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Fair Work Act 2009

Authoritative Version
  • - C2013C00033
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Fair Work Amendment (Transfer of Business) Act 2012
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
General Comments: This compilation is affected by retrospective amendments. Please see the Fair Work Amendment Act 2012 (Act No. 174, 2012) and Fair Work Amendment Act 2013 (Act No. 73, 2013) for details.
Registered 16 Jan 2013
Start Date 05 Dec 2012
End Date 31 Dec 2012
Table of contents.

Fair Work Act 2009

Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 5 December 2012
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 175 of 2012

Volume 1 includes:  Table of Contents

Sections 1–536

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be
affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Volume 2 includes:   Table of Contents
                                 Sections 537–800

Schedules 1–3

Note 1

Table of Acts

Act Notes

Table of Amendments

Notes 2–4

Table A

Prepared by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel, Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction                                                                                                   1

Part 1‑1—Introduction                                                                                                       1

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                              1

1............ Short title [see Note 1]........................................................................ 1

2............ Commencement................................................................................... 1

Division 2—Object of this Act                                                                                 4

3............ Object of this Act................................................................................ 4

Division 3—Guide to this Act                                                                                   5

4............ Guide to this Act................................................................................. 5

5............ Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2).............................. 6

6............ Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)               7

7............ Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)........................................... 8

8............ Administration (Chapter 5)................................................................. 8

9............ Miscellaneous (Chapter 6).................................................................. 8

9A......... Application, transitional and saving provisions for amendments (Schedules)          9

Part 1‑2—Definitions                                                                                                         10

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          10

10.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 10

11.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 10

Division 2—The Dictionary                                                                                     11

12.......... The Dictionary.................................................................................. 11

Division 3—Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.    38

13.......... Meaning of national system employee.............................................. 38

14.......... Meaning of national system employer.............................................. 38

14A....... Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.             40

15.......... Ordinary meanings of employee and employer................................. 40

Division 4—Other definitions                                                                                 42

16.......... Meaning of base rate of pay............................................................. 42

17.......... Meaning of child of a person............................................................ 43

17A....... Meaning of directly and indirectly (in relation to TCF work)............ 43

18.......... Meaning of full rate of pay................................................................ 44

19.......... Meaning of industrial action............................................................. 44

20.......... Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees               46

21.......... Meaning of pieceworker................................................................... 46

22.......... Meanings of service and continuous service..................................... 47

23.......... Meaning of small business employer................................................ 50

Part 1‑3—Application of this Act                                                                               52

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          52

24.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 52

25.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 52

Division 2—Interaction with State and Territory laws                            53

26.......... Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws.................................. 53

27.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26............. 54

28.......... Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws.............................. 56

29.......... Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws           56

30.......... Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases............ 57

Division 2A—Application of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009  58

30A....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 58

30B....... Meaning of referring State................................................................ 62

30C....... Extended meaning of national system employee............................... 65

30D....... Extended meaning of national system employer............................... 65

30E........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 66

30F........ Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 66

30G....... General protections........................................................................... 67

30H....... Division only has effect if supported by reference............................ 67

Division 2B—Application of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010                                                                                    68

30K....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 68

30L........ Meaning of referring State................................................................ 72

30M...... Extended meaning of national system employee............................... 75

30N....... Extended meaning of national system employer............................... 76

30P........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 76

30Q....... Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 76

30R....... General protections........................................................................... 77

30S........ Division only has effect if supported by reference............................ 77

Division 3—Geographical application of this Act                                       78

31.......... Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia..... 78

32.......... Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia           78

33.......... Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf       79

34.......... Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf               80

35.......... Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee.. 81

35A....... Regulations excluding application of Act.......................................... 82

36.......... Geographical application of offences................................................ 82

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                       83

37.......... Act binds Crown............................................................................... 83

38.......... Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power................... 83

39.......... Acquisition of property..................................................................... 84

40.......... Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws       84

40A....... Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901................................ 85

Chapter 2—Terms and conditions of employment                                         86

Part 2‑1—Core provisions for this Chapter                                                        86

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          86

41.......... Guide to this Part.............................................................................. 86

42.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 87

Division 2—Core provisions for this Chapter                                               88

Subdivision A—Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act            88

43.......... Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act......... 88

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards            89

44.......... Contravening the National Employment Standards........................... 89

Subdivision C—Terms and conditions of employment provided by a modern award 89

45.......... Contravening a modern award.......................................................... 89

46.......... The significance of a modern award applying to a person................. 89

47.......... When a modern award applies to an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity   90

48.......... When a modern award covers an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity        91

49.......... When a modern award is in operation............................................... 92

Subdivision D—Terms and conditions of employment provided by an enterprise agreement  93

50.......... Contravening an enterprise agreement............................................... 93

51.......... The significance of an enterprise agreement applying to a person..... 93

52.......... When an enterprise agreement applies to an employer, employee or employee organisation    93

53.......... When an enterprise agreement covers an employer, employee or employee organisation         94

54.......... When an enterprise agreement is in operation................................... 95

Division 3—Interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                             96

Subdivision A—Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or an enterprise agreement                                                                                     96

55.......... Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or enterprise agreement  96

56.......... Terms of a modern award or enterprise agreement contravening section 55 have no effect      98

Subdivision B—Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements         98

57.......... Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements........ 98

57A....... Designated outworker terms of a modern award continue to apply... 99

Subdivision C—Interaction between one or more enterprise agreements 99

58.......... Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee................. 99

Part 2‑2—The National Employment Standards                                           101

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        101

59.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................ 101

60.......... Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 101

Division 2—The National Employment Standards                                   102

61.......... The National Employment Standards are minimum standards applying to employment of employees     102

Division 3—Maximum weekly hours                                                                103

62.......... Maximum weekly hours................................................................. 103

63.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for averaging of hours of work        104

64.......... Averaging of hours of work for award/agreement free employees. 105

Division 4—Requests for flexible working arrangements                    106

65.......... Requests for flexible working arrangements................................... 106

66.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 107

Division 5—Parental leave and related entitlements                               108

Subdivision A—General                                                                                       108

67.......... General rule—employee must have completed at least 12 months of service           108

68.......... General rule for adoption‑related leave—child must be under 16 etc. 110

69.......... Transfer of employment situations in which employee is entitled to continue on leave etc.      110

Subdivision B—Parental leave                                                                           111

70.......... Entitlement to unpaid parental leave................................................ 111

71.......... The period of leave—other than for members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave       111

72.......... The period of leave—members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave             113

73.......... Pregnant employee may be required to take unpaid parental leave within 6 weeks before the birth          114

74.......... Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 116

75.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending to use more of available parental leave period     117

76.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending for up to 12 months beyond available parental leave period........................................................................................................ 118

77.......... Reducing period of unpaid parental leave........................................ 120

77A....... Pregnancy ends (other than by birth of a living child) or child born alive dies         120

78.......... Employee who ceases to have responsibility for care of child......... 121

79.......... Interaction with paid leave............................................................... 122

79A....... Keeping in touch days..................................................................... 122

79B....... Unpaid parental leave not extended by paid leave or keeping in touch days             123

Subdivision C—Other entitlements                                                                    124

80.......... Unpaid special maternity leave........................................................ 124

81.......... Transfer to a safe job....................................................................... 125

82.......... Employee on paid no safe job leave may be asked to provide a further medical certificate       126

83.......... Consultation with employee on unpaid parental leave..................... 127

84.......... Return to work guarantee................................................................ 127

84A....... Replacement employees.................................................................. 128

85.......... Unpaid pre‑adoption leave.............................................................. 128

Division 6—Annual leave                                                                                       130

86.......... Division applies to employees other than casual employees............ 130

87.......... Entitlement to annual leave.............................................................. 130

88.......... Taking paid annual leave................................................................. 131

89.......... Employee not taken to be on paid annual leave at certain times....... 131

90.......... Payment for annual leave................................................................ 132

91.......... Transfer of employment situations that affect entitlement to payment for period of untaken paid annual leave        132

92.......... Paid annual leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms           133

93.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out and taking paid annual leave........................................................................................................ 133

94.......... Cashing out and taking paid annual leave for award/agreement free employees       134

Division 7—Personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave            136

Subdivision A—Paid personal/carer’s leave                                                   136

95.......... Subdivision applies to employees other than casual employees...... 136

96.......... Entitlement to paid personal/carer’s leave........................................ 136

97.......... Taking paid personal/carer’s leave.................................................. 136

98.......... Employee taken not to be on paid personal/carer’s leave on public holiday              137

99.......... Payment for paid personal/carer’s leave.......................................... 137

100........ Paid personal/carer’s leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms             137

101........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out paid personal/carer’s leave   137

Subdivision B—Unpaid carer’s leave                                                               138

102........ Entitlement to unpaid carer’s leave.................................................. 138

103........ Taking unpaid carer’s leave............................................................. 138

Subdivision C—Compassionate leave                                                               138

104........ Entitlement to compassionate leave................................................. 138

105........ Taking compassionate leave............................................................ 139

106........ Payment for compassionate leave (other than for casual employees) 139

Subdivision D—Notice and evidence requirements                                       140

107........ Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 140

Division 8—Community service leave                                                             142

108........ Entitlement to be absent from employment for engaging in eligible community service activity               142

109........ Meaning of eligible community service activity............................... 142

110........ Notice and evidence requirements................................................... 144

111........ Payment to employees (other than casuals) on jury service............. 144

112........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 146

Division 9—Long service leave                                                                           147

113........ Entitlement to long service leave..................................................... 147

113A..... Enterprise agreements may contain terms discounting service under prior agreements etc. in certain circumstances........................................................................................................ 149

Division 10—Public holidays                                                                                151

114........ Entitlement to be absent from employment on public holiday......... 151

115........ Meaning of public holiday.............................................................. 152

116........ Payment for absence on public holiday........................................... 153

Division 11—Notice of termination and redundancy pay                     154

Subdivision A—Notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice         154

117........ Requirement for notice of termination or payment in lieu................ 154

118........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for notice of termination by employees            155

Subdivision B—Redundancy pay                                                                       155

119........ Redundancy pay.............................................................................. 155

120........ Variation of redundancy pay for other employment or incapacity to pay  156

121........ Exclusions from obligation to pay redundancy pay......................... 157

122........ Transfer of employment situations that affect the obligation to pay redundancy pay                157

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                            158

123........ Limits on scope of this Division..................................................... 158

Division 12—Fair Work Information Statement                                       160

124........ Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish Fair Work Information Statement  160

125........ Giving new employees the Fair Work Information Statement......... 160

Division 13—Miscellaneous                                                                                   161

126........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for school‑based apprentices and trainees to be paid loadings in lieu.................................................................................................. 161

127........ Regulations about what modern awards and enterprise agreements can do              161

128........ Relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements etc. permitted by this Part for award/agreement free employees................................................................................ 161

129........ Regulations about what can be agreed to etc. in relation to award/agreement free employees   162

130........ Restriction on taking or accruing leave or absence while receiving workers’ compensation    162

131........ Relationship with other Commonwealth laws................................. 163

Part 2‑3—Modern awards                                                                                            164

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        164

132........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 164

133........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 165

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                166

134........ The modern awards objective.......................................................... 166

135........ Special provisions relating to modern award minimum wages........ 167

Division 3—Terms of modern awards                                                             168

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               168

136........ What can be included in modern awards......................................... 168

137........ Terms that contravene section 136 have no effect........................... 168

138........ Achieving the modern awards objective.......................................... 169

Subdivision B—Terms that may be included in modern awards               169

139........ Terms that may be included in modern awards—general................ 169

140........ Outworker terms............................................................................. 170

141........ Industry‑specific redundancy schemes............................................ 171

142........ Incidental and machinery terms....................................................... 172

Subdivision C—Terms that must be included in modern awards              172

143........ Coverage terms of modern awards other than modern enterprise awards and State reference public sector modern awards........................................................................................................ 172

143A..... Coverage terms of modern enterprise awards................................. 174

143B..... Coverage terms of State reference public sector modern awards..... 176

144........ Flexibility terms.............................................................................. 177

145........ Effect of individual flexibility arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term                178

146........ Terms about settling disputes.......................................................... 179

147........ Ordinary hours of work.................................................................. 179

148........ Base and full rates of pay for pieceworkers.................................... 179

149........ Automatic variation of allowances.................................................. 180

Subdivision D—Terms that must not be included in modern awards       180

150........ Objectionable terms......................................................................... 180

151........ Terms about payments and deductions for benefit of employer etc. 180

152........ Terms about right of entry............................................................... 180

153........ Terms that are discriminatory.......................................................... 180

154........ Terms that contain State‑based differences...................................... 181

155........ Terms dealing with long service leave............................................. 182

Division 4—4 yearly reviews of modern awards                                       183

156........ 4 yearly reviews of modern awards to be conducted....................... 183

Division 5—Exercising modern award powers outside 4 yearly reviews and annual wage reviews     185

Subdivision A—Exercise of powers if necessary to achieve modern awards objective               185

157........ FWA may vary etc. modern awards if necessary to achieve modern awards objective            185

158........ Applications to vary, revoke or make modern award...................... 186

Subdivision B—Other situations                                                                        188

159........ Variation of modern award to update or omit name of employer, organisation or outworker entity         188

160........ Variation of modern award to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error      189

161........ Variation of modern award on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission  189

Division 6—General provisions relating to modern award powers 191

162........ General............................................................................................ 191

163........ Special criteria relating to changing coverage of modern awards.... 191

164........ Special criteria for revoking modern awards................................... 192

165........ When variation determinations come into operation, other than determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages.............................................................................. 192

166........ When variation determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages come into operation  193

167........ Special rules relating to retrospective variations of awards............. 194

168........ Varied modern award must be published........................................ 195

Division 7—Additional provisions relating to modern enterprise awards           196

168A..... Modern enterprise awards............................................................... 196

168B..... The modern enterprise awards objective......................................... 197

168C..... Rules about making and revoking modern enterprise awards......... 197

168D..... Rules about changing coverage of modern enterprise awards......... 198

Division 8—Additional provisions relating to State reference public sector modern awards   200

168E...... State reference public sector modern awards................................... 200

168F...... The State reference public sector modern awards objective............. 200

168G..... Making State reference public sector modern awards on application 201

168H..... State reference public sector modern awards may contain State‑based differences   202

168J...... When State reference public sector modern awards come into operation  202

168K..... Rules about revoking State reference public sector modern awards 202

168L...... Rules about varying coverage of State reference public sector modern awards        203

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements                                                                             205

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        205

169........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 205

170........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 206

171........ Objects of this Part.......................................................................... 206

Division 2—Employers and employees may make enterprise agreements          208

172........ Making an enterprise agreement...................................................... 208

Division 3—Bargaining and representation during bargaining        210

173........ Notice of employee representational rights...................................... 210

174........ Content of notice of employee representational rights..................... 211

176........ Bargaining representatives for proposed enterprise agreements that are not greenfields agreements        212

178........ Appointment of bargaining representatives—other matters............. 214

178A..... Revocation of appointment of bargaining representatives etc.......... 214

Division 4—Approval of enterprise agreements                                        216

Subdivision A—Pre‑approval steps and applications for FWA approval 216

180........ Employees must be given a copy of a proposed enterprise agreement etc.               216

181........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed enterprise agreement     217

182........ When an enterprise agreement is made............................................ 217

183........ Entitlement of an employee organisation to have an enterprise agreement cover it   218

184........ Multi‑enterprise agreement to be varied if not all employees approve the agreement                219

185........ Bargaining representative must apply for FWA approval of an enterprise agreement              219

Subdivision B—Approval of enterprise agreements by FWA                    220

186........ When FWA must approve an enterprise agreement—general requirements             220

187........ When FWA must approve an enterprise agreement—additional requirements         222

188........ When employees have genuinely agreed to an enterprise agreement 223

189........ FWA may approve an enterprise agreement that does not pass better off overall test—public interest test              224

190........ FWA may approve an enterprise agreement with undertakings...... 225

191........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 225

192........ When FWA may refuse to approve an enterprise agreement........... 226

Subdivision C—Better off overall test                                                              226

193........ Passing the better off overall test..................................................... 226

Subdivision D—Unlawful terms                                                                         228

194........ Meaning of unlawful term............................................................... 228

195........ Meaning of discriminatory term..................................................... 229

Subdivision E—Approval requirements relating to particular kinds of employees     230

196........ Shiftworkers................................................................................... 230

197........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement includes pieceworker term.... 230

198........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement does not include a pieceworker term              231

199........ School‑based apprentices and school‑based trainees....................... 231

200........ Outworkers..................................................................................... 232

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            232

201........ Approval decision to note certain matters........................................ 232

Division 5—Mandatory terms of enterprise agreements                      234

202........ Enterprise agreements to include a flexibility term etc..................... 234

203........ Requirements to be met by a flexibility term................................... 235

204........ Effect of arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term                236

205........ Enterprise agreements to include a consultation term etc................. 237

Division 6—Base rate of pay under enterprise agreements                238

206........ Base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement must not be less than the modern award rate or the national minimum wage order rate etc.......................................................................... 238

Division 7—Variation and termination of enterprise agreements   239

Subdivision A—Variation of enterprise agreements by employers and employees      239

207........ Variation of an enterprise agreement may be made by employers and employees    239

208........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed variation of an enterprise agreement              240

209........ When a variation of an enterprise agreement is made...................... 240

210........ Application for FWA approval of a variation of an enterprise agreement 240

211........ When FWA must approve a variation of an enterprise agreement... 241

212........ FWA may approve a variation of an enterprise agreement with undertakings          243

213........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 244

214........ When FWA may refuse to approve a variation of an enterprise agreement              244

215........ Approval decision to note undertakings.......................................... 245

216........ When variation comes into operation.............................................. 245

Subdivision B—Variations of enterprise agreements where there is ambiguity, uncertainty or discrimination  245

217........ Variation of an enterprise agreement to remove an ambiguity or uncertainty            245

217A..... FWA may deal with certain disputes about variations..................... 245

218........ Variation of an enterprise agreement on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission    246

Subdivision C—Termination of enterprise agreements by employers and employees                247

219........ Employers and employees may agree to terminate an enterprise agreement              247

220........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed termination of an enterprise agreement          247

221........ When termination of an enterprise agreement is agreed to............... 248

222........ Application for FWA approval of a termination of an enterprise agreement             248

223........ When FWA must approve a termination of an enterprise agreement 249

224........ When termination comes into operation.......................................... 249

Subdivision D—Termination of enterprise agreements after nominal expiry date      249

225........ Application for termination of an enterprise agreement after its nominal expiry date                249

226........ When FWA must terminate an enterprise agreement....................... 250

227........ When termination comes into operation.......................................... 250

Division 8—FWA’s general role in facilitating bargaining                  251

Subdivision A—Bargaining orders                                                                   251

228........ Bargaining representatives must meet the good faith bargaining requirements         251

229........ Applications for bargaining orders.................................................. 251

230........ When FWA may make a bargaining order...................................... 253

231........ What a bargaining order must specify............................................. 254

232........ Operation of a bargaining order...................................................... 255

233........ Contravening a bargaining order..................................................... 255

Subdivision B—Serious breach declarations                                                  256

234........ Applications for serious breach declarations................................... 256

235........ When FWA may make a serious breach declaration....................... 256

Subdivision C—Majority support determinations and scope orders        258

236........ Majority support determinations..................................................... 258

237........ When FWA must make a majority support determination............... 258

238........ Scope orders................................................................................... 259

239........ Operation of a scope order.............................................................. 261

Subdivision D—FWA may deal with a bargaining dispute on request     261

240........ Application for FWA to deal with a bargaining dispute.................. 261

Division 9—Low‑paid bargaining                                                                      263

241........ Objects of this Division.................................................................. 263

242........ Low‑paid authorisations.................................................................. 263

243........ When FWA must make a low‑paid authorisation............................ 264

244........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—general................................ 266

245........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—enterprise agreement etc. comes into operation            266

246........ FWA assistance for the low‑paid.................................................... 267

Division 10—Single interest employer authorisations                            268

Subdivision A—Declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement            268

247........ Ministerial declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement           268

Subdivision B—Single interest employer authorisations                             269

248........ Single interest employer authorisations........................................... 269

249........ When FWA must make a single interest employer authorisation.... 269

250........ What a single interest employer authorisation must specify............ 270

251........ Variation of single interest employer authorisations........................ 271

252........ Variation to extend period single interest employer authorisation is in operation     272

Division 11—Other matters                                                                                  273

253........ Terms of an enterprise agreement that are of no effect.................... 273

254........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 273

255........ Part does not empower FWA to make certain orders...................... 274

256........ Prospective employers and employees............................................ 274

256A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described          274

257........ Enterprise agreements may incorporate material in force from time to time etc.        275

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations                                                                    276

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        276

258........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 276

259........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 277

Division 2—Low‑paid workplace determinations                                     278

260........ Applications for low‑paid workplace determinations...................... 278

261........ When FWA must make a consent low‑paid workplace determination 279

262........ When FWA must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—general requirements  279

263........ When FWA must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—additional requirements              280

264........ Terms etc. of a low‑paid workplace determination.......................... 281

265........ No other terms................................................................................ 282

Division 3—Industrial action related workplace determinations     283

266........ When FWA must make an industrial action related workplace determination          283

267........ Terms etc. of an industrial action related workplace determination.. 284

268........ No other terms................................................................................ 285

Division 4—Bargaining related workplace determinations                 286

269........ When FWA must make a bargaining related workplace determination 286

270........ Terms etc. of a bargaining related workplace determination............ 287

271........ No other terms................................................................................ 288

Division 5—Core terms, mandatory terms and agreed terms of workplace determinations etc.           289

272........ Core terms of workplace determinations......................................... 289

273........ Mandatory terms of workplace determinations............................... 290

274........ Agreed terms for workplace determinations.................................... 291

275........ Factors FWA must take into account in deciding terms of a workplace determination             291

Division 6—Operation, coverage and interaction etc. of workplace determinations    293

276........ When a workplace determination operates etc................................. 293

277........ Employers, employees and employee organisations covered by a workplace determination    293

278........ Interaction of a workplace determination with enterprise agreements etc. 294

279........ Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement        295

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                     296

280........ Contravening a workplace determination........................................ 296

281........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 296

281A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described          296

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages                                                                                           298

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        298

282........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 298

283........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 299

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                300

284........ The minimum wages objective........................................................ 300

Division 3—Annual wage reviews                                                                     302

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                        302

285........ Annual wage reviews to be conducted............................................ 302

286........ When annual wage review determinations varying modern awards come into operation         302

287........ When national minimum wage orders come into operation etc........ 303

Subdivision B—Provisions about conduct of annual wage reviews          305

288........ General............................................................................................ 305

289........ Everyone to have a reasonable opportunity to make and comment on submissions 305

290........ President may direct investigations and reports............................... 306

291........ Research must be published............................................................ 306

292........ Varied wage rates must be published.............................................. 307

Division 4—National minimum wage orders                                               308

293........ Contravening a national minimum wage order................................ 308

294........ Content of national minimum wage order—main provisions.......... 308

295........ Content of national minimum wage order—other matters............... 309

296........ Variation of national minimum wage order to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error              310

297........ When determinations varying national minimum wage orders come into operation 310

298........ Special rule about retrospective variations of national minimum wage orders          311

299........ When a national minimum wage order is in operation..................... 311

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration                                                                                  312

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        312

300........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 312

301........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 312

Division 2—Equal remuneration orders                                                        313

302........ FWA may make an order requiring equal remuneration.................. 313

303........ Equal remuneration order may increase, but must not reduce, rates of remuneration                314

304........ Equal remuneration order may implement equal remuneration in stages.. 314

305........ Contravening an equal remuneration order...................................... 314

306........ Inconsistency with modern awards, enterprise agreements and orders of FWA      314

Part 2‑8—Transfer of business                                                                                  315

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        315

307........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 315

308........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 315

309........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 315

Division 2—Transfer of instruments                                                                317

310........ Application of this Division............................................................ 317

311........ When does a transfer of business occur.......................................... 317

312........ Instruments that may transfer.......................................................... 319

313........ Transferring employees and new employer covered by transferable instrument       319

314........ New non‑transferring employees of new employer may be covered by transferable instrument              320

315........ Organisations covered by transferable instrument........................... 320

316........ Transferring employees who are high income employees............... 321

Division 3—Powers of FWA                                                                                 323

317........ FWA may make orders in relation to a transfer of business............ 323

318........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and transferring employees 323

319........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and non‑transferring employees         324

320........ Variation of transferable instruments.............................................. 326

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment                               329

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        329

321........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 329

322........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 329

Division 2—Payment of wages                                                                            330

323........ Method and frequency of payment.................................................. 330

324........ Permitted deductions....................................................................... 330

325........ Unreasonable requirements to spend amount.................................. 331

326........ Certain terms have no effect............................................................ 331

327........ Things given or provided, and amounts required to be spent, in contravention of this Division              332

Division 3—Guarantee of annual earnings                                                   333

328........ Employer obligations in relation to guarantee of annual earnings.... 333

329........ High income employee.................................................................... 334

330........ Guarantee of annual earnings and annual rate of guarantee............. 334

331........ Guaranteed period........................................................................... 335

332........ Earnings.......................................................................................... 335

333........ High income threshold.................................................................... 337

333A..... Prospective employees.................................................................... 337

Chapter 3—Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc.       338

Part 3‑1—General protections                                                                                   338

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        338

334........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 338

335........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 338

336........ Objects of this Part.......................................................................... 339

Division 2—Application of this Part                                                                 340

337........ Application of this Part................................................................... 340

338........ Action to which this Part applies..................................................... 340

339........ Additional effect of this Part........................................................... 341

Division 3—Workplace rights                                                                              342

340........ Protection........................................................................................ 342

341........ Meaning of workplace right............................................................ 342

342........ Meaning of adverse action.............................................................. 344

343........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 347

344........ Undue influence or pressure........................................................... 347

345........ Misrepresentations.......................................................................... 347

Division 4—Industrial activities                                                                          349

346........ Protection........................................................................................ 349

347........ Meaning of engages in industrial activity....................................... 349

348........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 350

349........ Misrepresentations.......................................................................... 350

350........ Inducements—membership action.................................................. 350

Division 5—Other protections                                                                             352

351........ Discrimination................................................................................. 352

352........ Temporary absence—illness or injury............................................. 353

353........ Bargaining services fees.................................................................. 353

354........ Coverage by particular instruments................................................. 353

355........ Coercion—allocation of duties etc. to particular person.................. 354

356........ Objectionable terms......................................................................... 354

Division 6—Sham arrangements                                                                        355

357........ Misrepresenting employment as independent contracting arrangement 355

358........ Dismissing to engage as independent contractor............................. 355

359........ Misrepresentation to engage as independent contractor................... 355

Division 7—Ancillary rules                                                                                   357

360........ Multiple reasons for action.............................................................. 357

361........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise............ 357

362........ Advising, encouraging, inciting or coercing action......................... 357

363........ Actions of industrial associations.................................................... 357

364........ Unincorporated industrial associations............................................ 359

Division 8—Compliance                                                                                          360

Subdivision A—Contraventions involving dismissal                                    360

365........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute.................................... 360

366........ Time for application........................................................................ 360

367........ Application fees.............................................................................. 360

368........ Conferences.................................................................................... 361

369........ Certificate if dispute not resolved.................................................... 361

370........ Advice on general protections court application.............................. 361

371........ General protections court applications............................................. 361

Subdivision B—Other contraventions                                                              362

372........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute.................................... 362

373........ Application fees.............................................................................. 362

374........ Conferences.................................................................................... 362

375........ Advice on general protections court application.............................. 363

Subdivision C—Conference costs                                                                       363

376........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................. 363

377........ Applications for costs orders.......................................................... 364

378........ Contravening costs orders............................................................... 364

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal                                                                                           365

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        365

379........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 365

380........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 365

381........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 365

Division 2—Protection from unfair dismissal                                              367

382........ When a person is protected from unfair dismissal........................... 367

383........ Meaning of minimum employment period...................................... 367

384........ Period of employment..................................................................... 367

Division 3—What is an unfair dismissal                                                         369

385........ What is an unfair dismissal............................................................. 369

386........ Meaning of dismissed..................................................................... 369

387........ Criteria for considering harshness etc............................................. 370

388........ The Small Business Fair Dismissal Code....................................... 370

389........ Meaning of genuine redundancy..................................................... 371

Division 4—Remedies for unfair dismissal                                                    372

390........ When FWA may order remedy for unfair dismissal....................... 372

391........ Remedy—reinstatement etc............................................................. 372

392........ Remedy—compensation................................................................. 374

393........ Monetary orders may be in instalments........................................... 375

Division 5—Procedural matters                                                                         376

394........ Application for unfair dismissal remedy......................................... 376

395........ Application fees.............................................................................. 376

396........ Initial matters to be considered before merits.................................. 377

397........ Matters involving contested facts.................................................... 377

398........ Conferences.................................................................................... 377

399........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 378

400........ Appeal rights................................................................................... 378

401........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................. 378

402........ Applications for costs orders.......................................................... 379

403........ Schedule of costs............................................................................ 379

404........ Security for costs............................................................................ 380

405........ Contravening orders under this Part................................................ 380

Part 3‑3—Industrial action                                                                                           381

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        381

406........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 381

407........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 382

Division 2—Protected industrial action                                                          383

Subdivision A—What is protected industrial action                                     383

408........ Protected industrial action............................................................... 383

409........ Employee claim action..................................................................... 383

410........ Employee response action............................................................... 384

411........ Employer response action............................................................... 385

412........ Pattern bargaining........................................................................... 385

Subdivision B—Common requirements for industrial action to be protected industrial action                387

413........ Common requirements that apply for industrial action to be protected industrial action           387

414........ Notice requirements for industrial action......................................... 388

Subdivision C—Significance of industrial action being protected industrial action    389

415........ Immunity provision......................................................................... 389

416........ Employer response action—employer may refuse to make payments to employees 390

416A..... Employer response action does not affect continuity of employment 390

Division 3—No industrial action before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       391

417........ Industrial action must not be organised or engaged in before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       391

Division 4—FWA orders stopping etc. industrial action                       393

418........ FWA must order that industrial action by employees or employers stop etc.           393

419........ FWA must order that industrial action by non‑national system employees or non‑national system employers stop etc......................................................................................................... 394

420........ Interim orders etc............................................................................ 394

421........ Contravening an order etc............................................................... 395

Division 5—Injunction against industrial action if pattern bargaining is being engaged in       397

422........ Injunction against industrial action if a bargaining representative is engaging in pattern bargaining         397

Division 6—Suspension or termination of protected industrial action by FWA               398

423........ FWA may suspend or terminate protected industrial action—significant economic harm etc.  398

424........ FWA must suspend or terminate protected industrial action—endangering life etc. 400

425........ FWA must suspend protected industrial action—cooling off.......... 401

426........ FWA must suspend protected industrial action—significant harm to a third party   401

427........ FWA must specify the period of suspension.................................. 403

428........ Extension of a period of suspension............................................... 403

429........ Employee claim action without a further protected action ballot after a period of suspension etc.            404

430........ Notice of employee claim action engaged in after a period of suspension etc.          405

Division 7—Ministerial declarations                                                                406

431........ Ministerial declaration terminating industrial action........................ 406

432........ Informing people of declaration...................................................... 406

433........ Ministerial directions to remove or reduce threat............................. 406

434........ Contravening a Ministerial direction............................................... 407

Division 8—Protected action ballots                                                                408

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               408

435........ Guide to this Division..................................................................... 408

436........ Object of this Division.................................................................... 408

Subdivision B—Protected action ballot orders                                              409

437........ Application for a protected action ballot order................................. 409

438........ Restriction on when application may be made................................. 410

439........ Joint applications............................................................................. 410

440........ Notice of application....................................................................... 410

441........ Application to be determined within 2 days after it is made............ 411

442........ Dealing with multiple applications together..................................... 411

443........ When FWA must make a protected action ballot order................... 411

444........ FWA may decide on ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission and independent advisor           412

445........ Notice of protected action ballot order............................................. 413

446........ Protected action ballot order may require 2 or more protected action ballots to be held at the same time  413

447........ Variation of protected action ballot order........................................ 414

448........ Revocation of protected action ballot order..................................... 414

Subdivision C—Conduct of protected action ballot                                      414

449........ Protected action ballot to be conducted by Australian Electoral Commission or other specified ballot agent            414

450........ Directions for conduct of protected action ballot............................. 415

451........ Timetable for protected action ballot................................................ 416

452........ Compilation of roll of voters........................................................... 416

453........ Who is eligible to be included on the roll of voters......................... 417

454........ Variation of roll of voters................................................................ 417

455........ Protected action ballot papers.......................................................... 419

456........ Who may vote in protected action ballot.......................................... 419

457........ Results of protected action ballot..................................................... 419

458........ Report about conduct of protected action ballot............................... 420

Subdivision D—Effect of protected action ballot                                          421

459........ Circumstances in which industrial action is authorised by protected action ballot    421

460........ Immunity for persons who act in good faith on protected action ballot results         422

461........ Validity of protected action ballot etc. not affected by technical breaches 423

Subdivision E—Compliance                                                                                423

462........ Interferences etc. with protected action ballot.................................. 423

463........ Contravening a protected action ballot order etc.............................. 425

Subdivision F—Liability for costs of protected action ballot                     426

464........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission                426

465........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by protected action ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission.................................................................................... 426

466........ Costs of legal challenges................................................................. 427

Subdivision G—Miscellaneous                                                                           427

467........ Information about employees on roll of voters not to be disclosed. 427

468........ Records........................................................................................... 428

469........ Regulations..................................................................................... 428

Division 9—Payments relating to periods of industrial action           429

Subdivision A—Protected industrial action                                                    429

470........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action 429

471........ Payments relating to partial work bans............................................ 430

472........ Orders by FWA relating to certain partial work bans...................... 432

473........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action 433

Subdivision B—Industrial action that is not protected industrial action 433

474........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action 433

475........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action 434

Subdivision CMiscellaneous                                                                            435

476........ Other responses to industrial action unaffected............................... 435

Division 10—Other matters                                                                                  436

477........ Applications by bargaining representatives..................................... 436

Part 3‑4—Right of entry                                                                                                437

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        437

478........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 437

479........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 437

480........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 437

Division 2—Entry rights under this Act                                                         439

Subdivision A—Entry to investigate suspected contravention                   439

481........ Entry to investigate suspected contravention................................... 439

482........ Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................. 439

483........ Later access to record or document................................................. 441

483AA.. Application to FWA for access to non‑member records................. 442

Subdivision AA—Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF award workers             442

483A..... Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF award workers           442

483B..... Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................. 444

483C..... Later access to record or document................................................. 445

483D..... Entry onto other premises to access records and documents........... 446

483E...... Later access to record or document—other premises...................... 447

Subdivision B—Entry to hold discussions                                                        448

484........ Entry to hold discussions................................................................ 448

Subdivision C—Requirements for permit holders                                         448

486........ Permit holder must not contravene this Subdivision....................... 448

487........ Giving entry notice or exemption certificate.................................... 448

488........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................. 449

489........ Producing authority documents....................................................... 449

490........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 450

491........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................... 450

492........ Conduct of interviews in particular room etc................................... 451

493........ Residential premises........................................................................ 451

Division 3—State or Territory OHS rights                                                  452

494........ Official must be permit holder to exercise State or Territory OHS right.. 452

495........ Giving notice of entry..................................................................... 453

496........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................. 454

497........ Producing entry permit.................................................................... 454

498........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 454

499........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................... 454

Division 4—Prohibitions                                                                                         455

500........ Permit holder must not hinder or obstruct....................................... 455

501........ Person must not refuse or delay entry............................................. 455

502........ Person must not hinder or obstruct permit holder........................... 455

503........ Misrepresentations about things authorised by this Part................. 455

504........ Unauthorised use or disclosure of information or documents......... 456

Division 5—Powers of FWA                                                                                 458

Subdivision A—Dealing with disputes                                                               458

505........ FWA may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part........ 458

506........ Contravening order made to deal with dispute................................ 459

Subdivision B—Taking action against permit holder                                  459

507........ FWA may take action against permit holder.................................... 459

Subdivision C—Restricting rights of organisations and officials where misuse of rights           459

508........ FWA may restrict rights if organisation or official has misused rights 459

509........ Contravening order made for misuse of rights................................ 460

Subdivision D—When FWA must revoke or suspend entry permits         461

510........ When FWA must revoke or suspend entry permits........................ 461

Subdivision E—General rules for suspending entry permits                      462

511........ General rules for suspending entry permits..................................... 462

Division 6—Entry permits, entry notices and certificates                    463

Subdivision A—Entry permits                                                                            463

512........ FWA may issue entry permits......................................................... 463

513........ Considering application................................................................... 463

514........ When FWA must not issue permit.................................................. 464

515........ Conditions on entry permit.............................................................. 464

516........ Expiry of entry permit..................................................................... 465

517........ Return of entry permits to FWA..................................................... 465

Subdivision B—Entry notices                                                                             466

518........ Entry notice requirements................................................................ 466

Subdivision C—Exemption certificates                                                            468

519........ Exemption certificates..................................................................... 468

Subdivision D—Affected member certificates                                                468

520........ Affected member certificates........................................................... 468

Subdivision E—Miscellaneous                                                                            469

521........ Regulations dealing with instruments under this Part...................... 469

Part 3‑5—Stand down                                                                                                     470

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        470

522........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 470

523........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 470

Division 2—Circumstances allowing stand down                                      471

524........ Employer may stand down employees in certain circumstances...... 471

525........ Employee not stood down during a period of authorised leave or absence               471

Division 3—Dealing with disputes                                                                      473

526........ FWA may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part........ 473

527........ Contravening an FWA order dealing with a dispute about the operation of this Part               473

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities                                                        474

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        474

528........ Guide to this Part............................................................................ 474

529........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 474

Division 2—Notification and consultation relating to certain dismissals              475

Subdivision A—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                        475

530........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed dismissals........ 475

Subdivision B—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations             476

531........ FWA may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about dismissals        476

532........ Orders that FWA may make........................................................... 477

533........ Application for FWA order............................................................. 478

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                            478

534........ Limits on scope of this Division..................................................... 478

Division 3—Employer obligations in relation to employee records and pay slips           479

535........ Employer obligations in relation to employee records..................... 479

536........ Employer obligations in relation to pay slips................................... 479


An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes

Chapter 1Introduction

Part 1‑1Introduction

Division 1Preliminary

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Fair Work Act 2009.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provision(s)

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

7 April 2009

2.  Sections 3 to 40

A single day to be fixed by Proclamation.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

26 May 2009

(see F2009L01818)

3.  Sections 41 to 572

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 41–43, 50–54, 58,
169–281A,
300–327, 332, 333, 334–572: 1 July 2009
(see F2009L02563)

Sections 44–49, 55–57A,
59–168,
282–299,
328–331, 333A: 1 January 2010
(see F2009L02563)

4.  Sections 573 to 718

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

5.  Sections 719 to 800

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections
719–740,
769–800: 1 July 2009
(see F2009L02563)

Sections
741–768: 1 January 2010
(see F2009L02563)

6.  Schedule 1

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally passed by both Houses of the Parliament and assented to. It will not be expanded to deal with provisions inserted in this Act after assent.

             (2)  Column 3 of the table contains additional information that is not part of this Act. Information in this column may be added to or edited in any published version of this Act.


 

Division 2Object of this Act

3  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to provide a balanced framework for cooperative and productive workplace relations that promotes national economic prosperity and social inclusion for all Australians by:

                     (a)  providing workplace relations laws that are fair to working Australians, are flexible for businesses, promote productivity and economic growth for Australia’s future economic prosperity and take into account Australia’s international labour obligations; and

                     (b)  ensuring a guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum terms and conditions through the National Employment Standards, modern awards and national minimum wage orders; and

                     (c)  ensuring that the guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum wages and conditions can no longer be undermined by the making of statutory individual employment agreements of any kind given that such agreements can never be part of a fair workplace relations system; and

                     (d)  assisting employees to balance their work and family responsibilities by providing for flexible working arrangements; and

                     (e)  enabling fairness and representation at work and the prevention of discrimination by recognising the right to freedom of association and the right to be represented, protecting against unfair treatment and discrimination, providing accessible and effective procedures to resolve grievances and disputes and providing effective compliance mechanisms; and

                      (f)  achieving productivity and fairness through an emphasis on enterprise‑level collective bargaining underpinned by simple good faith bargaining obligations and clear rules governing industrial action; and

                     (g)  acknowledging the special circumstances of small and medium‑sized businesses.


 

Division 3Guide to this Act

4  Guide to this Act

Overview of this Act

             (1)  This Act is about workplace relations. It:

                     (a)  provides for terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2); and

                     (b)  sets out rights and responsibilities of employees, employers and organisations in relation to that employment (Chapter 3); and

                     (c)  provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act (Chapter 4); and

                     (d)  provides for the administration of this Act by establishing Fair Work Australia and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman (Chapter 5); and

                     (e)  deals with other matters relating to the above (Chapter 6).

Overview of the rest of this Chapter

             (2)  The rest of this Chapter deals with:

                     (a)  definitions that are used in this Act (Part 1‑2); and

                     (b)  the application of this Act (Part 1‑3), including how this Act interacts with certain State and Territory laws and its geographical application.

Definitions

             (3)  Many of the terms in this Act are defined. The Dictionary in section 12 contains a list of every term that is defined in this Act.

Application, saving and transitional provisions for amendments

             (4)  Schedule 1 contains application, saving and transitional provisions relating to amendments of this Act.

5  Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)

             (1)  Chapter 2 provides for terms and conditions of employment of national system employees.

             (2)  Part 2‑1 has the core provisions for the Chapter. It deals with compliance with, and interaction between, the sources of the main terms and conditions provided under this Act—the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

Note:          Workplace determinations are another source of main terms and conditions. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279).

Main terms and conditions

             (3)  Part 2‑2 contains the National Employment Standards, which are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

             (4)  Part 2‑3 is about modern awards. A modern award is made for a particular industry or occupation and provides additional minimum terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A modern award can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (5)  Part 2‑4 is about enterprise agreements. An enterprise agreement is made at the enterprise level and provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. An enterprise agreement can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (6)  Part 2‑5 is about workplace determinations. A workplace determination provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A workplace determination is made by FWA if certain conditions are met.

             (7)  Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements, workplace determinations and other instruments if there is a transfer of business from one national system employer to another national system employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (8)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment for national system employees include those:

                     (a)  provided by a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6) or an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  provided by Part 2‑9 (which deals with the frequency and method of making payments to employees, deductions from payments and high‑income employees).

6  Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)

             (1)  Chapter 3 sets out rights and responsibilities of national system employees, national system employers, organisations and others (such as independent contractors and industrial associations).

             (2)  Part 3‑1 provides general workplace protections. It:

                     (a)  protects workplace rights; and

                     (b)  protects freedom of association and involvement in lawful industrial activities; and

                     (c)  provides other protections, including protection from discrimination.

             (3)  Part 3‑2 deals with unfair dismissal of national system employees, and the granting of remedies when that happens.

             (4)  Part 3‑3 deals mainly with industrial action by national system employees and national system employers and sets out when industrial action is protected industrial action. No action lies under any law in force in a State or Territory in relation to protected industrial action except in certain circumstances.

             (5)  Part 3‑4 is about the rights of officials of organisations who hold entry permits to enter premises for purposes related to their representative role under this Act and under State or Territory OHS laws. In exercising those rights, permit holders must comply with the requirements set out in the Part.

             (6)  Part 3‑5 allows a national system employer to stand down a national system employee without pay in certain circumstances.

             (7)  Part 3‑6 deals with other rights and responsibilities of national system employers in relation to:

                     (a)  termination of employment; and

                     (b)  keeping records and giving payslips.

7  Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)

             (1)  Chapter 4 provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act.

             (2)  Part 4‑1 is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions. Part 4‑1:

                     (a)  deals with applications for orders for contraventions of civil remedy provisions; and

                     (b)  sets out the orders the courts can make in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

             (3)  Part 4‑2 is about the jurisdiction and powers of the courts in relation to matters arising under this Act.

8  Administration (Chapter 5)

             (1)  Chapter 5 provides for the administration of this Act by establishing Fair Work Australia and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman.

             (2)  Part 5‑1 is about FWA. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on FWA; and

                     (b)  sets out how matters before FWA are to be conducted (for example, how FWA is to deal with applications made to it).

             (3)  Part 5‑2 is about the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the Fair Work Ombudsman; and

                     (b)  confers functions and powers on Fair Work Inspectors.

9  Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)

             (1)  Chapter 6 is a collection of miscellaneous matters that relate to the other Chapters.

             (2)  Part 6‑1 provides rules relating to applications for remedies under this Act. It prevents certain applications if other remedies are available and prevents multiple applications or complaints in relation to the same conduct.

             (3)  Part 6‑2 is about dealing with disputes between national system employees and their employers under modern awards, enterprise agreements and contracts of employment.

             (4)  Part 6‑3 extends the National Employment Standards relating to unpaid parental leave and notice of termination to non‑national system employees.

          (4A)  Part 6‑3A provides for the transfer of terms and conditions of employment that are provided for in particular State industrial instruments if there is a transfer of business from a non‑national system employer that is a State public sector employer of the State to a national system employer.

             (5)  Part 6‑4 contains provisions to give effect, or further effect, to certain international agreements relating to termination of employment.

          (5A)  Part 6‑4A contains special provisions about TCF outworkers.

             (6)  Part 6‑5 deals with miscellaneous matters such as delegations and regulations.

9A  Application, transitional and saving provisions for amendments (Schedules)

                   The Schedules contain application, transitional and saving provisions relating to amendments of this Act.

Note:          Application, transitional and saving provisions relating to the enactment of this Act, and States becoming referring States, are in the Transitional Act.


 

Part 1‑2Definitions

Division 1Introduction

10  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the terms that are defined in this Act.

Division 2 has the Dictionary (see section 12). The Dictionary is a list of every term that is defined in this Act. A term will either be defined in the Dictionary itself, or in another provision of this Act. If another provision defines the term, the Dictionary will have a signpost to that definition.

Division 3 has definitions relating to the meanings of employee and employer.

Division 4 has some other definitions that apply across this Act.

11  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).


 

Division 2The Dictionary

12  The Dictionary

                   In this Act:

4 yearly review of modern awards: see subsection 156(1).

access period for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 180(4).

action includes an omission.

adoption‑related leave: see subsection 67(5).

adverse action: see section 342.

affected employees for a variation of an enterprise agreement: see subsection 207(2).

affected employer:

                     (a)  in relation to an entry under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part 3‑4: see subsection 482(2); and

                    (aa)  in relation to an entry under section 483A other than a designated outworker terms entry: see paragraph 483B(3)(a); and

                   (ab)  in relation to a designated outworker terms entry under section 483A: see paragraph 483B(3)(b); and

                     (b)  in relation to an entry in accordance with Division 3 of Part 3‑4: see paragraph 495(2)(a); and

                     (c)  in relation to a State or Territory OHS right to inspect or otherwise access an employee record: see paragraph 495(2)(b).

affected member certificate: see subsection 520(1).

Age Discrimination Commissioner means the Age Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Age Discrimination Act 2004.

agreed terms for a workplace determination: see section 274.

agreed to in relation to a termination of an enterprise agreement: see section 221.

annual rate of an employee’s guaranteed annual earnings: see subsection 330(3).

annual wage review: see subsection 285(1).

anti‑discrimination law: see subsection 351(3).

apparent indirectly responsible entity: see subsection 789CC(2).

applicable agreement‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(5).

applicable award‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(3).

application or complaint under another law: see subsection 732(2).

applies:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 47; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 52; and

                     (c)  in relation to a copied State instrument: see section 768AM.

applies to employment generally: see subsection 26(4).

appointment of a bargaining representative means an appointment of a bargaining representative under paragraph 176(1)(c) or (d).

appropriate safe job: see subsection 81(4).

approved by FWA, in relation to an enterprise agreement, means approved by FWA under section 186 or 189.

associated entity has the meaning given by section 50AAA of the Corporations Act 2001.

Australian‑based employee: see subsections 35(2) and (3).

Australian employer: see subsection 35(1).

Australian ship means a ship that has Australian nationality under section 29 of the Shipping Registration Act 1981.

authority documents: see subsection 489(3).

available parental leave period: see subsection 75(2).

award/agreement free employee means a national system employee to whom neither a modern award nor an enterprise agreement applies.

award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(4).

award modernisation process means:

                     (a)  the process of making modern awards under Part 10A of the Workplace Relations Act 1996, as continued by Part 2 of Schedule 5 of the Transitional Act; and

                     (b)  the enterprise instrument modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6 of the Transitional Act; and

                     (c)  the State reference public sector transitional award modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6A of the Transitional Act.

bargaining order: see subsection 229(1).

bargaining related workplace determination: see subsection 269(1).

bargaining representative for a proposed enterprise agreement: see section 176.

bargaining services: see subsection 353(3).

bargaining services fee: see subsection 353(2).

base rate of pay: see section 16.

birth‑related leave: see subsection 67(4).

child of a person: see subsection 17(1).

civil remedy provision: see subsections 539(1) and (3).

Commissioner means a Commissioner of FWA.

common requirements in relation to industrial action: see section 413.

Commonwealth authority means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a public purpose by or under a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a body corporate:

                              (i)  incorporated under a law of the Commonwealth or a State or a Territory; and

                             (ii)  in which the Commonwealth has a controlling interest.

Commonwealth outworker entity means an entity that is an outworker entity otherwise than because of section 30F or 30Q.

Note:          Sections 30F and 30Q extend the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

Commonwealth place means a place referred to in paragraph 52(i) of the Constitution, other than the seat of government.

compassionate leave means compassionate leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 104.

compliance powers: see section 703.

compliance purposes: see subsection 706(1).

conduct includes an omission.

conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(5).

connected with a Territory: an arrangement for work to be performed for a person (either directly or indirectly) is connected with a Territory if one or more of the following apply:

                     (a)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a Territory in Australia;

                     (b)  the work is to be performed in such a Territory;

                     (c)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that Territory;

                     (d)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

Note:          In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

consent low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(2).

consistent with the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code: see subsection 388(2).

consolidation order:

                     (a)  in relation to a transferring employee—see subsection 768BD(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a non‑transferring employee—see subsection 768BG(1).

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

constitutionally‑covered entity: see subsection 338(2).

constitutional trade or commerce means trade or commerce:

                     (a)  between Australia and a place outside Australia; or

                     (b)  among the States; or

                     (c)  between a State and a Territory; or

                     (d)  between 2 Territories; or

                     (e)  within a Territory.

continental shelf means the continental shelf (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

continuous service has a meaning affected by section 22.

copied State award: see subsection 768AI(1).

copied State collective employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(4).

copied State employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(1).

copied State individual employment agreement: see subsection 768AK(5).

copied State instrument: see section 768AH.

coverage terms:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award (other than a modern enterprise award): see section 143; and

                     (b)  in relation to a modern enterprise award: see section 143A; and

                     (c)  in relation to a State reference public sector modern award: see section 143B.

covers:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 48; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 53; and

                     (c)  in relation to a workplace determination: see section 277; and

                     (d)  in relation to a copied State instrument: see section 768AN.

day of placement: see subsection 67(6).

de facto partner of a national system employee:

                     (a)  means a person who, although not legally married to the employee, lives with the employee in a relationship as a couple on a genuine domestic basis (whether the employee and the person are of the same sex or different sexes); and

                     (b)  includes a former de facto partner of the employee.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of FWA.

designated outworker term of a modern award, enterprise agreement, workplace determination or other instrument, means any of the following terms, so far as the term relates to outworkers in the textile, clothing or footwear industry:

                     (a)  a term that deals with the registration of an employer or outworker entity;

                     (b)  a term that deals with the making and retaining of, or access to, records about work to which outworker terms of a modern award apply;

                     (c)  a term imposing conditions under which an arrangement may be entered into by an employer or an outworker entity for the performance of work, where the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (d)  a term relating to the liability of an employer or outworker entity for work undertaken by an outworker under such an arrangement, including a term which provides for the outworker to make a claim against an employer or outworker entity;

                     (e)  a term that requires minimum pay or other conditions, including the National Employment Standards, to be applied to an outworker who is not an employee;

                      (f)  any other terms prescribed by the regulations.

designated outworker terms entry: see subsection 483A(5).

directly, when used in relation to TCF work: see section 17A.

Disability Discrimination Commissioner means the Disability Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992.

discriminatory term of an enterprise agreement: see section 195.

dismissal remedy bargaining order application: see subsection 726(2).

dismissed: see section 386.

earnings: see subsections 332(1) and (2).

eligible community service activity: see section 109.

eligible State or Territory court means one of the following courts:

                     (a)  a District, County or Local Court;

                     (b)  a magistrates court;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Court of South Australia;

                    (ca)  the Industrial Court of New South Wales;

                     (d)  any other State or Territory court that is prescribed by the regulations.

employee is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employee either as a national system employee or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsections 15(1), 30E(1) and 30P(1).

Note 3:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

employee A, in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A: see subsections 768BD(1) and 768BG(1).

employee claim action: see section 409 and paragraph 471(4A)(c).

employee couple: 2 national system employees are an employee couple if each of the employees is the spouse or de facto partner of the other.

employee organisation means an organisation of employees.

employee record, in relation to an employee, means:

                     (a)  something that is an employee record, in relation to the employee, for the purposes of the Privacy Act 1988; or

                     (b)  in the case of a TCF contract outworker who is taken to be an employee by Division 2 of Part 6‑4A of this Act—something that would be an employee record, in relation to the outworker, for the purposes of the Privacy Act 1988, if the outworker were an employee for the purposes of that Act.

employee response action: see section 410 and paragraph 471(4A)(d).

employee with a disability means a national system employee who is qualified for a disability support pension as set out in section 94 or 95 of the Social Security Act 1991, or who would be so qualified but for paragraph 94(1)(e) or 95(1)(c) of that Act.

employer is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employer either as a national system employer or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsections 15(2), 30E(2) and 30P(2).

Note 3:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

employer organisation means an organisation of employers.

employer response action: see section 411.

employing authority: see subsection 795(6).

engages in industrial activity: see section 347.

enterprise means a business, activity, project or undertaking.

enterprise agreement means:

                     (a)  a single‑enterprise agreement; or

                     (b)  a multi‑enterprise agreement.

entry notice: see subsection 487(2).

entry permit: see section 512.

equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value: see subsection 302(2).

equal remuneration order: see subsection 302(1).

exclusive economic zone means the exclusive economic zone (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

exemption certificate: see subsection 519(1).

extended notice of termination provisions: see subsection 759(3).

extended parental leave provisions: see subsection 744(3).

Fair Work Australia or FWA means the body established by section 575.

Fair Work Information Statement: see subsection 124(1).

Fair Work Inspector means:

                     (a)  a person appointed as a Fair Work Inspector under section 700; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work Ombudsman in his or her capacity as a Fair Work Inspector under section 701.

fair work instrument means:

                     (a)  a modern award; or

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement; or

                     (c)  a workplace determination; or

                     (d)  an FWA order.

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

first employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

fixed platform means an artificial island, installation or structure permanently attached to the sea‑bed for the purpose of exploration for, or exploitation of, resources or for other economic purposes.

flexibility term:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see subsection 202(1).

flight crew officer means a person who performs (whether with or without other duties) duties as a pilot, navigator or flight engineer of aircraft, and includes a person being trained for the performance of such duties.

franchise has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

Full Bench means a Full Bench of FWA constituted under section 618.

full rate of pay: see section 18.

FWA: see Fair Work Australia.

FWA Member means the President, a Deputy President, a Commissioner or a Minimum Wage Panel Member.

General Manager means the General Manager of FWA.

general protections court application: see subsection 370(2).

general protections FWA application: see subsection 727(2).

general State industrial law: see subsection 26(3).

genuinely agreed in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 188.

genuine redundancy: see section 389.

good faith bargaining requirements: see section 228.

greenfields agreement: see subsection 172(4).

guaranteed period for a guarantee of annual earnings: see section 331.

guarantee of annual earnings: see subsection 330(1).

high income employee: see section 329.

high income threshold: see section 333.

ILO means the International Labour Organization.

immediate family of a national system employee means:

                     (a)  a spouse, de facto partner, child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of the employee; or

                     (b)  a child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of a spouse or de facto partner of the employee.

independent advisor for a protected action ballot means the person (if any) specified in the protected action ballot order as the independent advisor for the ballot.

independent contractor is not confined to an individual.

indirectly, when used in relation to TCF work: see section 17A.

indirectly responsible entity, in relation to TCF work performed by a TCF outworker: see subsections 789CA(3), (4) and (5).

individual flexibility arrangement:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see paragraph 202(1)(a).

industrial action: see section 19.

industrial action related workplace determination: see subsection 266(1).

industrial association means:

                     (a)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, or an association of employers, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a workplace law; or

                     (b)  an association of employees, or independent contractors, or both (whether formed formally or informally), a purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning their employment, or their interests as independent contractors (as the case may be); or

                     (c)  an association of employers a principal purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning employment and/or independent contractors;

and includes:

                     (d)  a branch of such an association; and

                     (e)  an organisation; and

                      (f)  a branch of an organisation.

industrial body means:

                     (a)  FWA; or

                     (b)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under an industrial law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on FWA by this Act; or

                     (c)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under a workplace law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on FWA by the Registered Organisations Act.

industrial law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Registered Organisations Act; or

                     (c)  a law of the Commonwealth, however designated, that regulates the relationships between employers and employees; or

                     (d)  a State or Territory industrial law.

industry‑specific redundancy scheme means redundancy or termination payment arrangements in a modern award that are described in the award as an industry‑specific redundancy scheme.

inspector means a Fair Work Inspector.

involved in: see section 550.

irregularity, in relation to the conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(6).

junior employee means a national system employee who is under 21.

jury service pay: see subsection 111(6).

jury service summons: see subsection 111(7).

keeping in touch day: see subsections 79A(2) and (3).

law enforcement officer has the same meaning as in subsection 30K(1).

lawyer means a person who is admitted to the legal profession by a Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

local government employee has the same meaning as in subsection 30K(1).

local government employer has the same meaning as in subsection 30K(1).

lock out: see subsection 19(3).

long term casual employee: a national system employee of a national system employer is a long term casual employee at a particular time if, at that time:

                     (a)  the employee is a casual employee; and

                     (b)  the employee has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis for a sequence of periods of employment during a period of at least 12 months.

low‑paid authorisation: see subsection 242(1).

low‑paid workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a consent low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  a special low‑paid workplace determination.

made:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 182; and

                     (b)  in relation to a variation of an enterprise agreement: see section 209.

magistrates court means:

                     (a)  a court constituted by a police, stipendiary or special magistrate; or

                     (b)  a court constituted by an industrial magistrate.

majority support determination: see subsection 236(1).

maritime employee means a person who is, or whose occupation is that of, a master as defined in section 6 of the Navigation Act 1912, a seaman as so defined or a pilot as so defined.

medical certificate means a certificate signed by a medical practitioner.

medical practitioner means a person registered, or licensed, as a medical practitioner under a law of a State or Territory that provides for the registration or licensing of medical practitioners.

membership action: see subsection 350(3).

minimum employment period: see section 383.

Minimum Wage Panel means the Minimum Wage Panel of FWA constituted under section 620.

Minimum Wage Panel Member means a Minimum Wage Panel Member of FWA.

minimum wages objective: see subsection 284(1).

miscellaneous modern award: see subsection 163(4).

model consultation term: see subsection 205(3).

model flexibility term: see subsection 202(5).

modern award means a modern award made under Part 2‑3.

modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(3).

modern award powers: see subsection 134(2).

modern awards objective: see subsection 134(1).

modern enterprise award: see subsection 168A(2).

modern enterprise awards objective: see subsection 168B(1).

modifications includes additions, omissions and substitutions.

multi‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(3).

named employer award: see subsection 312(2).

National Employment Standards: see subsection 61(3).

national minimum wage order means a national minimum wage order made in an annual wage review.

national system employee: see section 13.

Note 1:       Sections 30C and 30M extend the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

Note 2:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

national system employer: see section 14.

Note 1:       Sections 30D and 30N extend the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

Note 2:       See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances).

new employer:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see subsection 311(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see subsection 768AD(1).

nominal expiry date:

                     (a)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 186, means the date specified in the agreement as its nominal expiry date; or

                     (b)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 189 (which deals with agreements that do not pass the better off overall test): see subsection 189(4); or

                     (c)  of a workplace determination, means the date specified in the determination as its nominal expiry date; or

                     (d)  of a copied State employment agreement: see subsection 768AO(5).

non‑excluded matters: see subsection 27(2).

non‑member record or document: see subsection 482(2A).

non‑monetary benefits: see subsection 332(3).

non‑national system employee means an employee who is not a national system employee.

non‑national system employer means an employer that is not a national system employer.

non‑transferring employee:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see subsection 314(2); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see subsection 768BG(2).

notification time for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 173(2).

objectionable term means a term that:

                     (a)  requires, has the effect of requiring, or purports to require or have the effect of requiring; or

                     (b)  permits, has the effect of permitting, or purports to permit or have the effect of permitting;

either of the following:

                     (c)  a contravention of Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections);

                     (d)  the payment of a bargaining services fee.

occupier, of premises, includes a person in charge of the premises.

office, in an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an office of president, vice president, secretary or assistant secretary of the association; or

                     (b)  the office of a voting member of a collective body of the association, being a collective body that has power in relation to any of the following functions:

                              (i)  the management of the affairs of the association;

                             (ii)  the determination of policy for the association;

                            (iii)  the making, alteration or rescission of rules of the association;

                            (iv)  the enforcement of rules of the association, or the performance of functions in relation to the enforcement of such rules; or

                     (c)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(i) and (iv), other than an office the holder of which participates only in accordance with directions given by a collective body or another person for the purpose of implementing:

                              (i)  existing policy of the association; or

                             (ii)  decisions concerning the association; or

                     (d)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(ii) and (iii); or

                     (e)  the office of a person holding (whether as trustee or otherwise) property:

                              (i)  of the association; or

                             (ii)  in which the association has a beneficial interest.

Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman means the body established by section 696.

officer, of an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an official of the association; or

                     (b)  a delegate or other representative of the association.

official, of an industrial association, means a person who holds an office in, or is an employee of, the association.

old employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

old State employer: see subsection 768AD(1).

ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee: see section 20.

organisation means an organisation registered under the Registered Organisations Act.

original State agreement, in relation to a copied State employment agreement: see paragraph 768AK(1)(a).

original State award, in relation to a copied State award: see paragraph 768AI(1)(a).

outworker means:

                     (a)  an employee who, for the purpose of the business of his or her employer, performs work at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises; or

                     (b)  an individual who, for the purpose of a contract for the provision of services, performs work:

                              (i)  in the textile, clothing or footwear industry; and

                             (ii)  at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises.

outworker entity means any of the following entities, other than in the entity’s capacity as a national system employer:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation;

                     (b)  the Commonwealth;

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority;

                     (d)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory;

                     (e)  a person so far as:

                              (i)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                             (ii)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                            (iii)  the arrangement is connected with a Territory.

Note:          Sections 30F and 30Q extend the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

outworker terms: see subsection 140(3).

paid agent, in relation to a matter before FWA, means an agent (other than a bargaining representative) who charges or receives a fee to represent a person in the matter.

paid annual leave means paid annual leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 87.

paid no safe job leave means paid no safe job leave to which a national system employee is entitled under paragraph 81(3)(b).

paid personal/carer’s leave means paid personal/carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 96.

partial work ban: see subsection 470(3).

part of a single enterprise: see subsection 168A(6).

passes the better off overall test:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement that is not a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(3).

pattern bargaining: see section 412.

peak council means a national or State council or federation that is effectively representative of a significant number of organisations (within the ordinary meaning of the term) representing employers or employees in a range of industries.

pecuniary penalty order means an order under subsection 546(1).

penalty unit has the meaning given by section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

period of employment: see section 384.

permissible occasion: see sections 102 and 104.

permit holder means a person who holds an entry permit.

permit qualification matters: see subsection 513(1).

permitted matters in relation to an enterprise agreement: see subsection 172(1).

pieceworker: see section 21.

pilot, in relation to an aircraft, includes a pilot in command, co‑pilot or pilot of any other description.

post‑declaration negotiating period: see subsection 269(2).

post‑industrial action negotiating period: see subsection 266(3).

premises includes:

                     (a)  any land, building, structure, mine, mine working, aircraft ship, vessel, vehicle or place; and

                     (b)  a part of premises (including premises referred to in paragraph (a)).

pre‑parental leave position: see subsection 83(2).

prescribed State industrial authority means a State board, court, tribunal, body or official prescribed by the regulations.

President means the President of FWA.

procedural rules means the procedural rules of FWA made under section 609.

process or proceedings under a workplace law or workplace instrument: see subsection 341(2).

prospective award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(5).

protected action ballot means a ballot conducted under Division 8 of Part 3‑3.

protected action ballot agent for a protected action ballot means the person that conducts the protected action ballot.

protected action ballot order: see subsection 437(1).

protected from unfair dismissal: see section 382.

protected industrial action: see section 408.

public holiday: see section 115.

public sector employment: see subsections 795(4) and (5).

public sector employment law: see subsection 40(3).

recognised emergency management body: see subsection 109(3).

reduction in take‑home pay: see subsection 768BR(3).

re‑employment time, in relation to a transferring employee covered by a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A: see subsection 768AE(3).

registered employee association means:

                     (a)  an employee organisation; or

                     (b)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a State or Territory industrial law.

Registered Organisations Act means the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

reinstatement includes appointment by an associated entity in the circumstances provided for in an order to which subsection 391(1A) applies.

related body corporate has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

relevant employee organisation, in relation to a greenfields agreement, means an employee organisation that is entitled to represent the industrial interests of one or more of the employees who will be covered by the agreement, in relation to work to be performed under the agreement.

responsible person, in relation to TCF work performed by a TCF outworker: see subsection 789CA(1).

safety net contractual entitlement means an entitlement under a contract between an employee and an employer that relates to any of the subject matters described in:

                     (a)  subsection 61(2) (which deals with the National Employment Standards); or

                     (b)  subsection 139(1) (which deals with modern awards).

school age, for a child, means the age at which the child is required by a law of the State or Territory in which the child lives to start attending school.

school‑based apprentice means a national system employee who is an apprentice to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based trainee means a national system employee (other than a school‑based apprentice) to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based training arrangement means a training arrangement undertaken as part of a course of secondary education.

scope order: see subsection 238(1).

second employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

serious breach declaration: see section 234.

serious misconduct has the meaning prescribed by the regulations.

service: see section 22.

setting modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

Sex Discrimination Commissioner means the Sex Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Sex Discrimination Act 1984.

ship includes a barge, lighter, hulk or other vessel.

single enterprise: see section 168A.

single‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(2).

single interest employer authorisation: see subsection 248(1).

small business employer: see section 23.

Small Business Fair Dismissal Code means the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code declared under subsection 388(1).

special low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(4).

spouse includes a former spouse.

State award: see section 768AJ.

State collective employment agreement: see subsection 768AL(3).

State employment agreement: see subsections 768AL(1) and (2).

State individual employment agreement: see subsection 768AL(4).

State industrial instrument means an award, an agreement (whether individual or collective), or another industrial instrument or order, that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a law of a State that is a State or Territory industrial law; and

                     (b)  determines terms and conditions of employment.

State industrial law means a law of a State that is a State or Territory industrial law.

state of mind: see subsection 793(3).

State or Territory industrial law: see subsection 26(2).

State or Territory OHS law: see subsection 494(3).

State or Territory OHS right: see subsection 494(2).

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other non‑national system employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer of the State but does not include a local government employee of the State.

State public sector employer, of a State, means a non‑national system employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a non‑national system employer of a law enforcement officer of the State but does not include a local government employer of the State.

State reference public sector employee: see subsection 168E(3).

State reference public sector employer: see subsection 168E(4).

State reference public sector modern award: see subsection 168E(2).

State reference public sector modern awards objective: see section 168F.

step‑child: without limiting who is a step‑child of a person, someone who is a child of the person’s de facto partner is a step‑child of a person, if he or she would be the person’s step‑child except that the person is not legally married to the de facto partner.

take‑home pay: see subsection 768BR(2).

take‑home pay order: see subsection 768BS(1).

TCF award means an instrument prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

TCF award worker: see subsection 483A(1A).

TCF contract outworker: see subsection 789BB(2).

TCF outwork code: see section 789DA.

TCF outworker means an outworker in the textile, clothing or footwear industry.

TCF work means work in the textile, clothing or footwear industry.

termination of industrial action instrument: see subsection 266(2).

termination time, in relation to a transferring employee covered by a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A: see subsection 768AE(2).

territorial sea, in relation to Australia, has the meaning given by Division 1 of Part II of the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973.

Territory employer: see subsection 338(4).

test time: see subsection 193(6).

this Act includes the regulations.

trade and commerce employer: see subsection 338(3).

training arrangement means a combination of work and training that is subject to a training agreement, or a training contract, that takes effect under a law of a State or Territory relating to the training of employees.

transferable instrument: see subsection 312(1).

transfer of business:

                     (a)  for a transfer of business between a national system employer and another national system employer—see subsection 311(1); and

                     (b)  for a transfer of business between a non‑national system employer that is a State public sector employer and a national system employer—see subsection 768AD(1).

transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

transfer of employment between associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(a).

transfer of employment between non‑associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(b).

transferring employee:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see subsection 311(2); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see subsection 768AE(1).

transferring work:

                     (a)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 2‑8—see paragraph 311(1)(c); and

                     (b)  in relation to a transfer of business referred to in Part 6‑3A—see paragraph 768AD(1)(c).

Transitional Act means the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009.

unfair dismissal application: see subsection 729(2).

unfairly dismissed: see section 385.

unlawful term of an enterprise agreement: see section 194.

unlawful termination court application: see subsection 778(2).

unlawful termination FWA application: see subsection 730(2).

unpaid amount, in relation to TCF work performed by a TCF outworker: see subsections 789CA(1) and (4).

unpaid carer’s leave means unpaid carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 102.

unpaid parental leave means unpaid parental leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 70.

unpaid pre‑adoption leave means unpaid pre‑adoption leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 85.

unpaid special maternity leave means unpaid special maternity leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 80.

varying modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

vocational placement means a placement that is:

                     (a)  undertaken with an employer for which a person is not entitled to be paid any remuneration; and

                     (b)  undertaken as a requirement of an education or training course; and

                     (c)  authorised under a law or an administrative arrangement of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

voluntary emergency management activity: see subsection 109(2).

waters above the continental shelf means any part of the area in, on or over the continental shelf.

waterside worker has the meaning given by clause 1 of Schedule 2 to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 as in force immediately before the commencement of this section.

working day means a day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday or a public holiday.

workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  an industrial action related workplace determination; or

                     (c)  a bargaining related workplace determination.

workplace instrument means an instrument that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a workplace law; and

                     (b)  concerns the relationships between employers and employees.

workplace law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Registered Organisations Act; or

                     (c)  the Independent Contractors Act 2006; or

                     (d)  any other law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory that regulates the relationships between employers and employees (including by dealing with occupational health and safety matters).

workplace right: see subsection 341(1).

work value reasons: see subsection 156(4).


 

Division 3Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.

13  Meaning of national system employee

                   A national system employee is an individual so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in the definition of national system employer in section 14, by a national system employer, except on a vocational placement.

Note:          Sections 30C and 30M extend the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

14  Meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer is:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (b)  the Commonwealth, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (d)  a person so far as the person, in connection with constitutional trade or commerce, employs, or usually employs, an individual as:

                              (i)  a flight crew officer; or

                             (ii)  a maritime employee; or

                            (iii)  a waterside worker; or

                     (e)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory, so far as the body employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                      (f)  a person who carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a Territory in Australia, so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual in connection with the activity carried on in the Territory.

Note 1:       In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

Note 2:       Sections 30D and 30N extend the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

Particular employers declared not to be national system employers

             (2)  Despite subsection (1) and sections 30D and 30N, a particular employer is not a national system employer if:

                     (a)  that employer:

                              (i)  is a body established for a public purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory, by the Governor of a State, by the Administrator of a Territory or by a Minister of a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  is a body established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory; or

                            (iii)  is a wholly‑owned subsidiary (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) of, or is wholly controlled by, an employer to which subparagraph (ii) applies; and

                     (b)  that employer is specifically declared, by or under a law of the State or Territory, not to be a national system employer for the purposes of this Act; and

                     (c)  an endorsement by the Minister under paragraph (4)(a) is in force in relation to the employer.

             (3)  Paragraph (2)(b) does not apply to an employer that is covered by a declaration by or under such a law only because it is included in a specified class or kind of employer.

Endorsement of declarations

             (4)  The Minister may, in writing:

                     (a)  endorse, in relation to an employer, a declaration referred to in paragraph (2)(b); or

                     (b)  revoke or amend such an endorsement.

             (5)  An endorsement, revocation or amendment under subsection (4) is a legislative instrument, but neither section 42 (disallowance) nor Part 6 (sunsetting) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 applies to the endorsement, revocation or amendment.

Employers that cannot be declared

             (6)  Subsection (2) does not apply to an employer that:

                     (a)  generates, supplies or distributes electricity; or

                     (b)  supplies or distributes gas; or

                     (c)  provides services for the supply, distribution or release of water; or

                     (d)  operates a rail service or a port;

unless the employer is a body established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory, or is a wholly‑owned subsidiary (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) of, or is wholly controlled by, such a body.

             (7)  Subsection (2) does not apply to an employer if the employer is an Australian university (within the meaning of the Higher Education Support Act 2003) that is established by or under a law of a State or Territory.

14A  Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.

             (1)  The regulations may make provisions of a transitional, application or saving nature in relation to any of the following:

                     (a)  an employer ceasing to be a national system employer because subsection 14(2) applies to the employer;

                     (b)  an individual ceasing to be a national system employee because an employer ceases to be a national system employer for the reason referred to in paragraph (a);

                     (c)  an employer becoming a national system employer because subsection 14(2) ceases to apply to the employer;

                     (d)  an individual becoming a national system employee because an employer becomes a national system employer for the reason referred to in paragraph (c).

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), regulations made for the purpose of that subsection may:

                     (a)  modify provisions of this Act or the Transitional Act; or

                     (b)  provide for the application (with or without modifications) of provisions of this Act, or the Transitional Act, to matters to which they would otherwise not apply.

15  Ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning:

                     (a)  includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employee; and

                     (b)  does not include a person on a vocational placement.

Note:          Subsections 30E(1) and 30P(1) extend the meaning of employee in relation to a referring State.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employer.

Note:          Subsections 30E(2) and 30P(2) extend the meaning of employer in relation to a referring State.


 

Division 4Other definitions

16  Meaning of base rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The base rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee for his or her ordinary hours of work, but not including any of the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s base rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the base rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

Meaning for pieceworkers for the purpose of section 206

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the base rate of pay, for the purpose of section 206, of an employee who is a pieceworker. If the regulations do so, the employee’s base rate of pay, for the purpose of that section, is as prescribed by, or determined in accordance with, the regulations.

Note:          Section 206 deals with an employee’s base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement.

17  Meaning of child of a person

             (1)  A child of a person includes:

                     (a)  someone who is a child of the person within the meaning of the Family Law Act 1975; and

                     (b)  an adopted child or step‑child of the person.

It does not matter whether the child is an adult.

             (2)  If, under this section, one person is a child of another person, other family relationships are also to be determined on the basis that the child is a child of that other person.

Note:          For example, for the purpose of leave entitlements in relation to immediate family under Division 7 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave):

(a)    the other person is the parent of the child, and so is a member of the child’s immediate family; and

(b)    the child, and any other children, of the other person are siblings, and so are members of each other’s immediate family.

17A  Meaning of directly and indirectly (in relation to TCF work)

             (1)  If there is a chain or series of 2 or more arrangements for the supply or production of goods produced by TCF work performed by a person (the worker), the following provisions have effect:

                     (a)  the work is taken to be performed directly for the person (the direct principal) who employed or engaged the worker (and the direct principal is taken to have arranged for the work to be performed directly for the direct principal);

                     (b)  the work is taken to be performed indirectly for each other person (an indirect principal) who is a party to any of the arrangements in the chain or series (and each indirect principal is taken to have arranged for the work to be performed indirectly for the indirect principal).

             (2)  This section does not limit the circumstances in which TCF work is performed directly or indirectly for a person (or in which a person arranges for TCF work to be performed directly or indirectly for the person).

             (3)  This section does not apply for the purposes of Division 2A or 2B of Part 1‑3.

18  Meaning of full rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The full rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee, including all the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  However, if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s full rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the full rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

19  Meaning of industrial action

             (1)  Industrial action means action of any of the following kinds:

                     (a)  the performance of work by an employee in a manner different from that in which it is customarily performed, or the adoption of a practice in relation to work by an employee, the result of which is a restriction or limitation on, or a delay in, the performance of the work;

                     (b)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work by an employee or on the acceptance of or offering for work by an employee;

                     (c)  a failure or refusal by employees to attend for work or a failure or refusal to perform any work at all by employees who attend for work;

                     (d)  the lockout of employees from their employment by the employer of the employees.

Note:          In Automotive, Food, Metals, Engineering, Printing and Kindred Industries Union v The Age Company Limited, PR946290, the Full Bench of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission considered the nature of industrial action and noted that action will not be industrial in character if it stands completely outside the area of disputation and bargaining.

             (2)  However, industrial action does not include the following:

                     (a)  action by employees that is authorised or agreed to by the employer of the employees;

                     (b)  action by an employer that is authorised or agreed to by, or on behalf of, employees of the employer;

                     (c)  action by an employee if:

                              (i)  the action was based on a reasonable concern of the employee about an imminent risk to his or her health or safety; and

                             (ii)  the employee did not unreasonably fail to comply with a direction of his or her employer to perform other available work, whether at the same or another workplace, that was safe and appropriate for the employee to perform.

             (3)  An employer locks out employees from their employment if the employer prevents the employees from performing work under their contracts of employment without terminating those contracts.

Note:          In this section, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings (see section 11).

20  Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees

Agreed ordinary hours of work

             (1)  The ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee are the hours agreed by the employee and his or her national system employer as the employee’s ordinary hours of work.

If there is no agreement

             (2)  If there is no agreement about ordinary hours of work for an award/agreement free employee, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are:

                     (a)  for a full time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

If the agreed hours are less than usual weekly hours

             (3)  If, for an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee, there is an agreement under subsection (1) between the employee and his or her national system employer, but the agreed ordinary hours of work are less than the employee’s usual weekly hours of work, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are the lesser of:

                     (a)  38 hours; and

                     (b)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

Regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours

             (4)  For an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee and who does not have usual weekly hours of work, the regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, hours that are taken to be the employee’s usual weekly hours of work for the purposes of subsections (2) and (3).

21  Meaning of pieceworker

             (1)  A pieceworker is:

                     (a)  a national system employee to whom a modern award applies and who is defined or described in the award as a pieceworker; or

                     (b)  a national system employee to whom an enterprise agreement applies and who is defined or described in the agreement as a pieceworker; or

                     (c)  an award/agreement free employee who is in a class of employees prescribed by the regulations as pieceworkers.

Note:          Sections 197 and 198 affect whether FWA may approve an enterprise agreement covering a national system employee that includes a term that:

(a)    defines or describes the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and does not include such a term; or

(b)    does not define or describe the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and includes such a term.

             (2)  Without limiting the way in which a class may be described for the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the class may be described by reference to one or more of the following:

                     (a)  a particular industry or part of an industry;

                     (b)  a particular kind of work;

                     (c)  a particular type of employment.

22  Meanings of service and continuous service

General meaning

             (1)  A period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include any period (an excluded period) that does not count as service because of subsection (2).

             (2)  The following periods do not count as service:

                     (a)  any period of unauthorised absence;

                     (b)  any period of unpaid leave or unpaid authorised absence, other than:

                              (i)  a period of absence under Division 8 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with community service leave); or

                             (ii)  a period of stand down under Part 3‑5, under an enterprise agreement that applies to the employee, or under the employee’s contract of employment; or

                            (iii)  a period of leave or absence of a kind prescribed by the regulations;

                     (c)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  An excluded period does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service.

          (3A)  Regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (2)(c) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions of this Act (other than provisions to which subsection (4) applies). If they do so, subsection (3) applies accordingly.

Meaning for Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2

             (4)  For the purposes of Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2:

                     (a)  a period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include:

                              (i)  any period of unauthorised absence; or

                             (ii)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (b)  a period referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) or (ii) does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service; and

                     (c)  subsections (1), (2) and (3) do not apply.

Note:          Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2 deal, respectively, with requests for flexible working arrangements, parental leave and related entitlements, and notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice.

          (4A)  Regulations made for the purposes of subparagraph (4)(a)(ii) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions to which subsection (4) applies. If they do so, paragraph (4)(b) applies accordingly.

When service with one employer counts as service with another employer

             (5)  If there is a transfer of employment (see subsection (7)) in relation to a national system employee:

                     (a)  any period of service of the employee with the first employer counts as service of the employee with the second employer; and

                     (b)  the period between the termination of the employment with the first employer and the start of the employment with the second employer does not break the employee’s continuous service with the second employer (taking account of the effect of paragraph (a)), but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service with the second employer.

Note:          This subsection does not apply to a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities, for the purpose of Division 6 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with annual leave) or Subdivision B of Division 11 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with redundancy pay), if the second employer decides not to recognise the employee’s service with the first employer for the purpose of that Division or Subdivision (see subsections 91(1) and 122(1)).

             (6)  If the national system employee has already had the benefit of an entitlement the amount of which was calculated by reference to a period of service with the first employer, subsection (5) does not result in that period of service with the first employer being counted again when calculating the employee’s entitlements of that kind as an employee of the second employer.

Note:          For example:

(a)    the accrued paid annual leave to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer does not include any period of paid annual leave that the employee has already taken as an employee of the first employer; and

(b)    if an employee receives notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice in relation to a period of service with the first employer, that period of service is not counted again in calculating the amount of notice of termination, or payment in lieu, to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer.

Meaning of transfer of employment etc.

             (7)  There is a transfer of employment of a national system employee from one national system employer (the first employer) to another national system employer (the second employer) if:

                     (a)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee becomes employed by the second employer not more than 3 months after the termination of the employee’s employment with the first employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer; or

                     (b)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee is a transferring employee in relation to a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are not associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer.

Note:          Paragraph (a) applies whether or not there is a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer.

             (8)  A transfer of employment:

                     (a)  is a transfer of employment between associated entities if paragraph (7)(a) applies; and

                     (b)  is a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities if paragraph (7)(b) applies.

23  Meaning of small business employer

             (1)  A national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time if the employer employs fewer than 15 employees at that time.

             (2)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time:

                     (a)  subject to paragraph (b), all employees employed by the employer at that time are to be counted; and

                     (b)  a casual employee is not to be counted unless, at that time, he or she has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis.

             (3)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time, associated entities are taken to be one entity.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, in determining whether a national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time in relation to the dismissal of an employee, or termination of an employee’s employment, the employees that are to be counted include (subject to paragraph (2)(b)):

                     (a)  the employee who is being dismissed or whose employment is being terminated; and

                     (b)  any other employee of the employer who is also being dismissed or whose employment is also being terminated.


 

Part 1‑3Application of this Act

Division 1Introduction

24  Guide to this Part

This Part deals with the extent of the application of this Act.

Division 2 is about how this Act affects the operation of certain State or Territory laws.

Divisions 2A and 2B are about the extended application of this Act in States that have referred to the Parliament of the Commonwealth matters relating to this Act.

Division 3 is about the geographical application of this Act.

Division 4 deals with other matters relating to the application of this Act.

25  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.

Note:          See also Division 2 of Part 6‑4A (TCF contract outworkers taken to be employees in certain circumstances). However, that Division does not apply for the purposes of Divisions 2A and 2B of this Part.


 

Division 2Interaction with State and Territory laws

26  Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of all State or Territory industrial laws so far as they would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (2)  A State or Territory industrial law is:

                     (a)  a general State industrial law; or

                     (b)  an Act of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and has one or more of the following as its main purpose or one or more of its main purposes:

                              (i)  regulating workplace relations (including industrial matters, industrial activity, collective bargaining, industrial disputes and industrial action);

                             (ii)  providing for the establishment or enforcement of terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iii)  providing for the making and enforcement of agreements (including individual agreements and collective agreements), and other industrial instruments or orders, determining terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  prohibiting conduct relating to a person’s membership or non‑membership of an industrial association;

                             (v)  providing for rights and remedies connected with the termination of employment;

                            (vi)  providing for rights and remedies connected with conduct that adversely affects an employee in his or her employment; or

                     (c)  a law of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and deals with leave (other than long service leave or leave for victims of crime); or

                     (d)  a law of a State or Territory providing for a court or tribunal constituted by a law of the State or Territory to make an order in relation to equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value; or

                     (e)  a law of a State or Territory providing for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair; or

                      (f)  a law of a State or Territory that entitles a representative of a trade union to enter premises; or

                     (g)  an instrument made under a law described in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f), so far as the instrument is of a legislative character; or

                     (h)  either of the following:

                              (i)  a law that is a law of a State or Territory;

                             (ii)  an instrument of a legislative character made under such a law;

                            that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  Each of the following is a general State industrial law:

                     (a)  the Industrial Relations Act 1996 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Industrial Relations Act 1999 of Queensland;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Act 1979 of Western Australia;

                     (d)  the Fair Work Act 1994 of South Australia;

                     (e)  the Industrial Relations Act 1984 of Tasmania.

             (4)  A law or an Act of a State or Territory applies to employment generally if it applies (subject to constitutional limitations) to:

                     (a)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory except those identified (by reference to a class or otherwise) by a law of the State or Territory.

For this purpose, it does not matter whether or not the law also applies to other persons, or whether or not an exercise of a power under the law affects all the persons to whom the law applies.

27  State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26

          (1A)  Section 26 does not apply to any of the following laws:

                     (a)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1977 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 of Victoria;

                     (c)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1991 of Queensland;

                     (d)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of Western Australia;

                     (e)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of South Australia;

                      (f)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1998 of Tasmania;

                     (g)  the Discrimination Act 1991 of the Australian Capital Territory;

                     (h)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act of the Northern Territory.

             (1)  Section 26 does not apply to a law of a State or Territory so far as:

                     (b)  the law is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which section 26 does not apply; or

                     (c)  the law deals with any non‑excluded matters; or

                     (d)  the law deals with rights or remedies incidental to:

                              (i)  any law referred to in subsection (1A); or

                             (ii)  any matter dealt with by a law to which paragraph (b) applies; or

                            (iii)  any non‑excluded matters.

Note:          Examples of incidental matters covered by paragraph (d) are entry to premises for a purpose connected with workers compensation, occupational health and safety or outworkers.

             (2)  The non‑excluded matters are as follows:

                     (a)  superannuation;

                     (b)  workers compensation;

                     (c)  occupational health and safety;

                     (d)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                     (e)  child labour;

                      (f)  training arrangements, except in relation to terms and conditions of employment to the extent that those terms and conditions are provided for by the National Employment Standards or may be included in a modern award;

                     (g)  long service leave, except in relation to an employee who is entitled under Division 9 of Part 2‑2 to long service leave;

                     (h)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (i)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

Note:       See also section 112 for employee entitlements in relation to engaging in eligible community service activities.

                      (j)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays, except in relation to the rights and obligations of an employee or employer in relation to public holidays;

                     (k)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                      (l)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                    (m)  workplace surveillance;

                     (n)  business trading hours;

                     (o)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as the law in question provides for a matter to which paragraph 26(2)(e) applies;

                     (p)  any other matters prescribed by the regulations.

28  Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  However, subsection (1) applies only so far as the law of the State or Territory would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, subsection (1) has effect even if the law is covered by section 27 (so that section 26 does not apply to the law). This subsection does not limit subsection (1).

29  Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws

             (1)  A modern award or enterprise agreement prevails over a law of a State or Territory, to the extent of any inconsistency.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement applies subject to the following:

                     (a)  any law covered by subsection 27(1A);

                     (b)  any law of a State or Territory so far as it is covered by paragraph 27(1)(b), (c) or (d).

             (3)  Despite subsection (2), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement does not apply subject to a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which modern awards and enterprise agreements are not subject.

30  Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases

                   This Division is not a complete statement of the circumstances in which this Act and instruments made under it are intended to apply to the exclusion of, or prevail over, laws of the States and Territories or instruments made under those laws.


 

Division 2AApplication of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009

30A  Meaning of terms used in this Division

             (1)  In this Division:

amendment reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(4).

excluded subject matter means any of the following matters:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act;

                     (b)  superannuation;

                     (c)  workers compensation;

                     (d)  occupational health and safety;

                     (e)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                      (f)  child labour;

                     (g)  training arrangements;

                     (h)  long service leave;

                      (i)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (j)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

                     (k)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays;

                      (l)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                    (m)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                     (n)  workplace surveillance;

                     (o)  business trading hours;

                     (p)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as a law of a State provides for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair;

                     (q)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in a preceding paragraph of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as originally enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of the text of this Act (whether by the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution or relocation of words or matter), but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

fundamental workplace relations principles: see subsection 30B(9).

initial reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(3).

law enforcement officer means:

                     (a)  a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (b)  a person appointed to a position for the purpose of being trained as a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (c)  a person who has the powers and duties of a member of a police force or police service;

and, without limiting paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), includes a police reservist, a police recruit, a police cadet, a junior constable, a police medical officer, a special constable, an ancillary constable or a protective services officer.

local government employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a local government employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

local government employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate in which a body to which paragraph (a) applies has, or 2 or more such bodies together have, a controlling interest; or

                     (c)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (d)  any other body corporate that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations; or

                     (e)  any other person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30B(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of persons, including employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association in the context of workplace relations, and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                          (viii)  union rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30B.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

transition reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(5).

             (2)  Words or phrases in the definition of excluded subject matter in subsection (1), or in the definition of referred subject matters in subsection (1), that are defined in this Act (other than in this Division) have, in that definition, the meanings set out in this Act as in force on 1 July 2009.

30B  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has, before 1 July 2009, referred the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) in relation to the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth for the purposes of paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution:

                     (a)  if and to the extent that the matters are not otherwise included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the Commonwealth (otherwise than by a reference under paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution); and

                     (b)  if and to the extent that the matters are included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the State.

This subsection has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (2)  A State is a referring State even if:

                     (a)  the State’s referral law provides that the reference to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) is to terminate in particular circumstances; or

                     (b)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to State public sector employees, or State public sector employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5); or

                     (c)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to local government employees, or local government employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Reference covering referred provisions

             (3)  This subsection covers the matters to which the referred provisions relate to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by amending this Act, as originally enacted, to include the referred provisions.

Reference covering amendments

             (4)  This subsection covers the referred subject matters to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by making express amendments of this Act.

Reference covering transitional matters

             (5)  This subsection covers making laws with respect to the transition from the regime provided for by:

                     (a)  the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or

                     (b)  a law of a State relating to workplace relations;

to the regime provided for by this Act.

Effect of termination of reference

             (6)  Despite anything to the contrary in a referral law of a State, a State ceases to be a referring State if any or all of the following occurs:

                     (a)  the State’s initial reference terminates;

                     (b)  the State’s amendment reference terminates, and neither of subsections (7) and (8) apply to the termination;

                     (c)  the State’s transition reference terminates.

             (7)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 6 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  that State’s amendment reference, and the amendment reference of every other referring State (other than a referring State that has terminated its amendment reference in the circumstances referred to in subsection (8)), terminate on the same day.

             (8)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 3 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  the Governor of that State, as part of the proclamation by which the termination is to be effected, declares that, in the opinion of the Governor, this Act:

                              (i)  is proposed to be amended (by an amendment introduced into the Parliament by a Minister); or

                             (ii)  has been amended;

                            in a manner that is inconsistent with one or more of the fundamental workplace relations principles.

             (9)  The following are the fundamental workplace relations principles:

                     (a)  that this Act should provide for, and continue to provide for, the following:

                              (i)  a strong, simple and enforceable safety net of minimum employment standards;

                             (ii)  genuine rights and responsibilities to ensure fairness, choice and representation at work, including the freedom to choose whether or not to join and be represented by a union or participate in collective activities;

                            (iii)  collective bargaining at the enterprise level with no provision for individual statutory agreements;

                            (iv)  fair and effective remedies available through an independent umpire;

                             (v)  protection from unfair dismissal;

                     (b)  that there should be, and continue to be, in connection with the operation of this Act, the following:

                              (i)  an independent tribunal system;

                             (ii)  an independent authority able to assist employers and employees within a national workplace relations system.

30C  Extended meaning of national system employee

             (1)  A national system employee includes:

                     (a)  any individual in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in paragraph 30D(1)(a), except on a vocational placement; and

                     (b)  a law enforcement officer of the State to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 13 (which defines a national system employee).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employee.

30D  Extended meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer includes:

                     (a)  any person in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual; and

                     (b)  a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 14 (which defines a national system employer).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employer.

30E  Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a law enforcement officer of a State that is a referring State because of this Division if the State’s referral law so provides for the purposes of that law.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a holder of an office of a State that is a referring State because of this Division if the State’s referral law provides, for the purposes of that law, that the holder of the office is taken to be the employer of a law enforcement officer of the State.

             (3)  This section does not limit the operation of section 15 (which deals with references to employee and employer with their ordinary meanings).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meanings of employee and employer.

30F  Extended meaning of outworker entity

             (1)  An outworker entity includes a person, other than in the person’s capacity as a national system employer, so far as:

                     (a)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                     (b)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                     (c)  one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                             (ii)  the work is to be performed in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                            (iii)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that State;

                            (iv)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of the definition of outworker entity in section 12.

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of outworker entity.

30G  General protections

             (1)  Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections) applies to action taken in a State that is a referring State because of this Division.

             (2)  This section applies despite section 337 (which limits the application of Part 3‑1), and does not limit the operation of sections 338 and 339 (which set out the application of that Part).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the application of Part 3‑1.

30H  Division only has effect if supported by reference

                   A provision of this Division has effect in relation to a State that is a referring State because of this Division only to the extent that the State’s referral law refers to the Parliament of the Commonwealth the matters mentioned in subsection 30B(1) that result in the Parliament of the Commonwealth having sufficient legislative power for the provision so to have effect.


 

Division 2BApplication of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010

30K  Meaning of terms used in this Division

             (1)  In this Division:

amendment reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(4).

excluded subject matter means any of the following matters:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act;

                     (b)  superannuation;

                     (c)  workers compensation;

                     (d)  occupational health and safety;

                     (e)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                      (f)  child labour;

                     (g)  training arrangements;

                     (h)  long service leave;

                      (i)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (j)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

                     (k)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays;

                      (l)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                    (m)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                     (n)  workplace surveillance;

                     (o)  business trading hours;

                     (p)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as a law of a State provides for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair;

                     (q)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in a preceding paragraph of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as originally enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of the text of this Act (whether by the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution or relocation of words or matter), but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

fundamental workplace relations principles: see subsection 30L(9).

initial reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(3).

law enforcement officer means:

                     (a)  a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (b)  a person appointed to a position for the purpose of being trained as a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (c)  a person who has the powers and duties of a member of a police force or police service;

and, without limiting paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), includes a police reservist, a police recruit, a police cadet, a junior constable, a police medical officer, a special constable, an ancillary constable or a protective services officer.

local government employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a local government employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

local government employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate in which a body to which paragraph (a) applies has, or 2 or more such bodies together have, a controlling interest; or

                     (c)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (d)  any other body corporate that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations; or

                     (e)  any other person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30L(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of persons, including employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association in the context of workplace relations, and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                          (viii)  union rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30L.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer of the State.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office of the State whom the State’s referral law provides is to be taken, for the purposes of this Act, to be an employer of law enforcement officers of the State.

transition reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(5).

             (2)  Words or phrases in the definition of excluded subject matter in subsection (1), or in the definition of referred subject matters in subsection (1), that are defined in this Act (other than in this Division) have, in that definition, the meanings set out in this Act as in force on 1 July 2009.

30L  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has, after 1 July 2009 but on or b