing a period or other time limit relating to a step in considering the cancellation of a visa may prescribe different limits relating to that step and specify when a particular limit is to apply, which, without limiting the generality of the power, may be to:

                     (a)  visas of a specified class; or

                     (b)  visa holders in specified circumstances; or

                     (c)  visa holders in a specified class of persons (which may be visa holders in a specified place); or

                     (d)  visa holders in a specified class of persons (which may be visa holders in a specified place) in specified circumstances.

123  Failure to accept invitation not require action

                   If a visa holder does not respond to an invitation under paragraph 119(1)(b) or 120(2)(c) before the time for giving it has passed or tells the Minister that the visa holder does not wish to respond, the Minister may make the decision about cancellation without taking any further action about the information.

124  When decision about visa cancellation may be made

             (1)  Subject to section 120 (give information) and subsection (2), the Minister may cancel a visa at any time after notice about the cancellation has been given under section 119 and after whichever one of the following happens first:

                     (a)  the holder responds to the notice;

                     (b)  the holder tells the Minister that the holder does not wish to respond;

                     (c)  the time for responding to the notice passes.

             (2)  The Minister is not to cancel a visa after inviting the visa holder to comment on information and before whichever one of the following happens first:

                     (a)  the comments are given;

                     (b)  the holder tells the Minister that the holder does not wish to comment;

                     (c)  the time for commenting passes.

125  Application of Subdivision to non‑citizen in immigration clearance

                   If a non‑citizen in immigration clearance who is not taken into questioning detention is given an invitation under paragraph 119(1)(b) or 120(2)(c), the period within which he or she may respond to the invitation is to end when, or before, he or she ceases to be in immigration clearance.

126  Application of Subdivision to non‑citizen in questioning detention

             (1)  If a non‑citizen in questioning detention who is not released before the end of the 4 hours for which he or she may be detained is given an invitation under paragraph 119(1)(b) or 120(2)(c), the period within which he or she may respond to the invitation is to end when, or before, those 4 hours end.

             (2)  If a non‑citizen who has been given an invitation under paragraph 119(1)(b) or 120(2)(c) (whether in immigration clearance or otherwise) is taken into questioning detention and not released before the end of the 4 hours for which he or she may be detained, the period within which he or she is to respond to the invitation is to end when, or before, those 4 hours end.

127  Notification of decision

             (1)  When the Minister decides to cancel a visa, he or she is to notify the visa holder of the decision in the prescribed way.

             (2)  Notification of a decision to cancel a visa must:

                     (a)  specify the ground for the cancellation; and

                     (b)  state whether the decision is reviewable under Part 5 or 7; and

                     (c)  if the former visa holder has a right to have the decision reviewed under Part 5 or 7—state:

                              (i)  that the decision can be reviewed; and

                             (ii)  the time in which the application for review may be made; and

                            (iii)  who can apply for the review; and

                            (iv)  where the application for review can be made.

             (3)  Failure to give notification of a decision does not affect the validity of the decision.

Subdivision FOther procedure for cancelling visas under Subdivision D outside Australia

127A  Exhaustive statement of natural justice hearing rule

             (1)  This Subdivision is taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters it deals with.

             (2)  Sections 494A to 494D, in so far as they relate to this Subdivision, are taken to be an exhaustive statement of the requirements of the natural justice hearing rule in relation to the matters they deal with.

128  Cancellation of visas of people outside Australia

                   If:

                     (a)  the Minister is satisfied that:

                              (i)  there is a ground for cancelling a visa under section 116; and

                             (ii)  it is appropriate to cancel in accordance with this Subdivision; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen is outside Australia;

the Minister may, without notice to the holder of the visa, cancel the visa.

129  Notice of cancellation

             (1)  If the Minister cancels a visa under section 128, he or she must give the former holder of the visa a notice:

                     (a)  stating the ground on which it was cancelled; and

                     (b)  giving particulars of that ground and of the information (not being non‑disclosable information) because of which the ground was considered to exist; and

                     (c)  inviting the former holder to show, within a specified time, being a prescribed time, that:

                              (i)  that ground does not exist; or

                             (ii)  there is a reason why the visa should not have been cancelled; and

                     (d)  stating that, if the former holder shows, within the specified time, that the ground does not exist, the cancellation will be revoked; and

                     (e)  stating that, if the former holder shows that there is a reason why the visa should not have been cancelled, the cancellation might be revoked.

             (2)  The notice is to be given in the prescribed way.

             (3)  Failure to give notification of a decision does not affect the validity of the decision.

130  Prescribed periods

                   Regulations prescribing a period for the purpose of paragraph 129(1)(c) may prescribe different periods and specify when a particular period is to apply, which, without limiting the generality of the power, may be to:

                     (a)  visas of a specified class; or

                     (b)  former visa holders in specified circumstances; or

                     (c)  former visa holders in a specified class of persons (which may be former visa holders in a specified place); or

                     (d)  former visa holders in a specified class of persons (which may be former visa holders in a specified place) in specified circumstances.

131  Decision about revocation of cancellation

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), after considering any response to a notice under section 129 of the cancellation of a visa, the Minister:

                     (a)  if not satisfied that there was a ground for the cancellation; or

                     (b)  if satisfied that there is another reason why the cancellation should be revoked;

is to revoke the cancellation.

             (2)  The Minister is not to revoke the cancellation of a visa if there exist prescribed circumstances in which the visa must be cancelled.

132  Notification of decision about revocation of cancellation

                   When, under section 131, the Minister revokes or does not revoke the cancellation of a visa, he or she is to notify the visa holder or former visa holder of the decision in the prescribed way.

133  Effect of revocation of cancellation

             (1)  If the cancellation of a visa is revoked, then, without limiting its operation before cancellation, it has effect as if it were granted on the revocation.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (1), if the cancellation of a visa is revoked, the Minister may vary the time the visa is to be in effect or any period in which, or date until which, the visa permits its holder to travel to, enter and remain in Australia, or to remain in Australia.

Subdivision GCancellation of business visas

134  Cancellation of business visas

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2) and to section 135, the Minister may cancel a business visa (other than an established business in Australia visa, an investment‑linked visa or a family member’s visa), by written notice given to its holder, if the Minister is satisfied that its holder:

                     (a)  has not obtained a substantial ownership interest in an eligible business in Australia; or

                     (b)  is not utilising his or her skills in actively participating at a senior level in the day‑to‑day management of that business; or

                     (c)  does not intend to continue to:

                              (i)  hold a substantial ownership interest in; and

                             (ii)  utilise his or her skills in actively participating at a senior level in the day‑to‑day management of;

                            an eligible business in Australia.

             (2)  The Minister must not cancel a business visa under subsection (1) if the Minister is satisfied that its holder:

                     (a)  has made a genuine effort to obtain a substantial ownership interest in an eligible business in Australia; and

                     (b)  has made a genuine effort to utilise his or her skills in actively participating at a senior level in the day‑to‑day management of that business; and

                     (c)  intends to continue to make such genuine efforts.

             (3)  Without limiting the generality of matters that the Minister may take into account in determining whether a person has made the genuine effort referred to in subsection (2), the Minister may take into account any or all of the following matters:

                     (a)  business proposals that the person has developed;

                     (b)  the existence of partners or joint venturers for the business proposals;

                     (c)  research that the person has undertaken into the conduct of an eligible business in Australia;

                     (d)  the period or periods during which the person has been present in Australia;

                     (e)  the value of assets transferred to Australia by the person for use in obtaining an interest in an eligible business;

                      (f)  the value of ownership interest in eligible businesses in Australia that are, or have been, held by the person;

                     (g)  business activity that is, or has been, undertaken by the person;

                     (h)  whether the person has failed to comply with a notice under section 137;

                      (i)  if the person no longer holds a substantial ownership interest in a particular business or no longer utilises his or her skills in actively participating at a senior level of a day‑to‑day management of a business:

                              (i)  the length of time that the person held the ownership interest or participated in the management (as the case requires); and

                             (ii)  the reasons why the person no longer holds the interest or participates in the management (as the case requires).

          (3A)  Subject to section 135, the Minister may cancel an investment‑linked visa (other than a family member’s visa), by written notice to its holder, if the Minister is satisfied that the person, or any of the persons, who held the relevant designated investment when the visa was granted has or have ceased, for any reason, to hold that investment within 3 years of that investment being made.

             (4)  Subject to subsection (5) and to section 135, if:

                     (a)  the Minister cancels a person’s business visa under subsection (1) or (3A); and

                     (b)  a business visa is held by another person who is or was a member of the family unit of the holder of the cancelled visa; and

                     (c)  the other person would not have held that business visa if he or she had never been a member of the family unit of the holder of the cancelled visa;

the Minister must cancel the other person’s business permit or business visa by giving written notice to that person.

             (5)  The Minister must not cancel the other person’s business visa under subsection (4) if the cancellation of that visa would result in extreme hardship to the person.

             (6)  The Minister is taken not to have cancelled a person’s business visa under subsection (4) if the Administrative Appeals Tribunal has set aside the decision of the Minister to cancel the business visa of the relevant person to whom paragraph (4)(a) applied.

             (7)  If the Minister cancels a business visa under this section, the Minister must include in the notice given to its holder:

                     (a)  the Minister’s reason for the cancellation; and

                     (b)  a statement to the effect that the holder may, within 28 days after receiving the notice, apply to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal for review of the cancellation.

             (8)  A cancellation under this section has effect on and from:

                     (a)  if the person applies to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal for a review of the decision to cancel the visa—the 28th day after the day on which the Administrative Appeals Tribunal gives its decision on that review; or

                     (b)  if:

                              (i)  the person’s visa was cancelled under subsection (4); and

                             (ii)  the relevant person to whom paragraph (4)(a) applied has applied to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal for a review of the decision to cancel that person’s visa;

                            the 28th day after the day on which the Administrative Appeals Tribunal gives its decision on that review; or

                     (c)  the 28th day after the day on which the notice of cancellation is given to the holder of the cancelled visa;

whichever is the latest.

             (9)  The Minister must not cancel a business visa under subsection (1), (3A) or (4) unless a notice under section 135 was given to its holder within the period of 3 years commencing:

                     (a)  if its holder was in Australia when he or she was first granted a business visa—on the day on which that first visa was granted; or

                     (b)  if its holder was not in Australia when he or she was first granted a business visa—on the day on which its holder first entered Australia after that first visa was granted.

           (10)  In this section:

business visa means:

                     (a)  a visa included in a class of visas, being a class that:

                              (i)  has the words “Business Skills” in its title; and

                             (ii)  is prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                     (b)  a visa:

                              (i)  to which a prescribed provision of the Migration Reform (Transitional Provisions) Regulations applies; and

                             (ii)  that is of a kind prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph; or

                     (c)  a return visa that is granted to a person who is or was the holder of a business permit or business visa;

that is or was granted on or after 17 February 1992.

designated investment has the meaning given by the regulations.

eligible business means a business that the Minister reasonably believes is resulting or will result in one or more of the following:

                     (a)  the development of business links with the international market;

                     (b)  the creation or maintenance of employment in Australia;

                     (c)  the export of Australian goods or services;

                     (d)  the production of goods or the provision of services that would otherwise be imported into Australia;

                     (e)  the introduction of new or improved technology to Australia;

                      (f)  an increase in commercial activity and competitiveness within sectors of the Australian economy.

established business in Australia visa means a business visa a criterion for whose grant:

                     (a)  relates to the applicant having an established business in Australia; or

                     (b)  is that the applicant is a member of the family unit of the holder of a visa a criterion for whose grant is as mentioned in paragraph (a).

family member’s visa means a business visa held by a person:

                     (a)  who is or was a member of the family unit of another person who held a business visa; and

                     (b)  who would not have held the business visa if he or she had never been a member of the family unit of the other person.

investment‑linked visa means a business visa a criterion for whose grant:

                     (a)  relates to the holding of a designated investment; or

                     (b)  is that the applicant is a member of the family unit of the holder of a visa a criterion for whose grant is as mentioned in paragraph (a).

ownership interest, in relation to a business, means an interest in the business as:

                     (a)  a shareholder in a company that carries on the business; or

                     (b)  a partner in a partnership that carries on the business; or

                     (c)  the sole proprietor of the business;

including such an interest held indirectly through one or more interposed companies, partnerships or trusts.

relevant designated investment, in relation to an investment‑linked visa (other than a family member’s visa), means the designated investment that was, in deciding to grant the visa, regarded as satisfying the criterion referred to in paragraph (a) of the definition of investment‑linked visa.

return visa has the same meaning as in the regulations.

135  Representations concerning cancellation of business visa

             (1)  Before cancelling a visa under subsection 134(1), (3A) or (4), the Minister must give its holder a written notice:

                     (a)  stating that the Minister proposes to cancel the visa; and

                     (b)  inviting its holder to make representations to the Minister concerning the proposed cancellation within:

                              (i)  if the notice is given in Australia—28 days after the notice is given; or

                             (ii)  if the notice is given outside Australia—70 days after the notice is given.

             (2)  The holder may make such representations to the Minister within the time specified in the notice.

             (3)  The Minister must give due consideration to any representations.

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  the time specified in the notice ends after the end of the period referred to in subsection 134(9); and

                     (b)  at the end of the period of 90 days commencing at the time specified in the notice, the Minister has not made a decision on whether to proceed with the cancellation;

the Minister is not to proceed with the cancellation.

             (5)  If the Minister decides not to proceed with the cancellation, the Minister must give its holder written notice to that effect.

136  Review of decisions

                   Application may be made to the Administrative Appeals Tribunal for review of a decision of the Minister under subsection 134(1), (3A) or (4).

137  Provision of information—holders of business visas

             (1)  The Secretary may by written notice require the holder of a business visa to give the Secretary such information as is specified in the notice.

             (2)  The Secretary may not require information under subsection (1) unless the information is to be used by the Secretary or the Minister for the purpose of the administration of this Act or of regulations made under this Act.

             (3)  A notice under subsection (1) is only valid in the period of 3 years commencing:

                     (a)  if the holder was in Australia when he or she was first granted a business visa—on the day on which that first visa was granted; or

                     (b)  if the holder was not in Australia when he or she was first granted a business visa—on the day on which the holder first entered Australia after that first visa was granted.

             (4)  Without limiting the generality of the information that may be required under subsection (1), the Secretary may require the holder to advise the Secretary in writing of any change in the address of the holder during a period specified in the notice.

             (5)  A notice under subsection (1) must state that the information must be provided within a period of 28 days commencing on a day specified in the notice.

             (6)  The day specified in the notice may be:

                     (a)  the day on which the notice is issued; or

                     (b)  a later particular day; or

                     (c)  the day on which an event specified in the notice occurs.

             (7)  A person who fails to comply with a notice under subsection (1) commits an offence at the end of every successive 28 day period that is contained in the period commencing on the day specified in the notice and ending when the person complies with the notice.

          (7A)  Subsection (7) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (7A) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

          (7B)  An offence against subsection (7) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

             (8)  Subsection 4K(2) of the Crimes Act 1914 does not apply to an offence under subsection (7).

           (10)  In this section:

business visa has the same meaning as in section 134.

Penalty:  $5,000.

Subdivision GBAutomatic cancellation of student visas

137J  Non‑complying students may have their visas automatically cancelled

             (1)  This section applies if a notice is sent to a non‑citizen under section 20 of the Education Services for Overseas Students Act 2000 in relation to a visa held by the non‑citizen (even if the non‑citizen never receives the notice).

Note 1:       Under that section, a registered education provider must send a notice to a non‑citizen who breaches a condition of the non‑citizen’s visa that is prescribed by regulations made for the purposes of that Act. The notice must give particulars of the breach and must require the non‑citizen to attend before an officer for the purpose of making any submissions about the breach and the circumstances that led to the breach.

Note 2:       Under subsection 20(4A) of that Act, a registered provider must not send a notice on or after the day that subsection commences.

             (2)  The non‑citizen’s visa is cancelled by force of this section at the end of the 28th day after the day that the notice specifies as the date of the notice unless, before the end of that 28th day:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen complies with the notice; or

                     (b)  the non‑citizen, while attending in person at an office of Immigration (within the meaning of the regulations) that is either:

                              (i)  in Australia; or

                             (ii)  approved for the purposes of this paragraph by the Minister by notice in the Gazette;

                            makes himself or herself available to an officer for the stated purpose of making any submissions about the breach and the circumstances that led to the breach.

137K  Applying for revocation of cancellation

             (1)  A non‑citizen whose visa has been cancelled under section 137J may apply in writing to the Minister for revocation of the cancellation.

             (2)  A non‑citizen who is in the migration zone cannot apply for revocation at a time when, because of section 82, the visa would no longer have been in effect anyway had the visa not been cancelled under section 137J.

             (3)  In addition to the restriction in subsection (2), a non‑citizen who is in the migration zone and who has been detained under section 189 cannot apply for revocation later than:

                     (a)  2 working days after the day on which section 194 was complied with in relation to his or her detention; or

                     (b)  if he or she informs an officer in writing within those 2 days of his or her intention to so apply—within the next 5 working days after those 2 working days.

             (4)  A non‑citizen who is outside the migration zone cannot apply for revocation later than 28 days after the day of the cancellation.

             (5)  In any case, a non‑citizen cannot apply for revocation if he or she has previously made such an application in respect of the same cancellation.

137L  Dealing with the application

             (1)  On an application under section 137K, the Minister may revoke the cancellation if, and only if, the applicant satisfies the Minister:

                     (a)  that the non‑citizen did not in fact breach the relevant visa condition or conditions; or

                     (b)  that the breach was due to exceptional circumstances beyond the non‑citizen’s control; or

                     (c)  of any other matter prescribed in the regulations.

             (2)  However, the Minister must not revoke the cancellation on the ground that the non‑citizen was unaware of the notice or of the effect of section 137J.

             (3)  A cancellation is revoked under this section by the Minister causing a record of the revocation to be made.

137M  Notification of decision

             (1)  When the Minister decides whether to revoke a cancellation under section 137L, he or she must give the non‑citizen written notice of the decision.

             (2)  Notice of a decision not to revoke a cancellation must:

                     (a)  specify the grounds for the decision; and

                     (b)  state:

                              (i)  that if the non‑citizen was in the migration zone when the decision was made, the decision is reviewable under Part 5; and

                             (ii)  the time in which the application for review may be made; and

                            (iii)  who may apply for the review; and

                            (iv)  where the application for review may be made.

             (3)  Failure to notify of a decision whether to revoke a cancellation does not affect the validity of the decision.

137N  Minister may revoke cancellation on his or her own initiative

             (1)  The Minister may, on his or her own initiative, revoke the cancellation under section 137J of a particular non‑citizen’s visa, if the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so.

             (2)  The Minister must give the relevant non‑citizen written notice of a decision under subsection (1) to revoke a cancellation.

             (3)  The power in subsection (1) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (4)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power in subsection (1), whether or not the non‑citizen or anyone else requests him or her to do so, or in any other circumstances.

             (5)  A cancellation is revoked under this section by the Minister causing a record of the revocation to be made.

137P  Effect of revocation

             (1)  If the cancellation of a visa is revoked under section 137L or 137N, the visa is taken never to have been cancelled under section 137J.

             (2)  If the revocation is under section 137L and the decision is made wholly or partly on the ground that paragraph 137L(1)(a) or (b) applies to the breach that was alleged in the notice mentioned in section 137J, then that breach cannot be a ground for cancelling the visa under section 116.

             (3)  However, a revocation under section 137L or 137N does not otherwise limit or affect any other power to cancel the visa under this Act.

             (4)  In particular, a different or later breach of a condition of the visa can be a ground for cancelling the visa under section 116.

             (5)  Despite subsection (1), any detention of the non‑citizen that occurred during any part of the period:

                     (a)  beginning when the visa was cancelled under section 137J; and

                     (b)  ending at the time of the revocation of the cancellation;

is lawful and the non‑citizen is not entitled to make any claim against the Commonwealth, an officer or any other person because of the detention.

Subdivision GCCancellation of regional sponsored employment visas

137Q  Cancellation of regional sponsored employment visas

Employment does not commence

             (1)  The Minister may cancel a regional sponsored employment visa held by a person if:

                     (a)  the Minister is satisfied that the person has not commenced the employment referred to in the relevant employer nomination within the period prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (b)  the person does not satisfy the Minister that he or she has made a genuine effort to commence that employment within that period.

Employment terminates within 2 years

             (2)  The Minister may cancel a regional sponsored employment visa held by a person if:

                     (a)  the Minister is satisfied that:

                              (i)  the person commenced the employment referred to in the relevant employer nomination (whether or not within the period prescribed by the regulations); and

                             (ii)  the employment terminated within the period (the required employment period) of 2 years starting on the day the person commenced that employment; and

                     (b)  the person does not satisfy the Minister that he or she has made a genuine effort to be engaged in that employment for the required employment period.

Regional sponsored employment visa

             (3)  In this section:

regional sponsored employment visa means a visa of a kind that:

                     (a)  is included in a class of visas that has the words “Employer Nomination” in its title; and

                     (b)  is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

137R  Representations concerning cancellation etc.

             (1)  Before cancelling a person’s visa under section 137Q, the Minister must give the person a written notice:

                     (a)  stating that the Minister proposes to cancel the visa; and

                     (b)  inviting the person to make representations to the Minister concerning the proposed cancellation within:

                              (i)  if the notice is given in Australia—28 days after the notice is given; or

                             (ii)  if the notice is given outside Australia—70 days after the notice is given.

             (2)  The Minister must consider any representations received within that period.

             (3)  If the Minister decides not to proceed with the cancellation, the Minister must give the person written notice of the decision.

137S  Notice of cancellation

             (1)  If the Minister decides to cancel a person’s visa under section 137Q, he or she must give the person written notice of the decision. The notice must:

                     (a)  specify the reasons for the cancellation; and

                     (b)  state whether or not the decision to cancel the visa is reviewable under Part 5; and

                     (c)  if the decision to cancel the visa is reviewable under Part 5—state the period within which an application for review can be made, who can apply for the review and where the application for review can be made.

             (2)  Failure to give notice of the decision does not affect the validity of the decision.

137T  Cancellation of other visas

             (1)  If a person’s visa is cancelled under section 137Q, a visa held by another person because of being a member of the family unit of the person is also cancelled.

             (2)  The cancellation under subsection (1) of this section is set aside if the cancellation of the person’s visa under section 137Q is set aside under Part 5.

Subdivision HGeneral provisions on cancellation

138  Way visa cancelled or cancellation revoked

             (1)  A visa is cancelled by the Minister causing a record of it to be made.

          (1A)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a cancellation under section 137J.

             (2)  The cancellation of a visa is revoked under section 131 by the Minister causing a record of the revocation to be made.

139  Visas held by 2 or more

                   If a visa is held by 2 or more non‑citizens:

                     (a)  Subdivisions C, D, E and F and this Subdivision apply as if each of them were the holder of the visa; and

                     (b)  to avoid doubt, if the visa is cancelled because of one non‑citizen being its holder, it is cancelled so that all those non‑citizens cease to hold the visa.

140  Cancellation of visa results in other cancellation

             (1)  If a person’s visa is cancelled under section 109 (incorrect information), 116 or 128 or 137J (student visas), a visa held by another person because of being a member of the family unit of the person is also cancelled.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a person’s visa is cancelled under section 109 (incorrect information), 116 or 128 or 137J (student visas); and

                     (b)  another person to whom subsection (1) does not apply holds a visa only because the person whose visa is cancelled held a visa;

the Minister may, without notice to the other person, cancel the other person’s visa.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  a person’s visa (the cancelled visa) is cancelled under any provision of this Act; and

                     (b)  the person is a parent of another person; and

                     (c)  the other person holds a particular visa (the other visa), that was granted under section 78 (child born in Australia) because the parent held the cancelled visa;

the other visa is also cancelled.

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  a visa is cancelled under subsection (1), (2) or (3) because another visa is cancelled; and

                     (b)  the cancellation of the other visa is revoked under section 131, 137L or 137N;

the cancellation under subsection (1), (2) or (3) is revoked.

Division 3ASponsorship

Subdivision APreliminary

140A  Division applies to prescribed kinds of visa

                   This Division applies to visas of a prescribed kind (however described).

140AA  Division 3A—purposes

                   The purposes of this Division are as follows:

                     (a)  to provide a framework for a temporary sponsored work visa program in order to address genuine skills shortages;

                     (b)  to address genuine skills shortages in the Australian labour market:

                              (i)  without displacing employment and training opportunities for Australian citizens and Australian permanent residents (within the meaning of the regulations); and

                             (ii)  without the temporary sponsored work visa program serving as a mainstay of the skilled migration program;

                     (c)  to balance the objective of ensuring employment and training opportunities for Australian citizens and Australian permanent residents with that of upholding the rights of non‑citizens sponsored to work in Australia under the program;

                     (d)  to impose obligations on sponsors to ensure that:

                              (i)  non‑citizens sponsored to work in Australia under the program are protected; and

                             (ii)  the program is not used inappropriately;

                     (e)  to enable monitoring, detection, deterrence and enforcement in relation to any inappropriate use of the program;

                      (f)  to give Fair Work Inspectors (including the Fair Work Ombudsman) and inspectors appointed under this Division the necessary powers and functions to investigate compliance with the program.

140AB  Ministerial Advisory Council on Skilled Migration

             (1)  The Minister must take all reasonable steps to ensure that, at all times, there is in existence a council that:

                     (a)  is known as the Ministerial Advisory Council on Skilled Migration; and

                     (b)  is established under the executive power of the Commonwealth; and

                     (c)  includes representatives of unions, industry and State and Territory governments and other members (if any) nominated by the Minister; and

                     (d)  meets at least quarterly.

             (2)  Without limiting its functions apart from this section, the Ministerial Advisory Council on Skilled Migration is to provide advice to the Minister in relation to the temporary sponsored work visa program.

Subdivision BApproving sponsors and nominations

140E  Minister to approve sponsor

             (1)  The Minister must approve a person as a sponsor in relation to one or more classes prescribed for the purpose of subsection (2) if prescribed criteria are satisfied.

Note:          A person (other than a Minister) who is a party to a work agreement is an approved sponsor and does not need to be approved as a sponsor under this section: see paragraph (b) of the definition of approved sponsor.

             (2)  The regulations must prescribe classes in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor.

             (3)  Different criteria may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor; and

                     (c)  different classes of person within a class in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor.

140F  Process for approving sponsors

             (1)  The regulations may establish a process for the Minister to approve a person as a sponsor.

             (2)  Different processes may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor.

140G  Terms of approval as a sponsor

             (1)  An approval as a sponsor may be on terms specified in the approval.

             (2)  The terms must be of a kind prescribed by the regulations.

Note:          The following are examples of the kinds of terms that might be set out in the regulations:

(a)    the number of people whom the approved sponsor may sponsor under the approval;

(b)    the duration of the approval.

             (3)  An actual term may be prescribed by the regulations.

             (4)  Different kinds of terms may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor.

140GA  Variation of terms of approval as a sponsor

             (1)  The regulations may establish a process for the Minister to vary a term of a person’s approval as a sponsor.

             (2)  The Minister must vary a term specified in an approval if:

                     (a)  the term is of a kind prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph; and

                     (b)  prescribed criteria are satisfied.

             (3)  Different processes and different criteria may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different kinds of terms; and

                     (c)  different classes in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor.

140GB  Minister to approve nominations

             (1)  An approved sponsor may nominate:

                     (a)  an applicant, or proposed applicant, for a visa of a prescribed kind (however described), in relation to:

                              (i)  the applicant or proposed applicant’s proposed occupation; or

                             (ii)  the program to be undertaken by the applicant or proposed applicant; or

                            (iii)  the activity to be carried out by the applicant or proposed applicant; or

                     (b)  a proposed occupation, program or activity.

             (2)  The Minister must approve an approved sponsor’s nomination if prescribed criteria are satisfied.

             (3)  The regulations may establish a process for the Minister to approve an approved sponsor’s nomination.

             (4)  Different criteria and different processes may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be approved as a sponsor.

140GC  Work agreements

                   For the purposes of the definition of work agreement, the regulations may prescribe requirements that an agreement must satisfy.

Note:          A person (other than a Minister) who is a party to a work agreement is an approved sponsor and must satisfy sponsorship obligations.

Subdivision CSponsorship obligations

140H  Sponsorship obligations—general

Requirement to satisfy sponsorship obligations

             (1)  A person who is or was an approved sponsor must satisfy the sponsorship obligations prescribed by the regulations.

Work agreements and sponsorship obligations

             (2)  However, if:

                     (a)  a person (other than a Minister) is or was a party to a work agreement; and

                     (b)  a sponsorship obligation, that would otherwise be imposed on the person by the regulations, is varied by a term of the agreement;

then, the person must satisfy the sponsorship obligation as so varied.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  a person (other than a Minister) is or was a party to a work agreement; and

                     (b)  an obligation, identified in the agreement as a sponsorship obligation, is imposed on the person by a term of the agreement;

then, the person must also satisfy the sponsorship obligation imposed by the term of the agreement.

Sponsorship obligation regulations

             (4)  The regulations may require a person to satisfy sponsorship obligations in respect of each visa holder sponsored by the person or generally.

             (5)  Sponsorship obligations must be satisfied in the manner (if any) and within the period (if any) prescribed by the regulations.

             (6)  Different kinds of sponsorship obligations may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be, or may have been, approved as a sponsor.

             (7)  The regulations cannot prescribe, as a sponsorship obligation, an obligation to pay the Commonwealth an amount relating to the cost of a person’s immigration detention.

140HA  Sponsorship obligations—Minister’s responsibility

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), the Minister must take all reasonable steps to ensure that regulations made under section 504 for the purposes of subsection 140H(1) include obligations in relation to the following matters:

                     (a)  paying a market salary rate (however described) to a visa holder;

                     (b)  paying prescribed costs to the Commonwealth in relation to locating a former visa holder, and removing a former visa holder from Australia;

                     (c)  paying prescribed costs of the departure of a visa holder (or a former visa holder) from Australia;

                     (d)  complying with prescribed requirements to keep information, and provide information to the Minister;

                     (e)  notifying the Department of prescribed changes in the circumstances of an approved sponsor, a former approved sponsor, a visa holder or a former visa holder;

                      (f)  cooperating with the exercise of powers under or for the purposes of Subdivision F (which deals with inspector powers);

                     (g)  ensuring that a visa holder participates in an occupation, program or activity nominated by an approved sponsor (including by preventing the on‑hire of a visa holder);

                     (h)  requiring an approved sponsor or former approved sponsor not to transfer, charge or recover prescribed costs;

                      (i)  requiring an approved sponsor or former approved sponsor to meet prescribed training requirements.

             (2)  For any particular matter mentioned in subsection (1), the Minister must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the obligations in the relevant regulations apply in relation to:

                     (a)  all approved sponsors or former approved sponsors; or

                     (b)  a specified class (or classes) of approved sponsors or former approved sponsors, and not to all approved sponsors or former approved sponsors.

             (3)  Subsection (1) does not limit the sponsorship obligations that may be prescribed for the purposes of subsection 140H(1).

140J  Amounts payable in relation to sponsorship obligations

             (1)  If an amount is payable under the regulations by a person who is or was an approved sponsor in relation to a sponsorship obligation, the person is not liable to pay to the Commonwealth more than the lesser of:

                     (a)  if a limit is prescribed by the regulations—that limit; and

                     (b)  the actual costs incurred by the Commonwealth.

Example:    If the Commonwealth incurs costs in locating a person, the person who is or was an approved sponsor is not liable to pay to the Commonwealth more than the total amount of those costs or a lesser amount (if a limit is prescribed in the regulations and that limit is less than the actual costs incurred by the Commonwealth).

             (2)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, specify one or more methods for working out the actual costs incurred by the Commonwealth in relation to a sponsorship obligation.

             (3)  If an amount is payable under the regulations by a person who is or was an approved sponsor in relation to a sponsorship obligation, the person (the sponsor) is taken not to have satisfied the sponsorship obligation if a visa holder or former visa holder, or a person on behalf of a visa holder or former visa holder, reimburses the sponsor or another person for all or part of the amount.

Subdivision DEnforcement

140K  Sanctions for failing to satisfy sponsorship obligations

Actions that may be taken in relation to approved sponsors

             (1)  If a person is an approved sponsor and fails to satisfy an applicable sponsorship obligation, one or more of the following actions may be taken:

                     (a)  the Minister may do one or more of the following:

                              (i)  if regulations are prescribed under section 140L, bar the sponsor under subsection 140M(1) from doing certain things;

                             (ii)  if regulations are prescribed under section 140L, cancel the person’s approval as a sponsor under subsection 140M(1);

                            (iii)  apply for a civil penalty order;

                            (iv)  accept an undertaking under section 140RA from the person;

                             (v)  if the Minister considers that the person has breached such an undertaking—apply for an order under section 140RB;

                     (b)  the person may be issued with an infringement notice under regulations made for the purposes of section 506A as an alternative to proceedings for a civil penalty order;

                     (c)  an authorized officer may require and take a security under section 269 or enforce a security already taken under that section.

Actions that may be taken in relation to former approved sponsors

             (2)  If a person was an approved sponsor and fails to satisfy an applicable sponsorship obligation, one or more of the following actions may be taken:

                     (a)  the Minister may do one or more of the following:

                              (i)  if regulations are prescribed under section 140L, bar the person under subsection 140M(2) from making future applications for approval;

                             (ii)  apply for a civil penalty order;

                            (iii)  accept an undertaking under section 140RA from the person;

                            (iv)  if the Minister considers that the person has breached such an undertaking—apply for an order under section 140RB;

                     (b)  the person may be issued with an infringement notice under regulations made for the purposes of section 506A as an alternative to proceedings for a civil penalty order;

                     (c)  an authorized officer may require and take a security under section 269 or enforce a security already taken under that section.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, subsections (1) and (2) do not limit the circumstances in which:

                     (a)  the Minister may:

                              (i)  bar a sponsor under section 140M from doing certain things; or

                             (ii)  cancel a person’s approval as a sponsor under section 140M; or

                     (b)  an authorized officer may require and take a security under section 269 or enforce a security already taken under that section.

140L  Regulations may prescribe circumstances in which sponsor may be barred or sponsor’s approval cancelled

Circumstances in which the Minister may take action

             (1)  The regulations may prescribe:

                     (a)  either or both of the following:

                              (i)  circumstances in which the Minister may take one or more of the actions mentioned in section 140M in relation to a person who is or was an approved sponsor if the Minister is reasonably satisfied that the person has failed to satisfy a sponsorship obligation in the manner (if any) or within the period (if any) prescribed by the regulations;

                             (ii)  other circumstances in which the Minister may take one or more of the actions mentioned in section 140M; and

                     (b)  the criteria to be taken into account by the Minister in determining what action to take under section 140M.

Circumstances in which the Minister must take action

             (2)  The regulations may prescribe either or both of the following:

                     (a)  circumstances in which the Minister must take one or more of the actions mentioned in section 140M in relation to a person who is or was an approved sponsor if the Minister is reasonably satisfied that the person has failed to satisfy a sponsorship obligation in the manner (if any) or within the period (if any) prescribed by the regulations;

                     (b)  other circumstances in which the Minister must take one or more of the actions mentioned in section 140M.

             (3)  Different circumstances and different criteria may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be, or may have been, approved as a sponsor.

140M  Cancelling approval as a sponsor or barring a sponsor

Actions that may be taken in relation to approved sponsors

             (1)  If regulations are prescribed under section 140L, the Minister may (or must) take one or more of the following actions in relation to an approved sponsor:

                     (a)  cancelling the approval of a person as a sponsor in relation to a class to which the sponsor belongs;

                     (b)  cancelling the approval of a person as a sponsor for all classes to which the sponsor belongs;

                     (c)  barring the sponsor, for a specified period, from sponsoring more people under the terms of one or more existing specified approvals for different kinds of visa (however described);

                     (d)  barring the sponsor, for a specified period, from making future applications for approval as a sponsor in relation to one or more classes prescribed by the regulations for the purpose of subsection 140E(2).

Action that may be taken in relation to former approved sponsors

             (2)  If regulations are prescribed under section 140L and a person was an approved sponsor, the Minister may (or must) bar the person, for a specified period, from making future applications for approval as a sponsor in relation to one or more classes prescribed by the regulations for the purpose of subsection 140E(2).

140N  Process for cancelling or barring approval as a sponsor

             (1)  The regulations may establish a process for the Minister to cancel the approval of a person as a sponsor under section 140M.

             (2)  The regulations may establish a process for the Minister to place a bar on a person under section 140M.

             (3)  Different processes may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be, or may have been, approved as a sponsor.

140O  Waiving a bar

             (2)  The Minister may, in prescribed circumstances, waive a bar placed on a person under section 140M.

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe the criteria to be taken into account by the Minister in determining whether to waive the bar.

             (4)  Different circumstances and different criteria may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be, or may have been, approved as a sponsor.

140P  Process for waiving a bar

             (1)  The regulations may establish a process for the Minister to waive a bar placed on a person under section 140M.

             (2)  Different processes may be prescribed for:

                     (a)  different kinds of visa (however described); and

                     (b)  different classes in relation to which a person may be, or may have been, approved as a sponsor.

140Q  Civil penalty—failing to satisfy sponsorship obligations

             (1)  A person contravenes this subsection if:

                     (a)  the regulations impose a sponsorship obligation on the person; and

                     (b)  the person fails to satisfy the sponsorship obligation in the manner (if any) or within the period (if any) prescribed by the regulations.

Civil penalty:          60 penalty units.

             (2)  A person contravenes this subsection if:

                     (a)  the person (other than a Minister) is a party to a work agreement; and

                     (b)  the terms of the work agreement:

                              (i)  vary a sponsorship obligation that would otherwise be imposed on the person by the regulations; or

                             (ii)  impose an obligation, identified in the agreement as a sponsorship obligation, on the person; and

                     (c)  the person fails to satisfy the sponsorship obligation in the manner (if any) or within the period (if any) specified in the work agreement.

Civil penalty:          60 penalty units.

140RA  Accepting undertakings

             (1)  The Minister may accept any of the following undertakings:

                     (a)  a written undertaking given by a person that the person will, in order to comply with section 140H in relation to a sponsorship obligation, take specified action;

                     (b)  a written undertaking given by a person that the person will, in order to comply with section 140H in relation to a sponsorship obligation, refrain from taking specified action;

                     (c)  a written undertaking given by a person that the person will take specified action directed towards ensuring that the person does not contravene section 140H in relation to a sponsorship obligation, or is unlikely to contravene that section in relation to such an obligation, in the future.

             (2)  The undertaking must be expressed to be an undertaking under this section.

             (3)  The person may withdraw or vary the undertaking at any time, but only with the written consent of the Minister.

             (4)  The Minister may, by written notice given to the person, cancel the undertaking.

             (5)  A consent or notice under this section is not a legislative instrument.

             (6)  The Minister may publish an undertaking on the Department’s website.

140RB  Enforcing undertakings

             (1)  The Minister may apply to an eligible court for an order under subsection (2) if:

                     (a)  a person has given an undertaking under section 140RA; and

                     (b)  the undertaking has not been withdrawn or cancelled; and

                     (c)  the Minister considers that the person has breached the undertaking.

             (2)  If the court is satisfied that the person has breached the undertaking, the court may make any or all of the following orders:

                     (a)  an order directing the person to comply with the undertaking;

                     (b)  an order directing the person to pay to the Commonwealth an amount up to the amount of any financial benefit that the person has obtained directly or indirectly and that is reasonably attributable to the breach;

                     (c)  any order that the court considers appropriate directing the person to compensate any other person who has suffered loss or damage as a result of the breach;

                     (d)  any other order that the court considers appropriate.

Subdivision ELiability and recovery of amounts

140S  Liability to pay amounts

             (1)  This section applies if a person who is or was an approved sponsor is required to pay an amount of a kind prescribed in the regulations to the Commonwealth, a State or Territory or another person (the payee) in relation to a sponsorship obligation.

             (2)  The payee may recover the amount as a debt due to the payee in an eligible court.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, an amount may be recovered under this section if proceedings for a civil penalty order are brought under Part 8D and discontinued or completed without the court making an order of a kind referred to in subsection 486S(4) in relation to the amount.

             (4)  For the purpose of paragraph (e) of the definition of eligible court, the regulations may prescribe a court of a State or Territory in which an amount may be recovered under this section.

140SA  Interest up to judgment

             (1)  A party to proceedings under section 140S may apply to the eligible court for an order under subsection (2).

             (2)  If an application is made under subsection (1), the eligible court must, unless good cause is shown to the contrary, either:

                     (a)  order that there be included in the sum for which judgment is given interest at such rate as the eligible court thinks fit on the whole or any part of the money for the whole or any part of the period between:

                              (i)  the date when the cause of action arose; and

                             (ii)  the date as of which judgment is entered; or

                     (b)  without proceeding to calculate interest in accordance with paragraph (a)—order that there be included in the sum for which judgment is given, a lump sum instead of any such interest.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not:

                     (a)  authorise the giving of interest upon interest or of a sum instead of such interest; or

                     (b)  apply in relation to any debt upon which interest is payable as of right, whether because of an agreement or otherwise; or

                     (c)  authorise the giving of interest, or a sum instead of interest, otherwise than by consent, upon any sum for which judgment is given by consent.

140SB  Interest on judgment

                   A judgment debt under a judgment of an eligible court under section 140S carries interest:

                     (a)  from the date as of which the judgment is entered; and

                     (b)  at the rate that would apply under section 52 of the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 as if the debt were a judgment debt to which that section applies.

140SC  Certain plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure in magistrates courts

             (1)  This section applies if:

                     (a)  a person brings proceedings under section 140S in a magistrates court; and

                     (b)  the person indicates, in a manner prescribed by the regulations or by rules of court relating to that court, that the person wants a small claims procedure to apply in relation to the proceeding.

             (2)  The procedure is governed by the following conditions:

                     (a)  the court may not award an amount exceeding $5,000 or such higher amount as is prescribed;

                     (b)  the court may act in an informal manner, is not bound by any rules of evidence, and may act without regard to legal forms and technicalities;

                     (c)  at any stage of the action, the court may amend the papers initiating the action if sufficient notice is given to any party adversely affected by the amendment;

                     (d)  a person is not entitled to legal representation unless allowed by the court.

             (3)  If the court allows a person to have legal representation, the court may, if it thinks fit, do so subject to conditions designed to ensure that a party is not unfairly disadvantaged.

             (4)  Despite paragraph (2)(d) and subsection (3):

                     (a)  in a case heard in a court of a State—if, in a particular proceeding (whatever the nature of the proceeding) the law of the State prohibits or restricts legal representation of the parties, the regulations may prohibit or restrict legal representation of the parties to the same extent as that law; and

                     (b)  in a case heard in a court of a Territory—the regulations may prohibit or restrict legal representation of the parties.

140T  Notice regarding amount of debt or other amount

             (1)  Where a debt, or other amount, that a person is required to pay to the Commonwealth becomes payable, the Minister may issue a notice in writing stating the amount of the debt or other amount.

             (2)  In any proceedings a notice under this section is prima facie evidence that the amount of the debt or other amount is that stated in the notice.

140U  Liability is in addition to any other liability

                   Any liability created under this Division is in addition to any liability created under:

                     (a)  this or any other Act; or

                     (b)  regulations made under this or any other Act.

Subdivision FInspector powers

140UA  Exercise of inspector powers

             (1)  An inspector may exercise powers under this Subdivision for a purpose set out in section 140X.

Note:          Inspectors include Fair Work Inspectors (see section 140V).

             (2)  A Fair Work Inspector may, subject to section 706 of the Fair Work Act 2009, exercise compliance powers under Subdivision D of Division 3 of Part 5‑2 of that Act for the purposes of this Subdivision.

Note:          Under paragraph 706(1)(d) of the Fair Work Act 2009, a Fair Work Inspector may exercise certain compliance powers for the purposes of a provision of another Act that confers functions or powers on Fair Work Inspectors.

140V  Inspectors

Who is an inspector?

          (1A)  For the purposes of this Act, each of the following is an inspector:

                     (a)  a person, or a member of a class of persons, appointed under subsection (1) (an appointed inspector);

                     (b)  a Fair Work Inspector.

Appointed inspectors

             (1)  The Minister may, by written instrument:

                     (a)  appoint a person to be an inspector; or

                     (b)  appoint a class of persons to be inspectors.

             (2)  An appointed inspector is appointed for the period specified in the instrument of appointment, which must not be longer than the period specified in regulations made for the purposes of this subsection.

             (3)  An appointed inspector has the powers conferred on an inspector by this Division, or the regulations, that are specified in his or her instrument of appointment.

Fair Work Inspectors

             (4)  An inspector who is a Fair Work Inspector has the powers conferred on an inspector by this Division or the regulations.

             (5)  A Fair Work Inspector continues to be an inspector for the purposes of this Act while he or she continues to be a Fair Work Inspector (under the Fair Work Act 2009).

Note:          The Minister may give written directions specifying the manner in which, and any conditions and qualifications subject to which, powers conferred on inspectors are to be exercised: see section 499.

140W  Identity cards

General

          (1A)  An inspector’s identity card is:

                     (a)  for an appointed inspector—the identity card issued to the inspector under subsection (1); or

                     (b)  for an inspector who is a Fair Work Inspector—the identity card issued to the inspector under the Fair Work Act 2009 (see section 702 of that Act).

Identity cards—appointed inspectors

             (1)  The Minister must issue an identity card to an appointed inspector.

             (2)  An identity card for an appointed inspector:

                     (a)  must be in the form prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (b)  must contain a recent photograph of the inspector.

Identity card to be carried

             (3)  An inspector must carry the identity card at all times when exercising powers as an inspector.

Offence

             (4)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person has been issued with an identity card under subsection (1); and

                     (b)  the person ceases to be an inspector; and

                     (c)  the person does not return his or her identity card to the Secretary within 14 days after ceasing to be an inspector.

Penalty:  1 penalty unit.

             (5)  An offence against subsection (4) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

             (6)  However, a person does not commit an offence against subsection (4) if the person’s identity card was lost or destroyed.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (6): see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code.

140X  Purpose for which powers of inspectors may be exercised

                   The powers of an inspector under this Subdivision may be exercised:

                     (a)  for the purpose of investigating whether a sponsorship obligation is being, or has been, complied with; or

                    (aa)  for the purpose of investigating whether a person who is required under subsection 140H(1) to satisfy a sponsorship obligation has committed an offence, or contravened a civil penalty provision, under Subdivision C of Division 12 of this Part; or

                     (b)  for a purpose prescribed by the regulations.

140XA  When powers of inspectors may be exercised

                   An inspector may exercise powers under this Subdivision:

                     (a)  at any time during working hours; or

                     (b)  at any other time, if the inspector reasonably believes that it is necessary to do so for the purposes referred to in section 140X.

140XB  Power of inspectors to enter premises or places

             (1)  An inspector may, without force, enter business premises or another place, if the inspector reasonably believes that there are records or documents relevant to the purposes referred to in section 140X on the premises or at the place, or accessible from a computer on the premises or at the place.

             (2)  The inspector must, either before or as soon as practicable after entering those premises or that place, show his or her identity card to the occupier, or another person who apparently represents the occupier, if the occupier or other person is present at the premises or place.

140XC  Powers of inspectors while on premises or at a place

             (1)  An inspector who enters premises or a place under section 140XB may exercise one or more of the following powers while on the premises or at the place:

                     (a)  inspect any work, process or object;

                     (b)  interview any person;

                     (c)  require a person to tell the inspector who has custody of, or access to, a record or document;

                     (d)  require a person who has the custody of, or access to, a record or document to produce the record or document to the inspector either while the inspector is on the premises or at the place, or within a specified period;

                     (e)  inspect, and make copies of, any record or document that:

                              (i)  is kept on the premises or at the place; or

                             (ii)  is accessible from a computer that is kept on the premises or at the place.

             (2)  A Fair Work Inspector who enters premises or a place under the Fair Work Act 2009 for any compliance purpose under section 706 of that Act may, for a purpose mentioned in section 140X of this Act, exercise any of the powers mentioned in subsection (1) of this section while on the premises or at the place.

Note:          See also sections 140XG, 140XH and 140XI (which deal with self‑incrimination and produced documents etc.).

140XD  Persons assisting inspectors

             (1)  A person (the assistant) may accompany an inspector onto premises or to a place mentioned in subsection 140XC(1) to assist the inspector if:

                     (a)  for any inspector—the Secretary is satisfied that:

                              (i)  the assistance is necessary and reasonable; and

                             (ii)  the assistant has suitable qualifications and experience to properly assist the inspector; or

                     (b)  for an inspector who is a Fair Work Inspector—the assistant is authorised to accompany the inspector onto the premises or to the place under section 710 of the Fair Work Act 2009 for any compliance purpose under section 706 of that Act.

             (2)  The assistant:

                     (a)  may do such things on the premises or at the place as the inspector requires to assist the inspector to exercise powers under this Subdivision; but

                     (b)  must not do anything that the inspector does not have power to do.

             (3)  Anything done by the assistant is taken for all purposes to have been done by the inspector.

140XE  Power to ask for person’s name and address

             (1)  An inspector may require a person to tell the inspector the person’s name and address if the inspector reasonably believes that the person has contravened a civil penalty provision.

             (2)  If the inspector reasonably believes that the name or address is false, the inspector may require the person to give evidence of its correctness.

             (3)  A person contravenes this subsection if:

                     (a)  the inspector requires the person to do a thing referred to in subsection (1) or (2); and

                     (b)  the inspector advises the person that he or she may contravene a civil penalty provision if he or she fails to comply with the requirement; and

                     (c)  the inspector shows his or her identity card to the person; and

                     (d)  the person does not comply with the requirement.

Civil penalty:          60 penalty units.

             (4)  Subsection (3) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

140XF  Power to require persons to produce records or documents

             (1)  An inspector may require a person, by notice, to produce a record or document to the inspector.

             (2)  The notice must:

                     (a)  be in writing; and

                     (b)  be served on the person; and

                     (c)  require the person to produce the record or document at a specified place within a specified period of at least 7 days.

The notice may be served by sending the notice to the person’s fax number.

             (3)  A person contravenes this subsection if:

                     (a)  the person is served with a notice to produce under subsection (1); and

                     (b)  the person fails to comply with the notice.

Civil penalty:          60 penalty units.

             (4)  Subsection (3) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

140XG  Self‑incrimination

             (1)  A person is not excused from producing a record or document under paragraph 140XC(d), or subsection 140XF(1), on the ground that the production of the record or document might tend to incriminate the person or expose the person to a penalty.

             (2)  However, in the case of an individual, none of the following are admissible in evidence against the individual in criminal proceedings:

                     (a)  the record or document produced;

                     (b)  producing the record or document;

                     (c)  any information, document or thing obtained as a direct or indirect consequence of producing the record or document;

except in proceedings for an offence against section 137.1 or 137.2 of the Criminal Code (false or misleading information or documents) in relation to the information or document.

140XH  Certain records and documents are inadmissible

                   The following are not admissible in evidence in criminal proceedings against an individual:

                     (a)  any record or document inspected or copied under paragraph 140XC(e) of which the individual had custody, or to which the individual had access, when it was inspected or copied;

                     (b)  any information, document or thing obtained as a direct or indirect consequence of inspecting or copying a record or document of which the individual had custody, or to which the individual had access, when it was inspected or copied under paragraph 140XC(e).

140XI  Power to keep records or documents

             (1)  If a record or document is produced to an inspector in accordance with this Subdivision, the inspector may:

                     (a)  inspect, and make copies of, the record or document; and

                     (b)  keep the record or document for such period as is necessary.

             (2)  While an inspector keeps a record or document, the inspector must allow the following persons to inspect, or make copies of, the record or document at all reasonable times:

                     (a)  the person who produced the record or document;

                     (b)  any person otherwise entitled to possession of the record or document;

                     (c)  a person authorised by the person referred to in paragraph (b).

140XJ  Disclosure of information by the Secretary

Information to which this section applies

             (1)  This section applies to the following information:

                     (a)  information acquired by an inspector in the course of performing functions, or exercising powers, as an inspector under this Subdivision;

                     (b)  information acquired by a person in the course of assisting an inspector under section 140XD.

Disclosure that is necessary or appropriate, or likely to assist administration or enforcement

             (2)  The Secretary may disclose, or authorise the disclosure of, the information if the Secretary reasonably believes:

                     (a)  that it is necessary or appropriate to do so in the course of performing functions, or exercising powers, under Division 3A of Part 2 of this Act; or

                     (b)  that the disclosure is likely to assist in the administration or enforcement of a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

Subdivision GApplication of Division to partnerships and unincorporated associations

140ZB  Partnerships—sponsorship rights and obligations

             (1)  This Division, the regulations made under it and any other provision of this Act as far as it relates to this Division or the regulations, apply to a partnership as if it were a person, but with the changes set out in this section and sections 140ZC and 140ZD.

             (2)  A sponsorship right that would otherwise be exercisable by the partnership is exercisable by each partner instead.

             (3)  A sponsorship obligation that would otherwise be imposed on the partnership:

                     (a)  is imposed on each partner instead; but

                     (b)  may be discharged by any of the partners.

             (4)  Subject to section 140ZC, the partners are jointly and severally liable to pay an amount in relation to a sponsorship obligation.

140ZC  Partnerships—offences and civil penalties

             (1)  An offence against this Division that would otherwise be committed by a partnership is taken to have been committed by each partner in the partnership, at the time the offence is committed, who:

                     (a)  did the relevant act or made the relevant omission; or

                     (b)  aided, abetted, counselled or procured the relevant act or omission; or

                     (c)  was in any way knowingly concerned in, or party to, the relevant act or omission (whether directly or indirectly or whether by any act or omission of the partner).

             (2)  A civil penalty provision of this Division that would otherwise be contravened by a partnership is taken to have been contravened by each partner in the partnership, at the time of the conduct constituting the contravention, who:

                     (a)  engaged in the conduct; or

                     (b)  aided, abetted, counselled or procured the conduct; or

                     (c)  was in any way knowingly concerned in, or party to, the conduct (whether directly or indirectly or whether by any act or omission of the partner).

             (3)  If a partner in a partnership contravenes a civil penalty provision, the civil penalty that may be imposed on the partner must not exceed an amount equal to one‑fifth of the maximum penalty that could be imposed on a body corporate for the same contravention.

             (4)  For the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), to establish that a partnership engaged in particular conduct, it is sufficient to show that the conduct was engaged in by a partner:

                     (a)  in the ordinary course of the business of the partnership; or

                     (b)  within the scope of the actual or apparent authority of the partner.

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (1), to establish that a partnership had a particular state of mind when it engaged in particular conduct, it is sufficient to show that a relevant partner had the relevant state of mind.

140ZD  Partnership ceases to exist

             (1)  If a partnership ceases to exist, the persons who were partners immediately before the cessation must continue to satisfy any applicable sponsorship obligation.

             (2)  Section 140ZB applies as if:

                     (a)  references to a partnership were to a partnership that ceases to exist; and

                     (b)  references to partners of the partnership were to the persons who were partners immediately before the cessation.

             (3)  For the purpose of this section, a partnership ceases to exist if the dissolution of the partnership does not result in the creation of another partnership.

140ZE  Unincorporated associations—sponsorship rights and obligations

             (1)  This Division, the regulations made under it and any other provision of this Act as far as it relates to this Division or the regulations, apply to an unincorporated association as if it were a person, but with the changes set out in this section and sections 140ZF and 140ZG.

             (2)  A sponsorship right that would otherwise be exercisable by the unincorporated association is exercisable by each member of the association’s committee of management instead.

             (3)  A sponsorship obligation that would otherwise be imposed on the unincorporated association:

                     (a)  is imposed on each member of the association’s committee of management instead; but

                     (b)  may be discharged by any of those members.

             (4)  Subject to section 140ZF, the members are jointly and severally liable to pay an amount in relation to a sponsorship obligation.

140ZF  Unincorporated associations—offences and civil penalties

             (1)  An offence against this Division that would otherwise be committed by an unincorporated association is taken to have been committed by each member of the association’s committee of management, at the time the offence is committed, who:

                     (a)  did the relevant act or made the relevant omission; or

                     (b)  aided, abetted, counselled or procured the relevant act or omission; or

                     (c)  was in any way knowingly concerned in, or party to, the relevant act or omission (whether directly or indirectly or whether by any act or omission of the member).

             (2)  A civil penalty provision of this Division that would otherwise be contravened by an unincorporated association is taken to have been contravened by each member of the association’s committee of management, at the time of the conduct constituting the contravention, who:

                     (a)  engaged in the conduct; or

                     (b)  aided, abetted, counselled or procured the conduct; or

                     (c)  was in any way knowingly concerned in, or party to, the conduct (whether directly or indirectly or whether by any act or omission of the member).

             (3)  If a member of an unincorporated association’s committee of management contravenes a civil penalty provision, the civil penalty that may be imposed on the member must not exceed an amount equal to one‑fifth of the maximum penalty that could be imposed on a body corporate for the same contravention.

             (4)  For the purposes of subsection (1), to establish that an unincorporated association had a particular state of mind when it engaged in particular conduct, it is sufficient to show that a relevant member of the association’s committee of management had the relevant state of mind.

140ZG  Unincorporated association ceases to exist

             (1)  If an unincorporated association ceases to exist, the persons who were members of the association’s committee of management immediately before the cessation must continue to satisfy any applicable sponsorship obligation.

             (2)  Section 140ZE applies as if:

                     (a)  references to an unincorporated association were to an unincorporated association that ceases to exist; and

                     (b)  references to members of the association’s committee of management were to the persons who were members immediately before the cessation.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, for the purpose of this section, an unincorporated association ceases to exist if the dissolution of the association does not result in the creation of another association.

Subdivision HMiscellaneous

140ZH  Disclosure of personal information by Minister

             (1)  The Minister may disclose personal information of a prescribed kind about a person mentioned in column 2 of the following table in relation to an item to the person or persons mentioned in column 3 of the table in relation to the item:

 

To whom the Minister may disclose personal information

 

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Item

If the personal information of a prescribed kind is about ...

then, the Minister may disclose that personal information to ...

1

a visa holder

(a) an approved sponsor of the visa holder; or

(b) a former approved sponsor of the visa holder; or

(c) an agency of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory prescribed by the regulations

2

a former visa holder

(a) an approved sponsor of the visa holder; or

(b) a former approved sponsor of the visa holder; or

(c) an agency of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory prescribed by the regulations

3

an approved sponsor of a visa holder or an approved sponsor of a former visa holder

(a) the visa holder; or

(b) a former visa holder; or

(c) an agency of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory prescribed by the regulations

4

a former approved sponsor of a visa holder or a former approved sponsor of a former visa holder

(a) the visa holder; or

(b) a former visa holder; or

(c) an agency of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory prescribed by the regulations

             (2)  The regulations may prescribe circumstances in which the Minister may disclose the personal information.

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe circumstances in which the recipient may use or disclose the personal information disclosed.

             (4)  If the Minister discloses personal information under subsection (1) (other than to an agency of the Commonwealth or a State or Territory prescribed by the regulations), the Minister must give written notice to the person about whom the information is disclosed of:

                     (a)  the disclosure; and

                     (b)  the details of the personal information disclosed.

140ZI  Disclosure of personal information to Minister

             (1)  For the purposes of this Division, the Minister may request a person mentioned in column 2 of the following table in relation to an item to disclose to the Minister personal information of a prescribed kind about a person mentioned in column 3 of the table in relation to the item:

 

From whom the Minister may request disclosure of personal information

 

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Item

The Minister may request ...

to disclose personal information of a prescribed kind to the Minister about ...

1

an approved sponsor or former approved sponsor of a visa holder

the visa holder

2

an approved sponsor or former approved sponsor of a former visa holder

the former visa holder

             (2)  For the purposes of:

                     (a)  paragraph (1)(d) of Information Privacy Principle 11 in section 14 of the Privacy Act 1988; and

                     (b)  paragraph 2.1(g) of National Privacy Principle 2 in Schedule 3 to the Privacy Act 1988; and

                     (c)  a provision of a law of a State or Territory that provides that information that is personal may be disclosed if the disclosure is authorised by law;

the disclosure of information by a person in response to a request under this section is taken to be a disclosure that is authorised by law.

             (3)  Nothing in this section has the effect of authorising a disclosure that, despite subsection (2), is prevented by a law of the Commonwealth, a State or Territory.

140ZJ  Unclaimed money

             (1)  If a person who is or was an approved sponsor has not paid an amount in relation to a sponsorship obligation because the person does not know the location of the intended recipient, the person may pay the amount to the Commonwealth.

             (2)  The Commonwealth holds the amount in trust for the intended recipient.

             (3)  Payment of the amount to the Commonwealth is a sufficient discharge to the person, as against the intended recipient, for the amount paid.

140ZK  Other regulation making powers not limited

                   Regulations made for the purposes of this Division do not limit the power to make regulations under any other provision of this or any other Act.

Division 4Criminal justice visitors

Subdivision APreliminary

141  Object of Division

                   This Division is enacted so that, if the administration of criminal justice requires the presence in Australia of a non‑citizen, that non‑citizen may be brought to, or allowed to stay in, Australia for the purposes of that administration.

142  Interpretation

                   In this Division:

administration of criminal justice means:

                     (a)  an investigation to find out whether an offence has been committed; or

                     (b)  the prosecution of a person for an offence; or

                     (c)  the punishment by way of imprisonment of a person for the commission of an offence.

Australia means the migration zone.

authorised official, in relation to a State, means a person authorised under section 144 to be an authorised official for that State.

criminal justice certificate means:

                     (a)  a criminal justice entry certificate; or

                     (b)  a criminal justice stay certificate.

criminal justice entry certificate means:

                     (a)  a certificate given under section 145; or

                     (b)  a certificate given under subsection 146(1) and endorsed under subsection 146(2).

criminal justice entry visa has the meaning given by section 155.

criminal justice stay certificate means a certificate given under section 147 or 148.

criminal justice stay visa has the meaning given by section 155.

criminal justice stay warrant means a warrant described in section 151.

criminal justice visa has the meaning given by section 38.

State includes Territory.

143  Delegation by Attorney‑General

             (1)  The Attorney‑General may, in writing, delegate any of his or her powers under this Division to:

                     (a)  the Secretary of the Attorney‑General’s Department; or

                     (b)  an SES employee, or acting SES employee, in that Department.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (3), the Attorney‑General may, in writing, delegate his or her power under section 147 to a commissioned police officer (within the meaning of the Australian Federal Police Act 1979).

             (3)  A delegation under subsection (2) must provide that:

                     (a)  the power may only be exercised in relation to a person at a port; and

                     (b)  any certificate that is issued by the member is to remain in force for no longer than 5 days.

             (4)  The Attorney‑General may, at any time, by written notice, revoke a certificate issued by a person exercising a power delegated under subsection (2).

144  Authorised officials

                   The Attorney‑General may, in writing, appoint as an authorised official for a State for the purposes of this Division:

                     (a)  the Attorney‑General of the State; or

                     (b)  a person holding an office under a law of the State that is like the office of the Director of Public Prosecutions; or

                     (c)  the highest ranking member of the police force of the State.

Subdivision BCriminal justice certificates for entry

145  Commonwealth criminal justice entry certificate

             (1)  If the Attorney‑General considers that:

                     (a)  the temporary presence in Australia of a non‑citizen who is outside Australia is required for the purposes of:

                              (i)  the Extradition Act 1988; or

                            (ia)  the International War Crimes Tribunals Act 1995; or

                            (ib)  the International Criminal Court Act 2002; or

                             (ii)  the Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act 1987; or

                            (iii)  the administration of criminal justice in relation to an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  the presence of the non‑citizen in Australia for the relevant purposes would not hinder the national interest in any way to such an extent that the non‑citizen should not be present in Australia; and

                     (c)  satisfactory arrangements have been made to make sure that the person or organisation who wants the non‑citizen for the relevant purposes or the non‑citizen or both will meet the cost of bringing the non‑citizen to, keeping the non‑citizen in, and removing the non‑citizen from, Australia;

the Attorney‑General may give a certificate that the presence of the non‑citizen in Australia is required for the administration of criminal justice.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the cost of keeping the non‑citizen in Australia does not include the cost of immigration detention (if any).

146  State criminal justice entry certificate

             (1)  If an authorised official for a State considers that:

                     (a)  the temporary presence in Australia of a non‑citizen who is outside Australia is required for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice in relation to an offence against a law of the State; and

                     (b)  satisfactory arrangements have been made to make sure that the person or organisation who wants the non‑citizen for those purposes or the non‑citizen or both will meet the cost of bringing the non‑citizen to, keeping the non‑citizen in, and removing the non‑citizen from, Australia;

the official may give a certificate that the presence of the non‑citizen in Australia is required for the administration of criminal justice by the State.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a certificate has been given under subsection (1) about a non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  the Attorney‑General considers that the temporary presence of the non‑citizen in Australia in order to advance the administration of criminal justice by the State would not hinder the national interest in any way to such an extent that the non‑citizen should not be present in Australia;

the Attorney‑General may endorse the certificate with a statement that it is to be a criminal justice certificate for the purposes of this Division.

             (3)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), the cost of keeping the non‑citizen in Australia does not include the cost of immigration detention (if any).

Subdivision CCriminal justice certificates etc. staying removal or deportation

147  Commonwealth criminal justice stay certificate

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  an unlawful non‑citizen is to be, or is likely to be, removed or deported; and

                     (b)  the Attorney‑General considers that the non‑citizen should remain in Australia temporarily for the purposes of:

                              (i)  the Extradition Act 1988; or

                            (ia)  the International War Crimes Tribunals Act 1995; or

                            (ib)  the International Criminal Court Act 2002; or

                             (ii)  the Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act 1987; or

                            (iii)  the administration of criminal justice in relation to an offence against a law of the Commonwealth; and

                     (c)  the Attorney‑General considers that satisfactory arrangements have been made to make sure that the person or organisation who wants the non‑citizen for the relevant purposes or the non‑citizen or both will meet the cost of keeping the non‑citizen in Australia;

the Attorney‑General may give a certificate that the stay of the non‑citizen’s removal or deportation is required for the administration of criminal justice.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the cost of keeping the non‑citizen in Australia does not include the cost of immigration detention (if any).

148  State criminal justice stay certificate

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  an unlawful non‑citizen is to be, or is likely to be, removed or deported; and

                     (b)  an authorised official for a State considers that the non‑citizen should remain in Australia temporarily for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice in relation to an offence against a law of the State; and

                     (c)  that authorised official considers that satisfactory arrangements have been made to make sure that the person or organisation who wants the non‑citizen for those purposes or the non‑citizen or both will meet the cost of keeping the non‑citizen in Australia;

the official may give a certificate that the stay of the non‑citizen’s removal or deportation is required for the administration of criminal justice by the State.

             (2)  For the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the cost of keeping the non‑citizen in Australia does not include the cost of immigration detention (if any).

149  Application for visa not to prevent certificate

                   A criminal justice stay certificate for a non‑citizen may be given even though an application for a visa for the non‑citizen has been made but not finalised.

150  Criminal justice stay certificates stay removal or deportation

                   If a criminal justice stay certificate about a non‑citizen is in force, the non‑citizen is not to be removed or deported.

151  Certain warrants stay removal or deportation

             (1)  If an unlawful non‑citizen is to be, or is likely to be, removed or deported, this Act does not prevent a court issuing for the purposes of the administration of criminal justice in relation to an offence against a law a warrant to stay the removal or deportation.

             (2)  If a criminal justice stay warrant about a non‑citizen is in force, the non‑citizen is not to be removed or deported.

             (3)  If a court issues a criminal justice stay warrant about a non‑citizen, the applicant for the warrant is responsible for the costs of any maintenance or accommodation (other than immigration detention) of the non‑citizen while the warrant is in force.

152  Certain subjects of stay certificates and stay warrants may be detained etc.

                   If:

                     (a)  a criminal justice stay certificate or a criminal justice stay warrant about a non‑citizen is in force; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen does not have a visa to remain in Australia;

the certificate or warrant does not limit any power under this Act relating to the detention of the non‑citizen.

153  Removal or deportation not contempt etc. if no stay certificate or warrant

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), if:

                     (a)  this Act requires the removal or deportation of a non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  there is no criminal justice stay certificate or criminal justice stay warrant about the non‑citizen;

any other law, or anything done under any other law, of the Commonwealth or a State (whether passed or made before or after the commencement of this section), not being an Act passed after that commencement expressed to be exempt from this section, does not prevent the removal or deportation.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not permit the removal or deportation of a non‑citizen if that removal or deportation would be in breach of an order of the High Court, the Federal Court or the Federal Circuit Court.

154  Officer not liable—criminal justice stay certificates or warrants

                   An officer is not liable to any civil or criminal action for doing in good faith, or failing in good faith to do, any act or thing for the purpose of exercising a power under this Act to keep a person who is the subject of a criminal justice stay certificate or criminal justice stay warrant in immigration detention.

Subdivision DCriminal justice visas

155  Criminal justice visas

             (1)  A criminal justice visa may be a visa permitting a non‑citizen to travel to and enter, and remain temporarily in, Australia, to be known as a criminal justice entry visa.

             (2)  A criminal justice visa may be a visa permitting a non‑citizen to remain temporarily in Australia, to be known as a criminal justice stay visa.

156  Criterion for criminal justice entry visas

                   A criterion for a criminal justice entry visa for a non‑citizen is that a criminal justice entry certificate about the non‑citizen is in force.

157  Criterion for criminal justice stay visas

                   A criterion for a criminal justice stay visa for a non‑citizen is that either:

                     (a)  a criminal justice stay certificate about the non‑citizen is in force; or

                     (b)  a criminal justice stay warrant about the non‑citizen is in force.

158  Criteria for criminal justice visas

                   The criteria for a criminal justice visa for a non‑citizen are, and only are:

                     (a)  the criterion required by section 156 or 157; and

                     (b)  the criterion that the Minister, having had regard to:

                              (i)  the safety of individuals and people generally; and

                             (ii)  in the case of a criminal justice entry visa, arrangements to ensure that if the non‑citizen enters Australia, the non‑citizen can be removed; and

                            (iii)  any other matters that the Minister considers relevant;

has decided, in the Minister’s absolute discretion, that it is appropriate for the visa to be granted.

159  Procedure for obtaining criminal justice visa

             (1)  If a criminal justice certificate, or a criminal justice stay warrant, in relation to a non‑citizen is in force, the Minister may consider the grant of a criminal justice visa for the non‑citizen.

             (2)  If the Minister, after considering the grant of a criminal justice visa for a non‑citizen, is satisfied that the criteria for it have been met, the Minister may, in his or her absolute discretion:

                     (a)  grant it by causing a record of it to be made; and

                     (b)  give such evidence of it as the Minister considers appropriate.

160  Conditions of criminal justice visa

             (1)  The regulations may provide that criminal justice visas are subject to specified conditions.

             (2)  It is a condition of a criminal justice entry visa for a non‑citizen that the non‑citizen must not do any work in Australia, whether for reward or otherwise.

             (3)  In subsection (2):

work, in relation to a non‑citizen, does not include work for the purposes for which there is a criminal justice certificate or criminal justice stay warrant about the non‑citizen, including, if those purposes are or include the imprisonment of the non‑citizen, work as a prisoner.

161  Effect of criminal justice visas

             (1)  A criminal justice entry visa for a non‑citizen is permission for the non‑citizen to travel to and enter and remain in Australia while it is in effect.

             (2)  A criminal justice stay visa for a non‑citizen:

                     (a)  is permission for the non‑citizen to remain in Australia while it is in effect; and

                     (b)  if the non‑citizen is in immigration detention, entitles the non‑citizen to be released from that detention.

             (3)  A criminal justice visa for a person does not prevent the non‑citizen leaving Australia.

             (4)  Subsection (3) does not limit the operation of any order or warrant of a court.

             (5)  The holder of a criminal justice entry visa may not apply for a visa other than a protection visa.

             (6)  If a non‑citizen who has held a criminal justice entry visa remains in Australia when the visa is cancelled, the non‑citizen may not make an application for a visa other than a protection visa.

Subdivision ECancellation etc. of criminal justice certificates and criminal justice visas

162  Criminal justice certificates to be cancelled

             (1)  If the presence in Australia of a non‑citizen in respect of whom a criminal justice certificate has been given is no longer required for the purposes for which it was given, then:

                     (a)  if it was given under section 145 or 147, the Attorney‑General; or

                     (b)  if it was given under section 146 or 148—an authorised official;

is to cancel it.

             (2)  Before cancelling the certificate, the Attorney‑General or authorised official is, an adequate time before doing so, to tell the Secretary:

                     (a)  when it is to be cancelled; and

                     (b)  the expected whereabouts of the non‑citizen when it is cancelled; and

                     (c)  the arrangements for the non‑citizen’s departure from Australia.

163  Stay warrant to be cancelled

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  the presence in Australia of a non‑citizen in respect of whom a criminal justice stay warrant has been given is no longer required for the purposes for which it was given; and

                     (b)  if the warrant is to expire at a certain time—that time has not been reached;

a person entitled to apply for the warrant’s cancellation must apply to the court for the cancellation.

             (2)  The applicant for a criminal justice stay warrant in respect of a non‑citizen is to tell the Secretary a reasonable time before the warrant expires:

                     (a)  the time it will expire; and

                     (b)  the expected whereabouts of the non‑citizen at the time of expiry; and

                     (c)  the arrangements for the non‑citizen’s departure from Australia.

             (3)  An applicant for the cancellation of a criminal justice stay warrant is to tell the Secretary, as soon as practicable:

                     (a)  the time of cancellation for which application will be made; and

                     (b)  if the time of cancellation is different from that applied for, the time of cancellation; and

                     (c)  the expected whereabouts of the non‑citizen at the expected time, and, if paragraph (b) applies, the time of cancellation; and

                     (d)  the arrangements for the non‑citizen’s departure from Australia.

164  Effect of cancellation etc. on criminal justice visa

                   If:

                     (a)  a criminal justice certificate is cancelled; or

                     (b)  a criminal justice stay warrant is cancelled or expires;

any criminal justice visa granted because of the certificate or warrant is cancelled and the Minister is to make a record of the cancellation.

Division 4AEnforcement visas

164A  Definitions

                   In this Division:

Commonwealth aircraft has the same meaning as in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Commonwealth ship has the same meaning as in the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

enforcement visa (environment matters) means an enforcement visa that is granted by section 164BA.

enforcement visa (fisheries matters) means an enforcement visa that is granted by section 164B.

environment detention means detention under Schedule 1 to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

fisheries detention means detention under:

                     (a)  Schedule 1A to the Fisheries Management Act 1991; or

                     (b)  Schedule 2 to the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984.

master has the same meaning as in the Fisheries Management Act 1991.

164B  Grant of enforcement visas (fisheries matters)

Non‑citizen on foreign boat outside migration zone

             (1)  A non‑citizen on a foreign boat outside the migration zone is granted an enforcement visa when, because a fisheries officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the boat has been used, is being used or is intended to be used in the commission of a fisheries detention offence, a fisheries officer:

                     (a)  makes a requirement of the boat’s master under subparagraph 84(1)(k)(ii) or paragraph 84(1)(l) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or paragraph 42(1)(g) of the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984; or

                     (b)  exercises his or her power under paragraph 84(1)(m) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or paragraph 42(1)(h) of the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984 in relation to the boat;

whichever occurs first.

Note 1:       Under subparagraph 84(1)(k)(ii) and paragraph 84(1)(l) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991, a fisheries officer may require the master of a boat to bring or take the boat into the migration zone. Under paragraph 84(1)(m) of that Act, a fisheries officer may bring a boat into the migration zone.

Note 2:       Under paragraph 42(1)(g) of the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984, a fisheries officer may require the master of a boat to bring or take the boat into the migration zone. Under paragraph 42(1)(h) of that Act, a fisheries officer may bring a boat into the migration zone.

Note 3:       The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Extended operation of subsection (1)

          (1A)  The references in subsection (1) to subparagraph 84(1)(k)(ii) and paragraphs 84(1)(l) and (m) of the Fisheries Management Act 1991 are to those provisions:

                     (a)  as they apply of their own force; and

                     (b)  as they apply because of section 87 or 87HA of that Act.

Non‑citizen in migration zone

             (2)  A non‑citizen in the migration zone who does not already hold an enforcement visa is granted an enforcement visa when he or she is detained by a fisheries officer under Schedule 1A to the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or Schedule 2 to the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984.

Note:          The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Non‑citizen in prescribed circumstances

             (3)  An enforcement visa is granted to a non‑citizen (who does not already hold an enforcement visa) when a fisheries officer exercises under the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984 a prescribed power in prescribed circumstances in relation to the non‑citizen. The visa is granted at the time the power is exercised.

Note:          The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Non‑citizen on foreign boat in prescribed circumstances

             (4)  An enforcement visa is granted to a non‑citizen (who does not already hold an enforcement visa) who was on a foreign boat when a fisheries officer exercises under the Fisheries Management Act 1991 or the Torres Strait Fisheries Act 1984 a prescribed power in prescribed circumstances in relation to the boat. The visa is granted at the time the power is exercised.

Note:          The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Enforcement visas granted by force of this section

             (5)  To avoid doubt, an enforcement visa is granted by force of this section.

Note:          No administrative action under this Act is necessary to grant the visa.

Exception if Minister’s declaration in force

             (6)  Despite subsections (1), (2), (3) and (4), a non‑citizen is not granted an enforcement visa if a declaration under subsection (7) is in force in relation to:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member.

Declaration

             (7)  The Minister may make a written declaration, for the purposes of this section, that it is undesirable that a person, or any persons in a class of persons, travel to and enter Australia or remain in Australia.

Section does not apply to Australian residents

             (8)  This section does not apply to non‑citizens who are Australian residents as defined in the Fisheries Management Act 1991.

164BA  Grant of enforcement visas (environment matters)

Non‑citizen on vessel (environment matters) outside migration zone

             (1)  A non‑citizen on a vessel (environment matters) outside the migration zone is granted an enforcement visa when, because an environment officer, or the person in command of a Commonwealth ship or a Commonwealth aircraft, has reasonable grounds to suspect that the vessel has been used or otherwise involved in the commission of an environment detention offence, the environment officer or person in command:

                     (a)  exercises his or her power under paragraph 403(3)(a) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 in relation to the vessel; or

                     (b)  makes a requirement of the person in charge of the vessel under paragraph 403(3)(b) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999;

whichever occurs first.

Note 1:       Under paragraph 403(3)(a) of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, an environment officer, or the person in command of a Commonwealth ship or a Commonwealth aircraft, may bring a vessel into the migration zone. Under paragraph 403(3)(b) of that Act, an environment officer, or the person in command of a Commonwealth ship or a Commonwealth aircraft, may require the person in charge of a vessel to bring the vessel into the migration zone.

Note 2:       The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Non‑citizen in migration zone

             (2)  A non‑citizen in the migration zone who does not already hold an enforcement visa is granted an enforcement visa when he or she is detained by an environment officer under Schedule 1 to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

Note:          The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Non‑citizen in prescribed circumstances

             (3)  An enforcement visa is granted to a non‑citizen (who does not already hold an enforcement visa) when an environment officer exercises under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 a prescribed power in prescribed circumstances in relation to the non‑citizen. The visa is granted at the time the power is exercised.

Note:          The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Non‑citizen on vessel or aircraft in prescribed circumstances

             (4)  An enforcement visa is granted to a non‑citizen (who does not already hold an enforcement visa) who was on a vessel (environment matters) or a foreign aircraft (environment matters) when an environment officer exercises under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 a prescribed power in prescribed circumstances in relation to the vessel or aircraft. The visa is granted at the time the power is exercised.

Note:          The grant of an enforcement visa effectively cancels any temporary visa that the non‑citizen may have held (see subsection 82(2A)).

Enforcement visas granted by force of this section

             (5)  To avoid doubt, an enforcement visa is granted by force of this section.

Note:          No administrative action under this Act is necessary to grant the visa.

Exception if Minister’s declaration in force

             (6)  Despite subsections (1), (2), (3) and (4), a non‑citizen is not granted an enforcement visa if a declaration under subsection (7) is in force in relation to:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member.

Declaration

             (7)  The Minister may make a written declaration, for the purposes of this section, that it is undesirable that a person, or any persons in a class of persons, travel to and enter Australia or remain in Australia.

Section does not apply to Australian residents

             (8)  This section does not apply to non‑citizens who are Australian residents as defined in Schedule 1 to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

164C  When enforcement visa ceases to be in effect

Enforcement visa (fisheries matters)—non‑citizen in fisheries detention

             (1)  The enforcement visa (fisheries matters) of a non‑citizen who is in fisheries detention ceases to be in effect:

                     (a)  at the time the non‑citizen is released, or escapes, from fisheries detention; or

                     (b)  at the time the Minister makes a declaration under subsection 164B(7) in relation to the non‑citizen, or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member; or

                     (c)  on the occurrence of a prescribed event;

whichever occurs first.

Enforcement visa (fisheries matters)—non‑citizen not in fisheries detention

             (2)  The enforcement visa (fisheries matters) of a non‑citizen who is not in fisheries detention ceases to be in effect:

                     (a)  at the time a decision is made not to charge the non‑citizen with a fisheries detention offence; or

                     (b)  at the time the Minister makes a declaration under subsection 164B(7) in relation to the non‑citizen, or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member; or

                     (c)  on the occurrence of a prescribed event;

whichever occurs first.

Enforcement visa (environment matters)—non‑citizen in environment detention

             (3)  The enforcement visa (environment matters) of a non‑citizen who is in environment detention ceases to be in effect:

                     (a)  at the time the non‑citizen is released, or escapes, from environment detention; or

                     (b)  at the time the Minister makes a declaration under subsection 164BA(7) in relation to the non‑citizen, or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member; or

                     (c)  on the occurrence of a prescribed event;

whichever occurs first.

Enforcement visa (environment matters)—non‑citizen not in environment detention

             (4)  The enforcement visa (environment matters) of a non‑citizen who is not in environment detention ceases to be in effect:

                     (a)  at the time a decision is made not to charge the non‑citizen with an environment detention offence; or

                     (b)  at the time the Minister makes a declaration under subsection 164BA(7) in relation to the non‑citizen, or a class of persons of which the non‑citizen is a member; or

                     (c)  on the occurrence of a prescribed event;

whichever occurs first.

164D  Applying for other visas

             (1)  The holder of an enforcement visa may not apply for a visa other than a protection visa while he or she is in Australia.

             (2)  While a non‑citizen who has held an enforcement visa remains in Australia when the visa ceases to be in effect, the non‑citizen may not apply for a visa other than a protection visa.

Division 5Immigration clearance

165  Interpretation

                   In this Division:

clearance authority means:

                     (a)  a clearance officer; or

                     (b)  an authorised system.

clearance officer means an officer, or other person, authorised by the Minister to perform duties for the purposes of this Division.

eligible passport means a passport of a kind specified in a determination under section 175A.

on‑port, in relation to a person, means a port in Australia to which the person will travel after entering Australia at another port.

overseas vessel means:

                     (a)  a vessel on which persons travel from outside Australia to a port and then to an on‑port or ports; or

                     (b)  a vessel on which persons travel from a port to another port or ports and then to a place outside Australia.

166  Persons entering to present certain evidence of identity etc.

Requirement to be immigration cleared

             (1)  A person, whether a citizen or a non‑citizen, who enters Australia must, without unreasonable delay:

                     (a)  present the following evidence (which might include a personal identifier referred to in subsection (5)) to a clearance authority:

                              (i)  if the person is a citizen (whether or not the person is also the national of a country other than Australia)—the person’s Australian passport or prescribed other evidence of the person’s identity and Australian citizenship;

                             (ii)  if the person is a non‑citizen—evidence of the person’s identity and of a visa that is in effect and is held by the person; and

                     (b)  provide to a clearance authority any information (including the person’s signature, but not any other personal identifier) required by this Act or the regulations; and

                     (c)  if the person is a non‑citizen and prescribed circumstances exist—comply with any requirement, made by a clearance authority before an event referred to in subparagraph 172(1)(a)(iii) or (b)(iii) or paragraph 172(1)(c) occurs, to provide one or more personal identifiers referred to in subsection (5) of this section to a clearance officer.

Note:          A person might be taken to have complied with this section under subsection 167(3) or (4) or might not be required to comply under section 168 or 169.

Who may use an authorised system

             (2)  A person may comply with a requirement referred to in subsection (1) to present evidence, or provide information, to an authorised system only if:

                     (a)  the person holds an eligible passport; and

                     (c)  either:

                              (i)  before an event referred to in subparagraph 172(1)(a)(iii) or (b)(iii) or paragraph 172(1)(c) occurs, neither the system nor a clearance officer requires the person to present or provide evidence, information or personal identifiers referred to in subsection (1) of this section (other than a passenger card) to a clearance officer; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (i) of this paragraph applies—a clearance officer determines that the person has complied with subsection (1) of this section.

Complying with paragraphs (1)(a), (b) and (c)

             (3)  Subject to section 167, a person is to comply with paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) of this section in a prescribed way.

             (4)  A person is taken to have complied with subparagraph (1)(a)(i) if a clearance officer knows or reasonably believes that the person is an Australian citizen.

             (5)  Under paragraphs (1)(a) and (c), a person may only be required to present or provide (including in digital form) one or more of the following personal identifiers:

                     (a)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                     (b)  the person’s signature;

                     (c)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                     (d)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

Complying with paragraph (1)(c)

             (6)  Paragraph (1)(c) does not limit a clearance authority’s power under subparagraph (1)(a)(ii) to require a non‑citizen to present to the authority evidence (which might include a personal identifier) of the non‑citizen’s identity.

             (7)  A non‑citizen is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in paragraph (1)(c) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

             (8)  However, subsection (7) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

167  When and where evidence to be presented

             (1)  Subject to this section, a person required to comply with section 166 who enters Australia at a port must comply:

                     (a)  if paragraph (b) or (c) does not apply—at that port; or

                     (b)  if the person is required by an officer to comply at a particular on‑port—at that on‑port; or

                     (c)  if the person is allowed by an officer to comply at the port or a particular on‑port—at either of them.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (4), a person required to comply with section 166 who enters Australia otherwise than at a port must comply at a prescribed place within a prescribed period after entering.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  a person proposes to enter Australia; and

                     (b)  with the permission of a clearance officer, complies with paragraphs 166(1)(a), (b) and (c) on the vessel on which the person travels to Australia and before entering Australia;

the person is taken to have complied with section 166.

             (4)  A person who travels to Australia on a pre‑cleared flight:

                     (a)  must comply with paragraphs 166(1)(a) and (b) before beginning the flight; and

                     (b)  if he or she so complies, is taken to have complied with section 166.

168  Section 166 not to apply

             (1)  An allowed inhabitant of the Protected Zone who enters a protected area in connection with the performance of traditional activities is not required to comply with section 166.

             (2)  If an allowed inhabitant of the Protected Zone:

                     (a)  enters a protected area in connection with the performance of traditional activities; and

                     (b)  goes from the protected area to a part of the migration zone outside that area;

he or she must comply with section 166 at a prescribed place within a prescribed period.

             (3)  A person in a prescribed class is not required to comply with section 166.

169  Section 166 not usually to apply

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a person goes outside the migration zone; and

                     (b)  under section 80 is not taken to leave Australia;

the person is not, on re‑entering the migration zone, taken to enter Australia for the purposes of section 166 but may be directed by a clearance officer to comply with that section.

International passenger cruise ships

             (2)  However, subsection (1) does not apply if the person goes outside the migration zone on an international passenger cruise ship (see subsection (4)).

Note:          The effect of this subsection is that people on international passenger cruise ships are required to be immigration cleared under section 166 (unless the Minister or Secretary determines otherwise under subsection (3) of this section).

             (3)  However, the Minister or Secretary may, in writing, determine that, despite subsection (2), subsection (1) does apply to a class of persons that includes the person.

             (4)  In this section, a ship is an international passenger cruise ship if:

                     (a)  the ship has sleeping facilities for at least 100 persons (other than crew members); and

                     (b)  the ship is being used to provide a service of sea transportation of persons from a place outside Australia to a port in Australia; and

                     (c)  that service:

                              (i)  is provided in return for a fee payable by persons using the service; and

                             (ii)  is available to the general public.

             (5)  A determination made under subsection (3) is not a legislative instrument.

170  Certain persons to present evidence of identity

Persons on overseas vessels may be required to present evidence of identity

             (1)  A person, whether a citizen or a non‑citizen, who travels, or appears to intend to travel, on an overseas vessel from a port to another port may be required by a clearance officer at either port or by officers at both ports:

                     (a)  to present to the officer or an authorised system prescribed evidence (which might include a personal identifier referred to in subsection (2A)) of the person’s identity; and

                     (b)  to provide to the officer or an authorised system any information (including the person’s signature, but not any other personal identifier) required by this Act or the regulations.

Certain persons to provide personal identifiers

             (2)  If prescribed circumstances exist, a non‑citizen who travels, or appears to intend to travel, on an overseas vessel from a port to another port must be required by a clearance authority at either or both ports to provide one or more personal identifiers referred to in subsection (2A) to a clearance officer.

Who may use an authorised system

       (2AA)  A person may comply with a requirement referred to in subsection (1) to present evidence, or provide information, to an authorised system only if:

                     (a)  the person holds an eligible passport; and

                     (c)  either:

                              (i)  before the person leaves the port at which the requirement is made, neither the system nor a clearance officer requires the person to present or provide evidence, information or personal identifiers referred to in subsection (1) or (2) (other than a passenger card) to a clearance officer; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (i) applies—a clearance officer determines that the person has complied with the requirement referred to in subsection (1).

Complying with subsection (2)

          (2A)  Under paragraph (1)(a) and subsection (2), a person may only be required to present or provide (including in digital form) one or more of the following personal identifiers:

                     (a)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                     (b)  the person’s signature;

                     (c)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                     (d)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit a clearance officer’s power under paragraph (1)(a) to require a non‑citizen to present to the officer or an authorised system evidence (which might include a personal identifier) of the non‑citizen’s identity.

             (4)  A non‑citizen is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in subsection (2) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

             (5)  However, subsection (4) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

171  Assistance with evidence

                   If a person:

                     (a)  cannot comply with section 166 by presenting evidence; and

                     (b)  requests the Department to assist him or her to obtain that evidence;

that assistance may be given but only on payment of, or agreement to pay, a prescribed fee to meet the cost of doing so.

172  Immigration clearance

When a person is immigration cleared

             (1)  A person is immigration cleared if, and only if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  enters Australia at a port; and

                             (ii)  complies with section 166; and

                            (iii)  leaves the port at which the person complied and so leaves with the permission of a clearance authority and otherwise than in immigration detention; or

                     (b)  the person:

                              (i)  enters Australia otherwise than at a port; and

                             (ii)  complies with section 166; and

                            (iii)  leaves the prescribed place at which the person complied and so leaves with the permission of a clearance authority and otherwise than in immigration detention; or

                   (ba)  the person:

                              (i)  enters Australia by virtue of the operation of section 10; and

                             (ii)  at the time of the person’s birth, had at least one parent who was immigration cleared on his or her last entry into Australia; or

                     (c)  the person is refused immigration clearance, or bypasses immigration clearance, and is subsequently granted a substantive visa; or

                     (d)  the person is in a prescribed class of persons.

When a person is in immigration clearance

             (2)  A person is in immigration clearance if the person:

                     (a)  is with an officer or at an authorised system for the purposes of section 166; and

                     (b)  has not been refused immigration clearance.

When a person is refused immigration clearance

             (3)  A person is refused immigration clearance if the person:

                     (a)  is with a clearance officer for the purposes of section 166; and

                     (b)  satisfies one or more of the following subparagraphs:

                              (i)  the person has his or her visa cancelled;

                             (ii)  the person refuses, or is unable, to present to a clearance officer evidence referred to in paragraph 166(1)(a);

                            (iii)  the person refuses, or is unable, to provide to a clearance officer information referred to in paragraph 166(1)(b);

                            (iv)  the person refuses, or is unable, to comply with any requirement referred to in paragraph 166(1)(c) to provide one or more personal identifiers to a clearance officer.

When a person bypasses immigration clearance

             (4)  A person, other than a person who is refused immigration clearance, bypasses immigration clearance if:

                     (a)  the person:

                              (i)  enters Australia at a port; and

                             (ii)  is required to comply with section 166; and

                            (iii)  leaves that port without complying; or

                     (b)  the person:

                              (i)  enters Australia otherwise than at a port; and

                             (ii)  is required to comply with section 166; and

                            (iii)  does not comply within the prescribed period for doing so.

173  Visa ceases if holder enters in way not permitted

             (1)  If the holder of a visa enters Australia in a way that contravenes section 43, or regulations to which that section is subject, the visa ceases to be in effect.

          (1A)  A maritime crew visa held by a non‑citizen does not cease to be in effect under subsection (1) if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen travels to and enters Australia by air; and

                     (b)  at the time the non‑citizen travels to and enters Australia, the non‑citizen holds another class of visa that is in effect.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a non‑citizen child who is taken to have been granted a visa or visas, at the time of the child’s birth, by virtue of the operation of section 78, is not to be taken, by virtue of that birth, to have entered Australia in a way that contravenes section 43 or regulations to which that section is subject.

174  Visa ceases if holder remains without immigration clearance

                   If the holder of a visa:

                     (a)  is required to comply with section 166; and

                     (b)  does not comply;

the visa ceases to be in effect.

175  Departing person to present certain evidence etc.

Departing persons may be required to present evidence etc.

             (1)  A clearance officer may require a person who is on board, or about to board, a vessel that is to leave Australia (whether or not after calling at places in Australia) to:

                     (a)  present the following evidence (which might include a personal identifier referred to in subsection (2A)) to the officer or an authorised system:

                              (i)  if the person is a citizen (whether or not the person is also the national of a country other than Australia)—the person’s Australian passport or prescribed other evidence of the person’s identity and Australian citizenship;

                             (ii)  if the person is a non‑citizen—evidence of the person’s identity and permission to remain in Australia; and

                     (b)  provide to the officer or an authorised system any information (including the person’s signature, but not any other personal identifier) required by this Act or the regulations.

Certain persons to provide personal identifiers

             (2)  If prescribed circumstances exist, a non‑citizen who is on board, or about to board, a vessel that is to leave Australia (whether or not after calling at places in Australia) must be required by a clearance authority to provide one or more personal identifiers referred to in subsection (2A) to a clearance officer.

Who may use an authorised system

       (2AA)  A person may comply with a requirement referred to in subsection (1) to present evidence, or provide information, to an authorised system only if:

                     (a)  the person holds an eligible passport; and

                     (c)  either:

                              (i)  before the vessel leaves Australia, neither the system nor a clearance officer requires the person to present or provide evidence, information or personal identifiers referred to in subsection (1) or (2) (other than a passenger card) to a clearance officer; or

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (i) applies—a clearance officer determines that the person has complied with the requirement referred to in subsection (1).

Complying with paragraph (1)(a) and subsection (2)

          (2A)  Under paragraph (1)(a) and subsection (2), a person may only be required to present or provide (including in digital form) one or more of the following personal identifiers:

                     (a)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                     (b)  the person’s signature;

                     (c)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                     (d)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit a clearance officer’s power under subparagraph (1)(a)(ii) to require a non‑citizen to present to the officer or an authorised system evidence (which might include a personal identifier) of the non‑citizen’s identity.

             (4)  A non‑citizen is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in subsection (2) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

             (5)  However, subsection (4) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

175A  Determinations relating to kinds of passports

                   For the purposes of this Division, the Minister or the Secretary may, by legislative instrument, determine that a specified kind of passport is an eligible passport.

Division 6Certain non‑citizens to be kept in immigration detention

176  Reason for Division

                   This Division is enacted because the Parliament considers that it is in the national interest that each non‑citizen who is a designated person should be kept in immigration detention until he or she:

                     (a)  leaves Australia; or

                     (b)  is given a visa.

177  Interpretation

                   In this Division:

boat means a vessel of any description, but does not include an aircraft.

commencement means the commencement of this Division.

designated person means a non‑citizen who:

                     (a)  has been on a boat in the territorial sea of Australia after 19 November 1989 and before 1 September 1994; and

                     (b)  has not presented a visa; and

                     (c)  is in the migration zone; and

                     (d)  has not been granted a visa; and

                     (e)  is a person to whom the Department has given a designation by:

                              (i)  determining and recording which boat he or she was on; and

                             (ii)  giving him or her an identifier that is not the same as an identifier given to another non‑citizen who was on that boat;

and includes a non‑citizen born in Australia whose mother is a designated person.

entry application, in relation to a person, means an application for:

                     (a)  a determination by the Minister that the person is a refugee; or

                     (b)  a visa for the person.

178  Designated persons to be in immigration detention

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), after commencement, a designated person must be kept in immigration detention.

             (2)  A designated person is to be released from immigration detention if, and only if, he or she is:

                     (a)  removed from Australia under section 181; or

                     (b)  granted a visa under section 65, 351, 391, 417 or 454.

             (3)  This section is subject to section 182.

             (4)  To avoid doubt and despite section 182, if subsection 181(3) applies to a designated person, the person must be kept in immigration detention until the person is removed from Australia under that subsection.

179  Beginning of immigration detention of certain designated persons

             (1)  If, immediately after commencement, a designated person is in a place described in paragraph 11(a) (as in force at that time) or a processing area, he or she then begins to be in immigration detention for the purposes of section 178.

             (2)  If, immediately after commencement, a designated person is in the company of, and restrained by, a person described in paragraph 11(b) (as in force at that time), the designated person then begins to be in immigration detention for the purposes of section 178.

180  Detention of designated person

             (1)  If a designated person is not in immigration detention immediately after commencement, an officer may, without warrant:

                     (a)  detain the person; and

                     (b)  take reasonable action to ensure that the person is kept in immigration detention for the purposes of section 178.

             (2)  Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), that subsection even applies to a designated person who was held in a place described in paragraph 11(a) (as in force at that time) or a processing area before commencement and whose release was ordered by a court.

             (3)  If a designated person escapes from immigration detention after commencement, an officer may, without warrant:

                     (a)  detain the person; and

                     (b)  take reasonable action to ensure that the person is kept in immigration detention for the purposes of section 178.

181  Removal from Australia of designated persons

             (1)  An officer must remove a designated person from Australia as soon as practicable if the designated person asks the Minister, in writing, to be removed.

             (2)  An officer must remove a designated person from Australia as soon as practicable if:

                     (a)  the person has been in Australia for at least 2 months or, if a longer period is prescribed, at least that prescribed period; and

                     (b)  there has not been an entry application for the person.

             (3)  An officer must remove a designated person from Australia as soon as practicable if:

                     (a)  there has been an entry application for the person; and

                     (b)  the grant of the visa has been refused; and

                     (c)  all appeals against, or reviews of, the refusal (if any) have been finalised.

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  2 designated persons are liable to be removed from Australia under this section; and

                     (b)  they are the parents of another designated person in Australia who is under 18;

the other designated person is to be removed from Australia.

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  a designated person is liable to be removed from Australia under this section; and

                     (b)  he or she is the only parent in Australia of another designated person in Australia who is under 18;

the other designated person is to be removed from Australia.

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  2 designated persons are liable to be removed from Australia under this section; and

                     (b)  they have the care and control of another designated person in Australia who:

                              (i)  is under 18; and

                             (ii)  does not have a parent who is a designated person;

the other designated person is to be removed from Australia.

             (7)  If:

                     (a)  a designated person is liable to be removed from Australia under this section; and

                     (b)  he or she is the only person who has the care and control of another designated person in Australia who:

                              (i)  is under 18; and

                             (ii)  does not have a parent who is a designated person;

the other designated person is to be removed from Australia.

             (8)  This section is subject to section 182.

182  No immigration detention or removal after certain period

             (1)  Sections 178 and 181 cease to apply to a designated person who was in Australia on 27 April 1992 if the person has been in application immigration detention after commencement for a continuous period of, or periods whose sum is, 273 days.

             (2)  Sections 178 and 181 cease to apply to a designated person who was not in Australia on 27 April 1992, if:

                     (a)  there has been an entry application for the person; and

                     (b)  the person has been in application immigration detention, after the making of the application, for a continuous period of, or periods whose sum is, 273 days.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, a person is in application immigration detention if:

                     (a)  the person is in immigration detention; and

                     (b)  an entry application for the person is being dealt with;

unless one of the following is happening:

                     (c)  the Department is waiting for information relating to the application to be given by a person who is not under the control of the Department;

                     (d)  the dealing with the application is at a stage whose duration is under the control of the person or of an adviser or representative of the person;

                     (e)  court or tribunal proceedings relating to the application have been begun and not finalised;

                      (f)  continued dealing with the application is otherwise beyond the control of the Department.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, an entry application that has been refused is not being dealt with within the meaning of paragraph (3)(b) because only there could be an appeal against, or an application for the review of, the refusal.

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  an entry application for a designated person has been refused; and

                     (b)  because of a direction or decision of a court or tribunal, the application is required to be considered further;

whichever of subsection (1) or (2) applies to the designated person so applies as if the reference in it to 273 days were a reference to that number of days increased by 90 as well as by any number by which it has been increased under this subsection in relation to that entry application before.

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  an entry application for a designated person has been refused; and

                     (b)  apart from this subsection, section 178 would cease to apply to the person; and

                     (c)  the person begins court or tribunal proceedings in relation to the refusal;

that section applies to the person during both these proceedings and the period of 90 days after they end, whether or not this subsection has applied to that entry application before.

183  Courts must not release designated persons

                   A court is not to order the release from immigration detention of a designated person.

185  Effect of Division on status etc.

             (1)  This Division does not affect the other status that a designated person has under this Act except so far as the status is inconsistent with section 178, 179, 180, 181 or 183.

             (2)  This Division does not affect the rights of a designated person under this Act except so far as they, or their exercise, are inconsistent with section 178, 179, 180, 181 or 183.

             (3)  This Division does not affect any application made by a designated person under this Act except so far as the application, or the success of the application, is inconsistent with section 178, 179, 180, 181 or 183.

186  Division applies despite other laws

                   If this Division is inconsistent with another provision of this Act or with another law in force in Australia, whether written or unwritten, other than the Constitution:

                     (a)  this Division applies; and

                     (b)  the other law only applies so far as it is capable of operating concurrently with this Division.

187  Evidence

                   A statement by an officer, on oath or affirmation, that the Department has given a particular person a designation described in paragraph (e) of the definition of designated person in section 177 is conclusive evidence that the Department has given that person that designation.

Division 7Detention of unlawful non‑citizens

Subdivision AGeneral provisions

188  Lawful non‑citizen to give evidence of being so

Officer may require evidence

             (1)  An officer may require a person whom the officer knows or reasonably suspects is a non‑citizen to:

                     (a)  present to the officer evidence (which might include a personal identifier referred to in subsection (4A)) of being a lawful non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  present to the officer evidence (which might include a personal identifier referred to in subsection (4A)) of the person’s identity.

             (2)  The person must comply with the requirement within a period specified by the officer, being a prescribed period or such further period as the officer allows.

             (3)  Regulations prescribing a period for compliance may prescribe different periods and the circumstances in which a particular prescribed period is to apply which may be:

                     (a)  when the requirement is oral; or

                     (b)  when the requirement is in writing.

Certain persons to provide personal identifiers

             (4)  If prescribed circumstances exist, the officer must require the person to provide one or more personal identifiers referred to in subsection (4A) to an officer.

Complying with subsections (1) and (4)

          (4A)  Under subsections (1) and (4), a person may only be required to present or provide (including in digital form) one or more of the following personal identifiers:

                     (a)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                     (b)  the person’s signature;

                     (c)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                     (d)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

             (5)  Subsection (4) does not limit the officer’s power under subsection (1) to require the person to present to the officer evidence (which might include a personal identifier) of the person’s identity or evidence of the person being a lawful non‑citizen.

             (6)  A person is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in subsection (4) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

             (7)  However, subsection (6) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the person:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

189  Detention of unlawful non‑citizens

             (1)  If an officer knows or reasonably suspects that a person in the migration zone (other than an excised offshore place) is an unlawful non‑citizen, the officer must detain the person.

             (2)  If an officer reasonably suspects that a person in Australia but outside the migration zone:

                     (a)  is seeking to enter the migration zone (other than an excised offshore place); and

                     (b)  would, if in the migration zone, be an unlawful non‑citizen;

the officer may detain the person.

             (3)  If an officer knows or reasonably suspects that a person (other than a person referred to in subsection (3A)) in an excised offshore place is an unlawful non‑citizen, the officer must detain the person.

          (3A)  If an officer knows or reasonably suspects that a person in a protected area:

                     (a)  is a citizen of Papua New Guinea; and

                     (b)  is an unlawful non‑citizen;

the officer may detain the person.

             (4)  If an officer reasonably suspects that a person in Australia but outside the migration zone:

                     (a)  is seeking to enter an excised offshore place; and

                     (b)  would, if in the migration zone, be an unlawful non‑citizen;

the officer may detain the person.

             (5)  In subsections (3), (3A) and (4) and any other provisions of this Act that relate to those subsections, officer means an officer within the meaning of section 5, and includes a member of the Australian Defence Force.

Note:          See Subdivision B for the Minister’s power to determine that people who are required or permitted by this section to be detained may reside at places not covered by the definition of immigration detention in subsection 5(1).

190  Non‑compliance with immigration clearance or section 192 basis of detention

             (1)  For the purposes of section 189, an officer suspects on reasonable grounds that a person in Australia is an unlawful non‑citizen if, but not only if, the officer knows, or suspects on reasonable grounds, that the person:

                     (a)  was required to comply with section 166; and

                     (b)  did one or more of the following:

                              (i)  bypassed, attempted to bypass, or appeared to attempt to bypass, immigration clearance;

                             (ii)  went to a clearance authority but was not able to present, or otherwise did not present, evidence required by section 166 to be presented;

                            (iii)  if a non‑citizen—went to a clearance authority but was not able to provide, or otherwise did not provide, information required by section 166 to be provided;

                            (iv)  if a non‑citizen—went to a clearance officer but was not able to comply with, or did not otherwise comply with, any requirement referred to in section 166 to provide one or more personal identifiers to the clearance officer.

             (2)  For the purposes of section 189, an officer suspects on reasonable grounds that a person in Australia is an unlawful non‑citizen if, but not only if, that person fails to provide a personal identifier, under subsection 192(2A), of a type or types prescribed.

191  End of certain detention

             (1)  A person detained because of section 190 must be released from immigration detention if:

                     (a)  the person gives evidence of his or her identity and Australian citizenship; or

                     (b)  an officer knows or reasonably believes that the person is an Australian citizen; or

                     (c)  the person complies with section 166 and either:

                              (i)  presents to a clearance officer evidence of being a lawful non‑citizen; or

                             (ii)  is granted a visa.

             (2)  A person detained because of subsection 190(2) must be released from immigration detention if:

                     (a)  the person provides to an authorised officer one or more personal identifiers of the type or types prescribed, and the officer is satisfied that the person is not an unlawful non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  the person gives evidence of his or her identity and Australian citizenship; or

                     (c)  an officer knows or reasonably believes that the person is an Australian citizen; or

                     (d)  the officer becomes aware that the non‑citizen’s visa is not one that may be cancelled under Subdivision C, D or G of Division 3 or section 501 or 501A.

192  Detention of visa holders whose visas liable to cancellation

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), if an officer knows or reasonably suspects that a non‑citizen holds a visa that may be cancelled under Subdivision C, D or G of Division 3 or section 501 or 501A, the officer may detain the non‑citizen.

             (2)  An officer must not detain an immigration cleared non‑citizen under subsection (1) unless the officer reasonably suspects that if the non‑citizen is not detained, the non‑citizen would:

                     (a)  attempt to evade the officer and other officers; or

                     (b)  otherwise not co‑operate with officers in their inquiries about the non‑citizen’s visa and matters relating to the visa.

          (2A)  If a non‑citizen is detained under subsection (1) and prescribed circumstances exist, the non‑citizen must be required by an officer to provide one or more personal identifiers.

       (2AA)  An officer must not require, for the purposes of subsection (2A), a person to provide a personal identifier other than any of the following (including any of the following in digital form):

                     (a)  a photograph or other image of the person’s face and shoulders;

                     (b)  the person’s signature;

                     (c)  any other personal identifier contained in the person’s passport or other travel document;

                     (d)  any other personal identifier of a type prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph.

Note:          Division 13AB sets out further restrictions on the personal identifiers that minors and incapable persons can be required to provide.

          (2B)  A non‑citizen is taken not to have complied with a requirement referred to in subsection (2A) unless the one or more personal identifiers are provided by way of one or more identification tests carried out by an authorised officer.

Note:          If the types of identification tests that the authorised officer may carry out are specified under section 5D, then each identification test must be of a type so specified.

          (2C)  However, subsection (2B) does not apply, in circumstances prescribed for the purposes of this subsection, if the personal identifier is of a prescribed type and the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  provides a personal identifier otherwise than by way of an identification test carried out by an authorised officer; and

                     (b)  complies with any further requirements that are prescribed relating to the provision of the personal identifier.

             (3)  An officer may question a non‑citizen detained because of this section about the visa and matters relevant to the visa.

             (4)  A non‑citizen detained under subsection (1) must be released from questioning detention if the officer becomes aware that the non‑citizen’s visa is not one that may be cancelled under Subdivision C, D or G of Division 3 or section 501 or 501A.

             (5)  A non‑citizen detained under subsection (1) must be released from detention within 4 hours after being detained, unless the non‑citizen is detained under section 189 because of subsection 190(2).

             (6)  If the non‑citizen has been detained because of subsection (1) more than once in any period of 48 hours, the 4 hours provided for by subsection (5) is reduced by so much of the earlier period of detention as occurred within that 48 hours.

             (7)  In finding out whether 4 hours have passed since a non‑citizen was detained, the following times are to be disregarded:

                     (a)  if the detainee is detained at a place that is inappropriate for questioning the detainee, the time that is reasonably required to take the detainee from that place to the nearest place that is appropriate;

                     (b)  any time during which the questioning is suspended or delayed to allow the detainee, or someone else on the detainee’s behalf, to communicate with a legal practitioner, friend, relative, guardian, interpreter or consular representative of the country of which the detainee is a citizen;

                     (c)  any time during which the questioning is suspended or delayed to allow a person so communicated with or an interpreter required by an officer to arrive at the place where the questioning is to take place;

                     (d)  any time during which the questioning is suspended or delayed to allow the detainee to receive medical attention;

                     (e)  any time during which the questioning is suspended or delayed because of the detainee’s intoxication;

                      (f)  any reasonable time during which the questioning is suspended or delayed to allow the detainee to rest or recuperate.

Note:          Section 5G may be relevant for determining relationships for the purposes of paragraph (7)(b).

             (8)  In paragraph (7)(b), guardian includes a person who is responsible, under a parenting order (within the meaning of the Family Law Act 1975), for the detainee’s long‑term care, welfare and development.

192A  Authorisation of identification tests in certain cases

Requests that authorisation be obtained

             (1)  If a person is required, under section 188 or 192, to provide one or more personal identifiers, he or she may request that an authorisation be obtained under this section. If the person makes such a request, he or she cannot be taken not to have complied with the requirement unless the authorisation is obtained.

             (2)  If a minor or an incapable person is required, under section 188 or 192, to provide one or more personal identifiers:

                     (a)  a parent or guardian of the minor or incapable person; or

                     (b)  if no parent or guardian of the minor or incapable person is readily available—an independent person;

may request that an authorisation be obtained under this section. If the parent, guardian or independent person makes such a request, the minor or incapable person cannot be taken not to have complied with the requirement unless the authorisation is obtained.

Applications for authorisation

             (3)  If, under subsection (1) or (2), a request has been made that an authorisation be obtained under this section, an authorised officer or officer must apply to a senior authorising officer for an authorisation relating to the person required to provide one or more personal identifiers.

             (4)  The senior authorising officer to whom the application is made must not be the authorised officer or officer who is requiring the person to provide one or more personal identifiers.

Authorisation

             (5)  The senior authorising officer must give the authorisation if he or she is reasonably satisfied that the person is:

                     (a)  a person whom an officer, in the course of exercising or considering the exercising of his or her powers under section 188, knows or reasonably suspects is a non‑citizen; or

                     (b)  detained for questioning detention under section 192.

             (6)  An authorisation under subsection (5):

                     (a)  may be given by telephone, fax or other electronic means; and

                     (b)  must be recorded in writing, and signed by the person giving the authorisation, within one business day after it is given.

             (7)  A failure to comply with paragraph (6)(b) does not affect the validity of an identification test carried out on the basis of that authorisation.

             (8)  The power to give an authorisation under subsection (5) cannot be delegated to any other person.

Definition

             (9)  In this section:

senior authorising officer means an officer whom the Secretary has authorised, or who is included in a class of officers whom the Secretary has authorised, to perform the functions of a senior authorising officer under this section.

193  Application of law to certain non‑citizens while they remain in immigration detention

             (1)  Sections 194 and 195 do not apply to a person:

                     (a)  detained under subsection 189(1):

                              (i)  on being refused immigration clearance; or

                             (ii)  after bypassing immigration clearance; or

                            (iii)  after being prevented from leaving a vessel under section 249; or

                            (iv)  because of a decision the Minister has made personally under section 501, 501A or 501B to refuse to grant a visa to the person or to cancel a visa that has been granted to the person; or

                     (b)  detained under subsection 189(1) who:

                              (i)  has entered Australia after 30 August 1994; and

                             (ii)  has not been immigration cleared since last entering; or

                     (c)  detained under subsection 189(2), (3), (3A) or (4); or

                     (d)  detained under section 189 who:

                              (i)  held an enforcement visa that has ceased to be in effect; and

                             (ii)  has not been granted a substantive visa since the enforcement visa ceased to be in effect.

             (2)  Apart from section 256, nothing in this Act or in any other law (whether written or unwritten) requires the Minister or any officer to:

                    (aa)  give a person covered by subsection (1) an application form for a visa; or

                     (a)  advise a person covered by subsection (1) as to whether the person may apply for a visa; or

                     (b)  give a person covered by subsection (1) any opportunity to apply for a visa; or

                     (c)  allow a person covered by subsection (1) access to advice (whether legal or otherwise) in connection with applications for visas.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  a person covered by subsection (1) has not made a complaint in writing to the Australian Human Rights Commission, paragraph 20(6)(b) of the Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986 does not apply to the person; and

                     (c)  a person covered by subsection (1) has not made a complaint to the Postal Industry Ombudsman, paragraph 7(3)(b) of the Ombudsman Act 1976 (as that paragraph applies because of section 19R of that Act) does not apply to the person.

             (4)  This section applies to a person covered by subsection (1) for as long as the person remains in immigration detention.

194  Detainee to be told of consequences of detention

                   As soon as reasonably practicable after an officer detains a person under section 189, the officer must ensure that the person is made aware of:

                     (a)  the provisions of sections 195 and 196; and

                     (b)  if a visa held by the person has been cancelled under section 137J—the provisions of section 137K.

195  Detainee may apply for visa

             (1)  A detainee may apply for a visa:

                     (a)  within 2 working days after the day on which section 194 was complied with in relation to his or her detention; or

                     (b)  if he or she informs an officer in writing within those 2 working days of his or her intention to so apply—within the next 5 working days after those 2 working days.

             (2)  A detainee who does not apply for a visa within the time allowed by subsection (1) may not apply for a visa, other than a bridging visa or a protection visa, after that time.

195A  Minister may grant detainee visa (whether or not on application)

Persons to whom section applies

             (1)  This section applies to a person who is in detention under section 189.

Minister may grant visa

             (2)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may grant a person to whom this section applies a visa of a particular class (whether or not the person has applied for the visa).

             (3)  In exercising the power under subsection (2), the Minister is not bound by Subdivision AA, AC or AF of Division 3 of this Part or by the regulations, but is bound by all other provisions of this Act.

Minister not under duty to consider whether to exercise power

             (4)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (2), whether he or she is requested to do so by any person, or in any other circumstances.

Minister to exercise power personally

             (5)  The power under subsection (2) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

Tabling of information relating to the granting of visas

             (6)  If the Minister grants a visa under subsection (2), he or she must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that (subject to subsection (7)):

                     (a)  states that the Minister has granted a visa under this section; and

                     (b)  sets out the Minister’s reasons for granting the visa, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that the grant is in the public interest.

             (7)  A statement under subsection (6) in relation to a decision to grant a visa is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of the person to whom the visa is granted; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the person to whom the visa is granted; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the grant of the visa—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (8)  A statement under subsection (6) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the decision to grant the visa is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the decision to grant the visa is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

196  Duration of detention

             (1)  An unlawful non‑citizen detained under section 189 must be kept in immigration detention until:

                     (a)  he or she is removed from Australia under section 198 or 199; or

                    (aa)  an officer begins to deal with the non‑citizen under subsection 198AD(3); or

                     (b)  he or she is deported under section 200; or

                     (c)  he or she is granted a visa.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, subsection (1) does not prevent the release from immigration detention of a citizen or a lawful non‑citizen.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, subsection (1) prevents the release, even by a court, of an unlawful non‑citizen from detention (otherwise than as referred to in paragraph (1)(a), (aa) or (b)) unless the non‑citizen has been granted a visa.

             (4)  Subject to paragraphs (1)(a), (b) and (c), if the person is detained as a result of the cancellation of his or her visa under section 501, the detention is to continue unless a court finally determines that the detention is unlawful, or that the person detained is not an unlawful non‑citizen.

          (4A)  Subject to paragraphs (1)(a), (b) and (c), if the person is detained pending his or her deportation under section 200, the detention is to continue unless a court finally determines that the detention is unlawful.

             (5)  To avoid doubt, subsection (4) or (4A) applies:

                     (a)  whether or not there is a real likelihood of the person detained being removed from Australia under section 198 or 199, or deported under section 200, in the reasonably foreseeable future; and

                     (b)  whether or not a visa decision relating to the person detained is, or may be, unlawful.

          (5A)  Subsections (4) and (4A) do not affect by implication the continuation of the detention of a person to whom those subsections do not apply.

             (6)  This section has effect despite any other law.

             (7)  In this section:

visa decision means a decision relating to a visa (including a decision not to grant the visa, to cancel the visa or not to reinstate the visa).

197  Effect of escape from immigration detention

                   If a non‑citizen:

                     (a)  was in immigration detention; and

                     (b)  escaped from that detention; and

                     (c)  was taken back into that detention;

then, for the purposes of sections 194 and 195, the non‑citizen is taken not to have ceased to be in immigration detention.

Subdivision BResidence determinations

197AA  Persons to whom Subdivision applies

                   This Subdivision applies to a person who is required or permitted by section 189 to be detained, or who is in detention under that section.

197AB  Minister may determine that person is to reside at a specified place rather than being held in detention centre etc.

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may make a determination (a residence determination) to the effect that one or more specified persons to whom this Subdivision applies are to reside at a specified place, instead of being detained at a place covered by the definition of immigration detention in subsection 5(1).

             (2)  A residence determination must:

                     (a)  specify the person or persons covered by the determination by name, not by description of a class of persons; and

                     (b)  specify the conditions to be complied with by the person or persons covered by the determination.

             (3)  A residence determination must be made by notice in writing to the person or persons covered by the determination.

197AC  Effect of residence determination

Act and regulations apply as if person were in detention in accordance with section 189

             (1)  While a residence determination is in force, this Act and the regulations apply (subject to subsection (3)) to a person who is covered by the determination and who is residing at the place specified in the determination as if the person were being kept in immigration detention at that place in accordance with section 189.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a person covered by a residence determination is temporarily staying at a place other than the place specified in the determination; and

                     (b)  the person is not breaching any condition specified in the determination by staying there;

then, for the purposes of subsection (1), the person is taken still to be residing at the place specified in the determination.

Certain provisions do not apply to people covered by residence determinations

             (3)  Subsection (1):

                     (a)  does not apply for the purposes of section 197 or 197A, or any of sections 252AA to 252E; and

                     (b)  does not apply for the purposes of any other provisions of this Act or the regulations that are specified in regulations made for the purposes of this paragraph.

What constitutes release from immigration detention?

             (4)  If:

                     (a)  a residence determination is in force in relation to a person; and

                     (b)  a provision of this Act requires the person to be released from immigration detention, or this Act no longer requires or permits the person to be detained;

then, at the time when paragraph (b) becomes satisfied, the residence determination, so far as it covers the person, is revoked by force of this subsection and the person is, by that revocation, released from immigration detention.

Note:          Because the residence determination is revoked, the person is no longer subject to the conditions specified in the determination.

             (5)  If a person is released from immigration detention by operation of subsection (4), the Secretary must, as soon as possible, notify the person that he or she has been so released.

Secretary must ensure section 256 complied with

             (6)  The Secretary must ensure that a person covered by a residence determination is given forms and facilities as and when required by section 256.

197AD  Revocation or variation of residence determination

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, at any time, revoke or vary a residence determination in any respect (subject to subsection (2)).

Note 1:       If a person covered by a residence determination does not comply with a condition specified in the determination, the Minister may (subject to the public interest test) decide to revoke the determination, or to vary the determination by altering the conditions, whether by omitting or amending one or more existing conditions or by adding one or more additional conditions.

Note 2:       If the Minister revokes a residence determination (without making a replacement determination) and a person covered by the determination is a person whom section 189 requires to be detained, the person will then have to be taken into detention at a place that is covered by the definition of immigration detention in subsection 5(1).

             (2)  Any variation of a residence determination must be such that the determination, as varied, will comply with subsections 197AB(1) and (2).

             (3)  A revocation or variation of a residence determination must be made by notice in writing to the person or persons covered by the determination.

197AE  Minister not under duty to consider whether to exercise powers

                   The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power to make, vary or revoke a residence determination, whether he or she is requested to do so by any person, or in any other circumstances.

197AF  Minister to exercise powers personally

                   The power to make, vary or revoke a residence determination may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

197AG  Tabling of information relating to the making of residence determinations

             (1)  If the Minister makes a residence determination, he or she must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that (subject to subsection (2)):

                     (a)  states that the Minister has made a determination under this section; and

                     (b)  sets out the Minister’s reasons for making the determination, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that the determination is in the public interest.

             (2)  A statement under subsection (1) in relation to a residence determination is not to include:

                     (a)  the name of any person covered by the determination; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify any person covered by the determination; or

                     (c)  the address, name or location of the place specified in the determination; or

                     (d)  any information that may identify the address, name or location of the place specified in the determination; or

                     (e)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the determination—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (3)  A statement under subsection (1) is to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the residence determination is made between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the residence determination is made between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

Division 7AOffences relating to immigration detention

197A  Detainees must not escape from detention

                   A detainee must not escape from immigration detention.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

197B  Manufacture, possession etc. of weapons by detainees

             (1)  A detainee is guilty of an offence if he or she manufactures, possesses, uses or distributes a weapon.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 5 years.

             (2)  In this section:

weapon includes:

                     (a)  a thing made or adapted for use for inflicting bodily injury; or

                     (b)  a thing where the detainee who has the thing intends or threatens to use the thing, or intends that the thing be used, to inflict bodily injury.

Division 8Removal of unlawful non‑citizens etc.

Subdivision ARemoval

198  Removal from Australia of unlawful non‑citizens

             (1)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen who asks the Minister, in writing, to be so removed.

          (1A)  In the case of an unlawful non‑citizen who has been brought to Australia under section 198B for a temporary purpose, an officer must remove the person as soon as reasonably practicable after the person no longer needs to be in Australia for that purpose (whether or not the purpose has been achieved).

             (2)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen:

                     (a)  who is covered by subparagraph 193(1)(a)(i), (ii) or (iii) or paragraph 193(1)(b), (c) or (d); and

                     (b)  who has not subsequently been immigration cleared; and

                     (c)  who either:

                              (i)  has not made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone; or

                             (ii)  has made a valid application for a substantive visa, that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone, that has been finally determined.

          (2A)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is covered by subparagraph 193(1)(a)(iv); and

                     (b)  since the Minister’s decision (the original decision) referred to in subparagraph 193(1)(a)(iv), the non‑citizen has not made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the non‑citizen is in the migration zone; and

                     (c)  in a case where the non‑citizen has been invited, in accordance with section 501C, to make representations to the Minister about revocation of the original decision—either:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen has not made representations in accordance with the invitation and the period for making representations has ended; or

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen has made representations in accordance with the invitation and the Minister has decided not to revoke the original decision.

Note:          The only visa that the non‑citizen could apply for is a protection visa or a visa specified in regulations under section 501E.

             (3)  The fact that an unlawful non‑citizen is eligible to apply for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone but has not done so does not prevent the application of subsection (2) or (2A) to him or her.

             (5)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen if the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  is a detainee; and

                     (b)  was entitled to apply for a visa in accordance with section 195, to apply under section 137K for revocation of the cancellation of a visa, or both, but did neither.

             (6)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is a detainee; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone; and

                     (c)  one of the following applies:

                              (i)  the grant of the visa has been refused and the application has been finally determined;

                            (iii)  the visa cannot be granted; and

                     (d)  the non‑citizen has not made another valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone.

             (7)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is a detainee; and

                     (b)  Subdivision AI of Division 3 of this Part applies to the non‑citizen; and

                     (c)  either:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen has not been immigration cleared; or

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen has not made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone; and

                     (d)  either:

                              (i)  the Minister has not given a notice under paragraph 91F(1)(a) to the non‑citizen; or

                             (ii)  the Minister has given such a notice but the period mentioned in that paragraph has ended and the non‑citizen has not, during that period, made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone.

             (8)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is a detainee; and

                     (b)  Subdivision AJ of Division 3 of this Part applies to the non‑citizen; and

                     (c)  either:

                              (i)  the Minister has not given a notice under subsection 91L(1) to the non‑citizen; or

                             (ii)  the Minister has given such a notice but the period mentioned in that subsection has ended and the non‑citizen has not, during that period, made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone.

             (9)  An officer must remove as soon as reasonably practicable an unlawful non‑citizen if:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is a detainee; and

                     (b)  Subdivision AK of Division 3 of this Part applies to the non‑citizen; and

                     (c)  either:

                              (i)  the non‑citizen has not been immigration cleared; or

                             (ii)  the non‑citizen has not made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone; and

                     (d)  either:

                              (i)  the Minister has not given a notice under subsection 91Q(1) to the non‑citizen; or

                             (ii)  the Minister has given such a notice but the period mentioned in that subsection has ended and the non‑citizen has not, during that period, made a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone.

           (10)  For the purposes of subsections (6) to (9), a valid application under section 137K for revocation of the cancellation of a visa is treated as though it were a valid application for a substantive visa that can be granted when the applicant is in the migration zone.

           (11)  This section does not apply to an unauthorised maritime arrival to whom section 198AD applies.

Subdivision BRegional processing

198AA  Reason for Subdivision

                   This Subdivision is enacted because the Parliament considers that:

                     (a)  people smuggling, and its undesirable consequences including the resulting loss of life at sea, are major regional problems that need to be addressed; and

                     (b)  unauthorised maritime arrivals, including unauthorised maritime arrivals in respect of whom Australia has or may have protection obligations under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol, should be able to be taken to any country designated to be a regional processing country; and

                     (c)  it is a matter for the Minister and Parliament to decide which countries should be designated as regional processing countries; and

                     (d)  the designation of a country to be a regional processing country need not be determined by reference to the international obligations or domestic law of that country.

198AB  Regional processing country

             (1)  The Minister may, by legislative instrument, designate that a country is a regional processing country.

          (1A)  A legislative instrument under subsection (1):

                     (a)  may designate only one country; and

                     (b)  must not provide that the designation ceases to have effect.

          (1B)  Despite subsection 12(1) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003, a legislative instrument under subsection (1) of this section commences at the earlier of the following times:

                     (a)  immediately after both Houses of the Parliament have passed a resolution approving the designation;

                     (b)  immediately after both of the following apply:

                              (i)  a copy of the designation has been laid before each House of the Parliament under section 198AC;

                             (ii)  5 sitting days of each House have passed since the copy was laid before that House without it passing a resolution disapproving the designation.

             (2)  The only condition for the exercise of the power under subsection (1) is that the Minister thinks that it is in the national interest to designate the country to be a regional processing country.

             (3)  In considering the national interest for the purposes of subsection (2), the Minister:

                     (a)  must have regard to whether or not the country has given Australia any assurances to the effect that:

                              (i)  the country will not expel or return a person taken to the country under section 198AD to another country where his or her life or freedom would be threatened on account of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion; and

                             (ii)  the country will make an assessment, or permit an assessment to be made, of whether or not a person taken to the country under that section is covered by the definition of refugee in Article 1A of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; and

                     (b)  may have regard to any other matter which, in the opinion of the Minister, relates to the national interest.

             (4)  The assurances referred to in paragraph (3)(a) need not be legally binding.

             (5)  The power under subsection (1) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (6)  If the Minister designates a country under subsection (1), the Minister may, by legislative instrument, revoke the designation.

             (7)  The rules of natural justice do not apply to the exercise of the power under subsection (1) or (6).

             (9)  In this section, country includes:

                     (a)  a colony, overseas territory or protectorate of a foreign country; and

                     (b)  an overseas territory for the international relations of which a foreign country is responsible.

198AC  Documents to be laid before Parliament

             (1)  This section applies if the Minister designates a country to be a regional processing country under subsection 198AB(1).

             (2)  The Minister must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament:

                     (a)  a copy of the designation; and

                     (b)  a statement of the Minister’s reasons for thinking it is in the national interest to designate the country to be a regional processing country, referring in particular to any assurances of a kind referred to in paragraph 198AB(3)(a) that have been given by the country; and

                     (c)  a copy of any written agreement between Australia and the country relating to the taking of persons to the country; and

                     (d)  a statement about the Minister’s consultations with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in relation to the designation, including the nature of those consultations; and

                     (e)  a summary of any advice received from that Office in relation to the designation; and

                      (f)  a statement about any arrangements that are in place, or are to be put in place, in the country for the treatment of persons taken to the country.

             (3)  The Minister must comply with subsection (2) within 2 sitting days of each House of the Parliament after the day on which the designation is made.

             (4)  The sole purpose of laying the documents referred to in subsection (2) before the Parliament is to inform the Parliament of the matters referred to in the documents and nothing in the documents affects the validity of the designation. Similarly, the fact that some or all of those documents do not exist does not affect the validity of the designation.

             (5)  A failure to comply with this section does not affect the validity of the designation.

             (6)  In this section, agreement includes an agreement, arrangement or understanding:

                     (a)  whether or not it is legally binding; and

                     (b)  whether it is made before, on or after the commencement of this section.

198AD  Taking unauthorised maritime arrivals to a regional processing country

             (1)  Subject to sections 198AE, 198AF and 198AG, this section applies to an unauthorised maritime arrival who is detained under section 189.

Note:          For when this section applies to a transitory person, see section 198AH.

             (2)  An officer must, as soon as reasonably practicable, take an unauthorised maritime arrival to whom this section applies from Australia to a regional processing country.

Powers of an officer

             (3)  For the purposes of subsection (2) and without limiting that subsection, an officer may do any or all of the following things within or outside Australia:

                     (a)  place the unauthorised maritime arrival on a vehicle or vessel;

                     (b)  restrain the unauthorised maritime arrival on a vehicle or vessel;

                     (c)  remove the unauthorised maritime arrival from:

                              (i)  the place at which the unauthorised maritime arrival is detained; or

                             (ii)  a vehicle or vessel;

                     (d)  use such force as is necessary and reasonable.

             (4)  If, in the course of taking an unauthorised maritime arrival to a regional processing country, an officer considers that it is necessary to return the unauthorised maritime arrival to Australia:

                     (a)  subsection (3) applies until the unauthorised maritime arrival is returned to Australia; and

                     (b)  section 42 does not apply in relation to the unauthorised maritime arrival’s return to Australia.

Ministerial direction

             (5)  If there are 2 or more regional processing countries, the Minister must, in writing, direct an officer to take an unauthorised maritime arrival, or a class of unauthorised maritime arrivals, under subsection (2) to the regional processing country specified by the Minister in the direction.

             (6)  If the Minister gives an officer a direction under subsection (5), the officer must comply with the direction.

             (7)  The duty under subsection (5) may only be performed by the Minister personally.

             (8)  The only condition for the performance of the duty under subsection (5) is that the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to direct the officer to take an unauthorised maritime arrival, or a class of unauthorised maritime arrivals, under subsection (2) to the regional processing country specified by the Minister in the direction.

             (9)  The rules of natural justice do not apply to the performance of the duty under subsection (5).

           (10)  A direction under subsection (5) is not a legislative instrument.

Not in immigration detention

           (11)  An unauthorised maritime arrival who is being dealt with under subsection (3) is taken not to be in immigration detention (as defined in subsection 5(1)).

Meaning of officer

           (12)  In this section, officer means an officer within the meaning of section 5, and includes a member of the Australian Defence Force.

198AE  Ministerial determination that section 198AD does not apply

             (1)  If the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so, the Minister may, in writing, determine that section 198AD does not apply to an unauthorised maritime arrival.

Note:          For specification by class, see the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

          (1A)  The Minister may, in writing, vary or revoke a determination made under subsection (1) if the Minister thinks that it is in the public interest to do so.

             (2)  The power under subsection (1) or (1A) may only be exercised by the Minister personally.

             (3)  The rules of natural justice do not apply to an exercise of the power under subsection (1) or (1A).

             (4)  If the Minister makes a determination under subsection (1) or varies or revokes a determination under subsection (1A), the Minister must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament a statement that:

                     (a)  sets out the determination, the determination as varied or the instrument of revocation; and

                     (b)  sets out the reasons for the determination, variation or revocation, referring in particular to the Minister’s reasons for thinking that the Minister’s actions are in the public interest.

             (5)  A statement under subsection (4) must not include:

                     (a)  the name of the unauthorised maritime arrival; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify the unauthorised maritime arrival; or

                     (c)  if the Minister thinks that it would not be in the public interest to publish the name of another person connected in any way with the matter concerned—the name of that other person or any information that may identify that other person.

             (6)  A statement under subsection (4) must be laid before each House of the Parliament within 15 sitting days of that House after:

                     (a)  if the determination is made, varied or revoked between 1 January and 30 June (inclusive) in a year—1 July in that year; or

                     (b)  if the determination is made, varied or revoked between 1 July and 31 December (inclusive) in a year—1 January in the following year.

             (7)  The Minister does not have a duty to consider whether to exercise the power under subsection (1) or (1A) in respect of any unauthorised maritime arrival, whether the Minister is requested to do so by the unauthorised maritime arrival or by any other person, or in any other circumstances.

             (8)  An instrument under subsection (1) or (1A) is not a legislative instrument.

198AF  No regional processing country

                   Section 198AD does not apply to an unauthorised maritime arrival if there is no regional processing country.

198AG  Non‑acceptance by regional processing country

                   Section 198AD does not apply to an unauthorised maritime arrival if the regional processing country, or each regional processing country (if there is more than one such country), has advised an officer, in writing, that the country will not accept the unauthorised maritime arrival.

Note:          For specification by class, see the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.

198AH  Application of section 198AD to certain transitory persons

             (1)  Section 198AD applies, subject to sections 198AE, 198AF and 198AG, to a transitory person if, and only if:

                     (a)  the person is an unauthorised maritime arrival who is brought to Australia from a regional processing country under section 198B for a temporary purpose; and

                     (b)  the person is detained under section 189; and

                     (c)  the person no longer needs to be in Australia for the temporary purpose (whether or not the purpose has been achieved).

             (2)  Subsection (1) of this section applies whether or not the transitory person has been assessed to be covered by the definition of refugee in Article 1A of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol.

198AI  Ministerial report

                   The Minister must, as soon as practicable after 30 June in each year, cause to be laid before each House of Parliament a report setting out:

                     (a)  the activities conducted under the Bali Process during the year ending on 30 June; and

                     (b)  the steps taken in relation to people smuggling, trafficking in persons and related transnational crime to support the Regional Cooperation Framework during the year ending on 30 June; and

                     (c)  the progress made in relation to people smuggling, trafficking in persons and related transnational crime under the Regional Cooperation Framework during the year ending on 30 June.

198AJ  Reports about unauthorised maritime arrivals

             (1)  The Minister must cause to be laid before each House of the Parliament, within 15 sitting days of that House after the end of a financial year, a report on the following:

                     (a)  arrangements made by regional processing countries during the financial year for unauthorised maritime arrivals who make claims for protection under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol, including arrangements for:

                              (i)  assessing those claims in those countries; and

                             (ii)  the accommodation, health care and education of those unauthorised maritime arrivals in those countries;

                     (b)  the number of those claims assessed in those countries in the financial year;

                     (c)  the number of unauthorised maritime arrivals determined in those countries in the financial year to be covered by the definition of refugee in Article 1A of the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol.

             (2)  However, a report under this section need deal with a particular regional processing country in accordance with subsection (1) only so far as information provided by the country makes it reasonably practicable for the report to do so.

             (3)  A report under this section must not include:

                     (a)  the name of a person who is or was an unauthorised maritime arrival; or

                     (b)  any information that may identify such a person; or

                     (c)  the name of any other person connected in any way with any person covered by paragraph (a); or

                     (d)  any information that may identify that other person.

Subdivision CTransitory persons etc.

198B  Power to bring transitory persons to Australia

             (1)  An officer may, for a temporary purpose, bring a transitory person to Australia from a country or place outside Australia.

             (2)  The power under subsection (1) includes the power to do any of the following things within or outside Australia:

                     (a)  place the person on a vehicle or vessel;

                     (b)  restrain the person on a vehicle or vessel;

                     (c)  remove the person from a vehicle or vessel;

                     (d)  use such force as is necessary and reasonable.

             (3)  In this section, officer means an officer within the meaning of section 5, and includes a member of the Australian Defence Force.

199  Dependants of removed non‑citizens

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  an officer removes, or is about to remove, an unlawful non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  the spouse or de facto partner of that non‑citizen requests an officer to also be removed from Australia;

an officer may remove the spouse or de facto partner as soon as reasonably practicable.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  an officer removes, or is about to remove an unlawful non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  the spouse or de facto partner of that non‑citizen requests an officer to also be removed from Australia with a dependent child or children of that non‑citizen;

an officer may remove the spouse or de facto partner and dependent child or children as soon as reasonably practicable.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  an officer removes, or is about to remove, an unlawful non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  that non‑citizen requests an officer to remove a dependent child or children of the non‑citizen from Australia;

an officer may remove the dependent child or children as soon as reasonably practicable.

             (4)  In paragraphs (1)(a), (2)(a) and (3)(a), a reference to remove includes a reference to take to a regional processing country.

Division 9Deportation

200  Deportation of certain non‑citizens

                   The Minister may order the deportation of a non‑citizen to whom this Division applies.

201  Deportation of non‑citizens in Australia for less than 10 years who are convicted of crimes

                   Where:

                     (a)  a person who is a non‑citizen has, either before or after the commencement of this section, been convicted in Australia of an offence;

                     (b)  when the offence was committed the person was a non‑citizen who:

                              (i)  had been in Australia as a permanent resident:

                                        (A)  for a period of less than 10 years; or

                                        (B)  for periods that, when added together, total less than 10 years; or

                             (ii)  was a citizen of New Zealand who had been in Australia as an exempt non‑citizen or a special category visa holder:

                                        (A)  for a period of less than 10 years as an exempt non‑citizen or a special category visa holder; or

                                        (B)  for periods that, when added together, total less than 10 years, as an exempt non‑citizen or a special category visa holder or in any combination of those capacities; and

                     (c)  the offence is an offence for which the person was sentenced to death or to imprisonment for life or for a period of not less than one year;

section 200 applies to the person.

202  Deportation of non‑citizens upon security grounds

             (1)  Where:

                     (a)  it appears to the Minister that the conduct (whether in Australia or elsewhere and either before or after the commencement of this subsection) of a non‑citizen referred to in paragraph 201(b) constitutes, or has constituted, a threat to security; and

                     (b)  the Minister has been furnished with an adverse security assessment in respect of the non‑citizen by the Organisation, being an assessment made for the purposes of this subsection;

then, subject to this section, section 200 applies to the non‑citizen.

             (2)  Where:

                     (a)  subsection (1) applies in relation to a non‑citizen;

                     (b)  the adverse security assessment made in respect of the non‑citizen is not an assessment to which a certificate given in accordance with paragraph 38(2)(a) of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 applies; and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen applies to the Tribunal for a review of the security assessment before the end of 30 days after the receipt by the non‑citizen of notice of the assessment and the Tribunal, after reviewing the assessment, finds that the security assessment should not have been an adverse security assessment;

section 200 does not apply to the non‑citizen.

             (3)  Where:

                     (a)  subsection (1) applies in relation to a non‑citizen;

                     (b)  the adverse security assessment made in respect of the non‑citizen is an assessment to which a certificate given in accordance with paragraph 38(2)(a) of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 applies; and

                     (c)  the Attorney‑General has, in accordance with section 65 of that Act, required the Tribunal to review the assessment;

section 200 does not apply to the non‑citizen unless, following the receipt by the Attorney‑General of the findings of the Tribunal, the Attorney‑General advises the Minister that the Tribunal has confirmed the assessment.

             (4)  A notice given by the Minister pursuant to subsection 38(1) of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 informing a person of the making of an adverse security assessment, being an assessment made for the purposes of subsection (1) of this section, shall contain a statement to the effect that the assessment was made for the purposes of subsection (1) of this section and that the person may be deported under section 200 because of section 202.

             (5)  Despite subsection 29(7) of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975, the Tribunal must not extend beyond the period of 28 days referred to in subsection 29(2) of that Act the time within which a person may apply to the Tribunal for a review of an adverse security assessment made for the purposes of subsection (1) of this section.

             (6)  In this section:

adverse security assessment, security assessment and Tribunal have the same meanings as they have in Part IV of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979.

Organisation means the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation.

security has the meaning given by section 4 of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979.

203  Deportation of non‑citizens who are convicted of certain serious offences

             (1)  Where:

                     (a)  a person who is a non‑citizen has, either before or after the commencement of this subsection, been convicted in Australia of an offence;

                     (b)  at the time of the commission of the offence the person was not an Australian citizen; and

                     (c)  the offence is:

                              (i)  an offence against section 24AA, 24AB, 25 or 26 of the Crimes Act 1914; or

                            (ia)  an offence against Division 80 of the Criminal Code; or

                             (ii)  an offence against section 6 of the Crimes Act 1914 that relates to an offence mentioned in subparagraph (i) or (ia) of this paragraph; or

                           (iia)  an offence against section 11.1 or 11.5 of the Criminal Code that relates to an offence mentioned in subparagraph (i) or (ia) of this paragraph; or

                            (iii)  an offence against a law of a State or of any internal or external Territory that is a prescribed offence for the purposes of this subparagraph;

then, subject to this section, section 200 applies to the non‑citizen.

             (2)  Section 200 does not apply to a non‑citizen because of this section unless the Minister has first served on the non‑citizen a notice informing the non‑citizen that he or she proposes to order the deportation of the non‑citizen, on the ground specified in the notice, unless the non‑citizen requests, by notice in writing to the Minister, within 30 days after receipt by him or her of the Minister’s notice, that his or her case be considered by a Commissioner appointed for the purposes of this section.

             (3)  If a non‑citizen on whom a notice is served by the Minister under subsection (2) duly requests, in accordance with the notice, that his or her case be considered by a Commissioner appointed for the purposes of this section, the Minister may, by notice in writing, summon the non‑citizen to appear before a Commissioner specified in the notice at the time and place specified in the notice.

             (4)  A Commissioner for the purposes of this section shall be appointed by the Governor‑General and shall be a person who is or has been a Judge of a Federal Court or of the Supreme Court of a State or Territory, or a barrister or solicitor of the High Court or of the Supreme Court of a State or Territory of not less than 5 years’ standing.

             (5)  The Commissioner shall, after investigation in accordance with subsection (6), report to the Minister whether he or she considers that the ground specified in the notice under subsection (2) has been established.

             (6)  The Commissioner shall make a thorough investigation of the matter with respect to which he or she is required to report, without regard to legal forms, and shall not be bound by any rules of evidence but may inform himself or herself on any relevant matter in such manner as he or she thinks fit.

             (7)  Where a notice has been served on a non‑citizen under subsection (2), section 200 does not apply to the non‑citizen because of this section unless:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen does not request, in accordance with the notice, that his or her case be considered by a Commissioner;

                     (b)  the non‑citizen, having been summoned under this section to appear before a Commissioner, fails so to appear at the time and place specified in the summons; or

                     (c)  a Commissioner reports under this section in relation to the non‑citizen that he or she considers that the ground specified in the notice has been established.

204  Determination of time for sections 201 and 202

             (1)  Where a person has been convicted of any offence (other than an offence the conviction in respect of which was subsequently quashed) the period (if any) for which the person was confined in a prison for that offence shall be disregarded in determining, for the purposes of section 201 and subsection 202(1), the length of time that that person has been present in Australia as a permanent resident or as an exempt non‑citizen or a special category visa holder.

             (2)  In section 201 and subsection 202(1):

permanent resident means a person (including an Australian citizen) whose continued presence in Australia is not subject to any limitation as to time imposed by law, but does not include:

                     (a)  in relation to any period before 2 April 1984—a person who was, during that period, a prohibited immigrant within the meaning of this Act as in force at that time; or

                     (b)  in relation to any period starting on or after 2 April 1984 and ending on or before 19 December 1989—the person who was, during that period, a prohibited non‑citizen within the meaning of this Act as in force in that period; or

                     (c)  in relation to any period starting on or after 20 December 1989 and ending before the commencement of section 7 of the Migration Reform Act 1992—the person who was, during that period, an illegal entrant within the meaning of this Act as in force in that period; or

                     (d)  in relation to any later period—the person who is, during that later period, an unlawful non‑citizen.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section:

                     (a)  a reference to a prison includes a reference to any custodial institution at which a person convicted of an offence may be required to serve the whole or a part of any sentence imposed upon him or her by reason of that conviction; and

                     (b)  a reference to a period during which a person was confined in a prison includes a reference to a period:

                              (i)  during which the person was an escapee from a prison; or

                             (ii)  during which the person was undergoing a sentence of periodic detention in a prison.

205  Dependants of deportee

             (1)  Where the Minister makes or has made an order for the deportation of a person who has a spouse or de facto partner, the Minister may, at the request of the spouse or de facto partner of that person, remove:

                     (a)  the spouse or de facto partner; or

                     (b)  the spouse or de facto partner and a dependent child or children;

of that person.

             (2)  Where the Minister makes or has made an order for the deportation of a person who does not have a spouse or de facto partner but who does have a dependent child or children, the Minister may, at the person’s request, remove a dependent child or children of the person.

206  Deportation order to be executed

             (1)  Where the Minister has made an order for the deportation of a person, that person shall, unless the Minister revokes the order, be deported accordingly.

             (2)  The validity of an order for the deportation of a person shall not be affected by any delay in the execution of that order.

Division 10Costs etc. of removal and deportation

207  Interpretation

                   In this Division:

carrier, in relation to an unlawful non‑citizen, means a controller of the vessel on which the non‑citizen was last brought to Australia.

controller, in relation to a vessel, means the master, owner, agent or charterer of the vessel.

costs means the fares and other costs to the Commonwealth of transporting:

                     (a)  a non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  a custodian of the non‑citizen;

from Australia to the place outside Australia to which the non‑citizen is removed or deported.

210  Removed or deported non‑citizen liable for costs of removal or deportation

                   Subject to section 212, a non‑citizen who is removed or deported, other than an unlawful non‑citizen who came to Australia on a criminal justice visa, is liable to pay the Commonwealth the costs of his or her removal or deportation.

212  Costs of removed or deported spouses, de facto partners and dependants

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  2 persons are spouses or de facto partners of each other; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  they are both removed or deported; or

                             (ii)  one of them is deported and the other is removed;

each of them is liable to pay the Commonwealth the costs of their removals, their deportations, or the deportation and removal.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  2 persons are spouses or de facto partners of each other; and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  they are both removed or deported; or

                             (ii)  one is deported and the other is removed; and

                     (c)  their dependent child, or dependent children, within the meaning of the regulations are also removed;

then:

                     (d)  the child or children are not liable to pay the Commonwealth the costs of the child’s or children’s removal; and

                     (e)  the persons are liable to pay the Commonwealth those costs.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  a non‑citizen is removed or deported; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen either:

                              (i)  does not have a spouse or de facto partner; or

                             (ii)  does not have a spouse, or a de facto partner, who is deported or removed; and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen has a dependent child, or dependent children, within the meaning of the regulations who are removed;

then:

                     (d)  the child or children are not liable to pay the Commonwealth the costs of their removal; and

                     (e)  the non‑citizen is liable to pay the Commonwealth those costs.

213  Carriers may be liable for costs of removal and deportation

             (1)  If a non‑citizen who enters Australia:

                     (a)  is required to comply with section 166 (immigration clearance); and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  does not comply; or

                             (ii)  on complying, is detained under section 189 as an unlawful non‑citizen;

then, as soon as practicable after the Secretary becomes aware that paragraphs (a) and (b) apply to the non‑citizen, the Secretary may give a carrier of the non‑citizen a written notice requiring the carriers of the non‑citizen to pay the costs of the non‑citizen’s removal, or deportation, from Australia should that happen.

             (2)  The notice is to:

                     (a)  give particulars of the calculation of the costs; and

                     (b)  state that an account for the costs will be given to at least one of the carriers of the non‑citizen when they have been incurred.

             (3)  If a notice is given, each carrier of the non‑citizen is liable to pay the Commonwealth the costs described in the notice and for which an account is given.

214  Non‑citizens and carriers jointly liable

                   If, under this Division, 2 or more persons are liable to pay the Commonwealth the costs of a non‑citizen’s removal or deportation they are jointly and severally liable to pay those costs.

215  Costs are debts due to the Commonwealth

                   Without limiting any other provision of this Act, costs payable by a person to the Commonwealth under this Division may be recovered by the Commonwealth as a debt due to the Commonwealth in a court of competent jurisdiction.

216  Use of existing ticket for removal or deportation

                   If:

                     (a)  a non‑citizen is to be removed or deported; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen or another person holds a ticket for the conveyance of the non‑citizen from a place within Australia to a place outside Australia;

the Secretary may, on behalf of the ticket holder arrange (with or without the ticket holder’s consent) for the ticket to be applied for or towards the conveyance of the non‑citizen.

217  Vessels required to convey certain removees

             (1)  If a person covered by subsection 193(1) is to be removed, the Secretary may give the controller of the vessel on which the person travelled to and entered Australia written notice requiring the controller to transport the person from Australia.

             (2)  Subject to section 219, the controller must comply with the notice within 72 hours of the giving of the notice or such further time as the Secretary allows.

Penalty:  100 penalty units.

             (3)  An offence against subsection (2) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

218  Vessels required to convey deportees or other removees

             (1)  Subject to section 217, if a person is to be removed or deported, the Secretary may give the controller of a vessel or vessels a written notice requiring the controller to transport the person from Australia to a destination of the vessel or one of the vessels specified in the notice.

             (2)  Subject to sections 219 and 220, the controller must comply with the notice within 72 hours of the giving of the notice or such further time as the Secretary allows.

Penalty:  100 penalty units.

             (3)  An offence against subsection (2) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

219  Exemption from complying

                   It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against section 217 or 218 of failing to comply with a notice to transport a non‑citizen if the defendant proves:

                     (a)  that the defendant was prevented from complying with the notice because of stress of weather or other reasonable cause; or

                     (b)  the defendant gave reasonable notice to the Secretary of the person’s willingness to receive the non‑citizen on board a specified vessel at a specified port on a specified day within 72 hours of the giving of the notice for removal or deportation, but the non‑citizen was not made available at that port on that date for boarding the vessel.

Note:          A defendant bears a legal burden in relation to the matters in this section (see section 13.4 of the Criminal Code).

220  Waiver of requirement

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a notice has been given under section 218 requiring the transport of an unlawful non‑citizen to a country; and

                     (b)  the government of that country notifies the Minister that the non‑citizen would not be permitted to enter that country;

the Minister is to give the controller written notice revoking the notice under that section.

             (2)  The revocation of a notice does not prevent another notice under section 218 or affect any liability for costs.

221  Cost of removal under notice

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  the controller of a vessel is given a notice under section 218 to transport a non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  the controller was a carrier of the non‑citizen; and

                     (c)  paragraphs 213(1)(a) and (b) apply to the non‑citizen;

then the Commonwealth is not liable for the costs of transporting the non‑citizen.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the controller of a vessel is given a notice under section 218 to transport a non‑citizen; and

                     (b)  subsection (1) does not apply;

then:

                     (c)  the Commonwealth is liable to pay the controller’s costs of the transport; and

                     (d)  sections 210 to 216 apply to the transport and those costs.

222  Orders restraining certain non‑citizens from disposing etc. of property

             (1)  Where, on an application by the Secretary relating to property of a non‑citizen, a court is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen is liable, or may, on deportation or removal, become liable, to pay the Commonwealth an amount under section 210 or 212; and

                     (b)  if the court does not make an order under this subsection there is a risk that the Commonwealth will not be able to recover the whole or a part of any amount that the non‑citizen is, or becomes, liable to pay to the Commonwealth under section 210 or 212;

the court may make an order restraining any dealing with the property, or such part of the property as is specified in the order.

             (2)  The Secretary may apply to a court for an order under subsection (1) in respect of:

                     (a)  any of a non‑citizen’s property that is in Australia; or

                     (b)  specified property of a non‑citizen that is in Australia.

             (3)  Where an application is made for an order under subsection (1), the court may, before considering the application, grant an interim order, being an order of the kind applied for that is expressed to have effect pending the determination of the application.

             (4)  An order under subsection (1) has effect for the period specified in the order.

             (5)  A court may rescind, vary or discharge an order made by it under this section.

             (6)  A court may suspend the operation of an order made by it under this section.

             (7)  An order under subsection (1) may be made subject to such conditions as the court thinks fit and, without limiting the generality of this, may make provision for meeting, out of the property or a specified part of the property to which the order relates, either or both of the following:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen’s reasonable living expenses (including the reasonable living expenses of the non‑citizen’s dependants (if any));

                     (b)  reasonable legal expenses incurred by the non‑citizen in relation to a matter arising under this Act.

             (8)  A person shall not contravene an order under this section.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

          (8A)  Subsection (8) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (8A) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

             (9)  In this section:

court means a court of competent jurisdiction.

property means real or personal property of every description, whether tangible or intangible, that is situated in Australia, and includes an interest in any such real or personal property.

223  Secretary may give direction about valuables of detained non‑citizens

             (1)  This section applies in relation to a person who has been detained.

             (2)  Where the Secretary is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the detainee is an unlawful non‑citizen or a deportee;

                     (b)  the detainee is liable, or may, on deportation or removal, become liable, to pay the Commonwealth an amount under section 210 or 212; and

                     (c)  if the Secretary does not give a notice under this section there is a risk that the Commonwealth will not be able to recover the whole or a part of any amount that the detainee is, or becomes, liable to pay to the Commonwealth under section 210 or 212;

the Secretary may, in writing, notify the detainee that his or her valuables are liable to be taken under this section.

             (3)  Where the Secretary gives a notice under subsection (2), subsections (4) to (13) apply.

             (4)  The Secretary shall cause a copy of the notice to be served on the detainee as prescribed.

             (5)  At any time after a copy of the notice has been served on the detainee and while the notice remains in force, the Secretary may take possession of any valuables that the Secretary believes, on reasonable grounds, to belong to the detainee.

             (6)  A copy of the notice may be served on:

                     (a)  any bank;

                     (b)  any other financial institution; or

                     (c)  any other person.

             (7)  A bank or other financial institution served with a copy of the notice shall not, while the notice remains in force, without the written consent of the Secretary, process any transaction attempted in relation to any account held by the detainee, whether alone or jointly with another person or other persons, and whether for his or her own benefit or as a trustee.

Penalty:  $30,000.

          (7A)  An offence against subsection (7) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

             (8)  Where a copy of the notice is served on a person, not being a bank or other financial institution, who owes a debt to the detainee, that first‑mentioned person shall not, while the notice remains in force, without the written consent of the Secretary, make any payment to the detainee in respect of that debt.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 2 years.

             (9)  The notice stops being in force at the end of the third working day after it is given unless, before the end of that day, the Secretary has applied to a court for an order confirming the notice.

           (10)  A court shall, on application by the Secretary, confirm the notice if and only if it is satisfied:

                     (a)  that the detainee is an unlawful non‑citizen or a deportee;

                     (b)  that the detainee is liable, or may, on deportation or removal, become liable, to pay the Commonwealth an amount under section 210 or 212; and

                     (c)  that, if the court does not confirm the notice, there is a risk that the Commonwealth will not be able to recover the whole or a part of any amount that the detainee is, or becomes, liable to pay to the Commonwealth under section 210 or 212.

           (11)  If the court confirms the notice, the court may make an order directing the Secretary to make provision, whether by returning valuables to which the notice relates or otherwise, for the meeting of either or both of the following:

                     (a)  the detainee’s reasonable living expenses (including the reasonable living expenses of the detainee’s dependants (if any));

                     (b)  reasonable legal expenses incurred by the detainee in relation to a matter arising under this Act.

           (12)  If the notice is confirmed by the court, it remains in force for such period, not exceeding 12 months, as is specified by the court.

           (13)  If the court refuses to confirm the notice, it thereupon stops being in force.

           (14)  The Secretary may issue to an officer a search warrant in accordance with the prescribed form.

           (15)  A search warrant shall be expressed to remain in force for a specified period not exceeding 3 months and stops being in force at the end of that period.

           (16)  An officer having with him or her a search warrant that was issued to him or her under subsection (14) and that is in force may, at any time in the day or night, and with such assistance, and using such reasonable force, as the officer thinks necessary:

                     (a)  enter and search any building, premises, vehicle, vessel or place in which the officer has reasonable cause to believe there may be found any valuables to which a notice in force under this section relates; and

                     (b)  may seize any such valuables found in the course of such a search.

           (17)  An officer who has seized valuables under subsection (16) shall deal with those valuables in accordance with the directions of the Secretary.

           (18)  For the purposes of the exercise of his or her powers under subsection (16) an officer may stop any vehicle or vessel.

           (19)  An officer who, in good faith, on behalf of the Secretary or as a delegate of the Secretary, does any act or thing for the purpose of the exercise of the power under subsection (5) to take possession of valuables is not liable to any civil or criminal action in respect of the doing of that act or thing.

           (20)  In this section:

court means a court of competent jurisdiction.

valuables includes:

                     (a)  gold, jewellery, negotiable instruments, travellers cheques and cash; and

                     (b)  bank books and other documentary evidence of debts owed to the detainee.

224  Dealing with seized valuables

             (1)  Where the Secretary takes possession of valuables pursuant to subsection 223(5), the provisions of this section have effect.

             (2)  The Secretary shall arrange for the valuables to be kept until they are dealt with in accordance with a provision of this section, and shall ensure that all reasonable steps are taken to preserve the valuables while they are so kept.

             (3)  The Secretary shall arrange for the valuables to be returned to the person from whom they were taken if:

                     (a)  the authorising notice stops being in force;

                     (b)  the notified detainee:

                              (i)  is granted a visa; or

                             (ii)  stops being a deportee;

                     (c)  the notified detainee is not, when the authorising notice is given, liable to pay an amount to the Commonwealth under section 210 or 212, and does not, within 6 months after the giving of that notice, becomes so liable; or

                     (d)  all amounts that the notified detainee is or becomes liable to pay to the Commonwealth under section 210 or 212 are paid to the Commonwealth.

             (4)  If, when the Secretary takes possession of valuables, the notified detainee is liable under section 210 or 212 to pay an amount to the Commonwealth, the Secretary shall, unless he or she is required to arrange for the return of the valuables because of paragraph (3)(d):

                     (a)  apply the valuables towards the payment of the amount owed to the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  return any surplus to the person from whom the valuables were taken.

             (5)  If, while valuables are being kept pursuant to subsection (2), the notified detainee becomes liable under section 210 or 212 to pay an amount to the Commonwealth, the Secretary shall, unless he or she is required to arrange for the return of the valuables because of paragraph (3)(d):

                     (a)  apply the valuables towards the payment of the amount owed to the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  return any surplus to the person from whom the valuables were taken.

             (6)  In this section:

notified detainee means the person served with the notice under section 223.

authorising notice means the notice pursuant to which the Secretary took possession of the valuables.

Division 11Duties of masters in relation to crews

225  Production of identity documents and mustering of crew

             (1)  This section applies to a vessel, other than a vessel of the regular armed forces of a government recognised by the Commonwealth, which has entered Australia from overseas.

             (2)  On the arrival of a vessel at a port, an officer may require the master of the vessel to muster the vessel’s crew in the presence of the officer.

             (3)  An officer may require the master of a vessel to muster the vessel’s crew in the presence of the officer before the vessel departs from a port.

             (4)  An officer may require a member of the crew of a vessel to produce his or her identity documents to the officer for inspection.

             (5)  A person must not fail to comply with a requirement made under this section.

Penalty:  $4,000.

             (6)  Subsection (5) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (6) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

             (7)  An offence against subsection (5) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

226  Production of identity documents by persons on board resources installation

             (1)  This section applies to a resources installation that has been brought into Australian waters from a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters for the purpose of being attached to the Australian seabed.

             (2)  On the arrival of a resources installation at the place where it is to be attached to the Australian seabed, an officer may require the person in charge of the installation to muster, in the presence of the officer, all of the people on board the installation.

             (3)  An officer may require the person in charge of a resources installation to muster, in the presence of the officer, all of the people on board the installation before the installation is detached from the Australian seabed for the purpose of being taken to a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters.

             (4)  An officer may require a person on board a resources installation that is attached to the Australian seabed or to another resources installation that is so attached to produce to the officer for inspection the person’s identity documents.

             (5)  A person must not fail to comply with a requirement made under this section.

Penalty:  $4,000.

             (6)  Subsection (5) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (6) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

             (7)  An offence against subsection (5) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

227  Production of identity documents by persons on board sea installation

             (1)  This section applies to a sea installation that has been brought into Australian waters from a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters for the purpose of being installed in an adjacent area or in a coastal area.

             (2)  On the arrival of a sea installation at its proposed location, an officer may require the person in charge of the installation to muster, in the presence of the officer, all of the people on board the installation.

             (3)  An officer may require the person in charge of a sea installation to muster, in the presence of the officer, all of the people on board the installation before the installation is detached from its location for the purpose of being taken to a place outside the outer limits of Australian waters.

             (4)  An officer may require a person on board a sea installation that is installed in an adjacent area or in a coastal area to produce to the officer for inspection the person’s identity documents.

             (5)  A person must not fail to comply with a requirement made under this section.

Penalty:  $4,000.

             (6)  Subsection (5) does not apply if the person has a reasonable excuse.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (6) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

             (7)  An offence against subsection (5) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

228  Master to report absences

             (1)  Where a member of the crew of a vessel, other than a vessel of the regular armed forces of a government recognized by the Commonwealth, that has entered Australia from overseas was on board the vessel at the time of its arrival at a port and is absent from the vessel at the time of its departure from the port, the master of the vessel shall, at that departure, deliver to an officer a written report:

                     (a)  specifying the name of the member; and

                     (b)  stating:

                              (i)  that the member was a member of the crew of the vessel on board the vessel at the time of its arrival at that port; and

                             (ii)  that the member is absent from the vessel at the time of its departure from that port; and

                     (c)  stating whether the member left the vessel at that port with leave or without leave.

Penalty:  $4,000.

             (2)  An offence against subsection (1) is an offence of strict liability.

Note:          For strict liability, see section 6.1 of the Criminal Code.

Division 12Offences etc. in relation to entry into, and remaining in, Australia

Subdivision APeople smuggling and related offences

228A  Application of Subdivision

                   This Subdivision applies in and outside Australia.

228B  Circumstances in which a non‑citizen has no lawful right to come to Australia

             (1)  For the purposes of this Subdivision, a non‑citizen has, at a particular time, no lawful right to come to Australia if, at that time:

                     (a)  the non‑citizen does not hold a visa that is in effect; and

                     (b)  the non‑citizen is not covered by an exception referred to in subsection 42(2) or (2A); and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen is not permitted by regulations under subsection 42(3) to travel to Australia without a visa that is in effect.

             (2)  To avoid doubt, a reference in subsection (1) to a non‑citizen includes a reference to a non‑citizen seeking protection or asylum (however described), whether or not Australia has, or may have, protection obligations in respect of the non‑citizen:

                     (a)  under the Refugees Convention as amended by the Refugees Protocol; or

                     (b)  for any other reason.

229  Carriage of non‑citizens to Australia without documentation

             (1)  The master, owner, agent, charterer and operator of a vessel on which a non‑citizen is brought into Australia on or after 1 November 1979 are each guilty of an offence against this section if the non‑citizen, when entering Australia:

                     (a)  is not in possession of evidence of a visa that is in effect and that permits him or her to travel to and enter Australia; and

                     (b)  does not hold a special purpose visa; and

                     (c)  is not eligible for a special category visa; and

                     (d)  does not hold an enforcement visa; and

                     (e)  is a person to whom subsection 42(1) applies.

          (1A)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person is a master, owner, agent, charterer or operator of an aircraft; and

                     (b)  the person brings a non‑citizen into Australia by air on the aircraft; and

                     (c)  the non‑citizen is the holder of a maritime crew visa that is in effect.

             (2)  A person who is guilty of an offence against this section is liable, upon conviction, to a fine not exceeding $10,000.

             (3)  An offence against subsection (1) or (1A) is an offence of absolute liability.

Note:          For absolute liability, see section 6.2 of the Criminal Code.

             (4)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to establishing that subsection 42(1) does not apply to a person because of subsection 42(2) or (2A) or regulations made under subsection 42(3).

Note:          For evidential burden, see section 13.3 of the Criminal Code.

             (5)  It is a defence to a prosecution for an offence against subsection (1) in relation to the bringing of a non‑citizen into Australia on a vessel if it is established:

                     (a)  that the non‑citizen was, when he or she boarded or last boarded the vessel for travel to Australia, in possession of evidence of a visa that was in effect and that permitted him or her to travel to and enter Australia, being a visa that:

                              (i)  did not appear to have been cancelled; and

                             (ii)  was expressed to continue in effect until, or at least until, the date of the non‑citizen’s expected entry into Australia;

                     (b)  that the master of the vessel had reasonable grounds for believing that, when the non‑citizen boarded or last boarded the vessel for travelling to and entering Australia, the non‑citizen:

                              (i)  was eligible for a special category visa; or

                             (ii)  was the holder of a special purpose visa; or

                            (iii)  would, when entering Australia, be the holder of a special purpose visa; or