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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2013C00004
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission (Consequential and Transitional) Act 2012
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education; Infrastructure and Transport; Treasury; Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
Registered 03 Jan 2013
Start Date 03 Dec 2012
End Date 11 Apr 2013
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title [see Note 1]
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4D Exclusionary provisions
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practicesPart VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 19 December 2012
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 169 of 2012

Volume 1 includes:     Table of Contents
                                    Sections 1 – 119

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be
affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Volume 2 includes:      Table of Contents
                                   
Sections 10.01 – 179

Volume 3 includes:      Table of Contents
                                    Schedules 1 and 2
                                    Note 1
                                    Table of Acts
                                    Act Notes
                                    Table of Amendments
                                    Notes 2 – 4
                                    Table A

Prepared by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel, Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............ Short title [see Note 1]........................................................................ 1

2............ Object of this Act................................................................................ 1

2A......... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities 1

2B......... Application of Act to States and Territories........................................ 2

2BA...... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............................. 2

2C......... Activities that are not business............................................................ 2

3............ Repeal................................................................................................. 4

4............ Interpretation....................................................................................... 4

4A......... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............................. 14

4B......... Consumers........................................................................................ 17

4C......... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................................... 19

4D......... Exclusionary provisions.................................................................... 20

4E.......... Market............................................................................................... 20

4F.......... References to purpose or reason....................................................... 21

4G......... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                21

4H......... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings               22

4J.......... Joint ventures.................................................................................... 22

4K......... Loss or damage to include injury...................................................... 23

4KA...... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2............... 23

4L.......... Severability....................................................................................... 23

4M........ Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence 23

4N......... Extended application of Part IIIA...................................................... 24

5............ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia........... 24

6............ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations 26

6AA...... Application of the Criminal Code..................................................... 32

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     33

6A......... Establishment of Commission........................................................... 33

7............ Constitution of Commission............................................................. 33

8............ Terms and conditions of appointment............................................... 34

8A......... Associate members........................................................................... 34

8AB...... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members........... 35

9............ Remuneration.................................................................................... 36

10.......... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................................ 36

11.......... Acting Chairperson........................................................................... 37

12.......... Leave of absence............................................................................... 37

13.......... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission............ 38

14.......... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission 38

15.......... Resignation....................................................................................... 38

16.......... Arrangement of business.................................................................. 39

17.......... Disclosure of interests by members.................................................. 39

18.......... Meetings of Commission.................................................................. 40

19.......... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions................... 41

25.......... Delegation by Commission............................................................... 42

26.......... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers............ 42

27.......... Staff of Commission......................................................................... 43

27A....... Consultants....................................................................................... 43

28.......... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             43

29.......... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          44

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   46

29A....... Establishment of Council.................................................................. 46

29B....... Functions and powers of Council..................................................... 46

29BA.... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council.... 47

29BB..... How duty is imposed........................................................................ 47

29BC..... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........................... 48

29C....... Membership of Council.................................................................... 48

29D....... Terms and conditions of office.......................................................... 49

29E........ Acting Council President.................................................................. 49

29F........ Remuneration of Councillors............................................................ 49

29G....... Leave of absence............................................................................... 50

29H....... Termination of appointment of Councillors....................................... 50

29I......... Resignation of Councillors................................................................ 50

29J........ Arrangement of Council business..................................................... 50

29K....... Disclosure of interests by Councillors.............................................. 51

29L........ Council meetings............................................................................... 51

29LA..... Resolutions without meetings........................................................... 52

29M...... Staff to help Council......................................................................... 53

29N....... Consultants....................................................................................... 53

29O....... Annual report.................................................................................... 53

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              55

29P........ Definition.......................................................................................... 55

30.......... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................................... 55

31.......... Qualifications of members of Tribunal.............................................. 55

31A....... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc.  56

32.......... Terms and conditions of appointment............................................... 56

33.......... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal..................... 56

34.......... Acting appointments......................................................................... 56

35.......... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............................. 58

36.......... Resignation....................................................................................... 58

37.......... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................................. 59

38.......... Validity of determinations................................................................. 59

39.......... President may give directions............................................................ 59

40.......... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal................................ 59

41.......... Presidential member to preside.......................................................... 60

42.......... Decision of questions........................................................................ 60

43.......... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................................... 60

43A....... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................................ 61

43B....... Consultants....................................................................................... 61

44.......... Staff of Tribunal................................................................................ 61

44A....... Acting appointments......................................................................... 62

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              63

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            63

44AB.... Definitions........................................................................................ 63

44AC.... This Part binds the Crown................................................................ 63

44AD.... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................................. 63

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              65

44AE..... Establishment of the AER................................................................. 65

44AF..... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth.. 65

44AG.... Constitution of the AER.................................................................... 65

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             66

44AH.... Commonwealth functions................................................................. 66

44AI...... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER......... 66

44AJ..... How duty is imposed........................................................................ 67

44AK.... When a State/Territory energy law etc. imposes a duty..................... 68

44AL..... Powers of the AER........................................................................... 68

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  69

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 69

44AM... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................................ 69

44AN.... Membership of AER and Commission............................................. 69

44AO.... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...................... 70

44AP..... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................................. 70

44AQ.... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........................ 70

44AR.... AER Chair........................................................................................ 71

44AS..... Acting AER Chair............................................................................. 71

44AT..... Remuneration of AER members....................................................... 72

44AU.... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................................. 72

44AV.... Leave of absence............................................................................... 72

44AW... Other terms and conditions............................................................... 73

44AX.... Outside employment......................................................................... 73

44AY.... Disclosure of interests....................................................................... 73

44AZ..... Resignation....................................................................................... 73

44AAB. Termination of appointment.............................................................. 74

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       75

44AAC. Staff etc. to assist the AER................................................................ 75

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          75

44AAD. Meetings........................................................................................... 75

44AAE.. Resolutions without meetings........................................................... 75

44AAEA............................................................................................ Arbitration  76

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              76

44AAF.. Confidentiality................................................................................... 76

44AAG. Federal Court may make certain orders............................................. 78

44AAGA Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified
in the National Electricity Rules occurs............................................. 79

44AAH. Delegation by the AER..................................................................... 80

44AAI... Fees................................................................................................... 80

44AAJ.. Annual report.................................................................................... 80

44AAK. Regulations may deal with transitional matters.................................. 81

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        82

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            82

44AA.... Objects of Part.................................................................................. 82

44B....... Definitions........................................................................................ 82

44C....... How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures................... 86

44D....... Meaning of designated Minister....................................................... 87

44DA.... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  87

44E........ This Part binds the Crown................................................................ 88

Division 2—Declared services                                                                               89

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                           89

44F........ Person may request recommendation................................................ 89

44FA..... Council may request information...................................................... 90

44G....... Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service........... 91

44GA.... Time limit for Council recommendations.......................................... 92

44GB.... Council may invite public submissions on the application................ 94

44GC.... Council must publish its recommendation......................................... 95

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                                96

44H....... Designated Minister may declare a service........................................ 96

44HA.... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision....................... 98

44I......... Duration and effect of declaration..................................................... 99

44J........ Revocation of declaration................................................................ 100

44K....... Review of declaration...................................................................... 100

44KA.... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration...................................... 102

44KB..... Tribunal may order costs be awarded.............................................. 103

44L........ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............................... 104

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   106

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      106

44LA..... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......................... 106

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          106

44LB..... Ineligibility recommendation........................................................... 106

44LC..... Council may request information.................................................... 108

44LD..... Time limit for Council recommendations........................................ 108

44LE..... Council may invite public submissions on the application.............. 110

44LF..... Council must publish its recommendation....................................... 111

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 112

44LG..... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............................... 112

44LH..... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision..................... 114

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     114

44LI...... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................................. 114

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  116

44LJ...... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................................... 116

44LK..... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision 118

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            119

44LL..... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc............. 119

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           121

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                121

44M...... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        121

44MA... Council may request information.................................................... 122

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 122

44N....... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime.................... 122

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          123

44NA.... Recommendation by Council.......................................................... 123

44NAA. Council may request information.................................................... 124

44NB.... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................................... 125

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            126

44NC.... Time limit for Council recommendations........................................ 126

44NE..... Council may invite public submissions........................................... 128

44NF..... Publication—Council...................................................................... 130

44NG.... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................................... 130

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  131

44O....... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime.. 131

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               132

44P........ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          132

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   134

44PA..... Approval of competitive tender process.......................................... 134

44PAA.. Commission may request information............................................. 135

44PB..... Report on conduct of tender process............................................... 136

44PC..... Revocation of approval decision..................................................... 136

44PD..... Time limit for Commission decisions.............................................. 138

44PE..... Commission may invite public submissions................................... 139

44PF..... Commission must publish its decisions.......................................... 141

44PG..... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................................ 141

44PH..... Review of decision to revoke an approval....................................... 143

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              145

44Q....... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions......... 145

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         146

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      146

44R....... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......................... 146

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              146

44S........ Notification of access disputes........................................................ 146

44T........ Withdrawal of notifications............................................................. 146

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               147

44U....... Parties to the arbitration................................................................... 147

44V....... Determination by Commission........................................................ 147

44W...... Restrictions on access determinations............................................. 148

44X....... Matters that the Commission must take into account....................... 150

44XA.... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............................ 151

44Y....... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases................... 153

44YA.... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              153

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      153

44Z........ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration................... 153

44ZA..... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration................... 154

44ZB..... Reconstitution of Commission........................................................ 154

44ZC..... Determination of questions............................................................. 154

44ZD..... Hearing to be in private................................................................... 155

44ZE..... Right to representation.................................................................... 155

44ZF..... Procedure of Commission............................................................... 155

44ZG..... Particular powers of Commission................................................... 156

44ZH..... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................................ 157

44ZI...... Failing to attend as a witness........................................................... 157

44ZJ...... Failing to answer questions etc....................................................... 157

44ZK..... Intimidation etc................................................................................ 158

44ZL..... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential...... 158

44ZM.... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration 159

44ZN..... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration................................................ 159

44ZNA.. Joint arbitration hearings................................................................. 159

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               161

44ZNB.. Arbitration reports........................................................................... 161

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        162

44ZO..... Operation of final determinations.................................................... 162

44ZOA.. Effect and duration of interim determinations.................................. 164

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             164

44ZP..... Review by Tribunal......................................................................... 164

44ZQ..... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review.......... 165

44ZR..... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal....... 166

44ZS..... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               166

44ZT..... Transmission of documents............................................................ 167

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    167

44ZU..... Variation of final determinations..................................................... 167

44ZUA.. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......................... 168

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   169

44ZV..... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......................... 169

44ZW.... Registration of contract................................................................... 169

44ZX..... Review of decision not to register contract...................................... 170

44ZY..... Effect of registration of contract...................................................... 171

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  172

44ZZ..... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services....................... 172

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       173

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              173

44ZZA.. Access undertakings by providers.................................................. 173

44ZZAAA Proposed amendments to access undertakings............................ 175

44ZZAAB Access undertakings containing fixed principles......................... 177

44ZZAA............................................ Access codes prepared by industry bodies  179

44ZZAB Commission may rely on industry body consultations.................... 180

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               181

44ZZBA When access undertakings and access codes come into operation... 181

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       182

44ZZBB Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...................... 182

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            184

44ZZBC Time limit for Commission decisions.............................................. 184

44ZZBCA Commission may request information.......................................... 186

44ZZBD Commission may invite public submissions................................... 186

44ZZBE Commission must publish its decisions.......................................... 188

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  189

44ZZBF Review of decisions........................................................................ 189

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            191

44ZZC... Register of access undertakings and access codes........................... 191

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               192

44ZZCA Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes  192

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     193

44ZZCB Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........................... 193

44ZZCBA Deferral of arbitration if review is underway............................... 194

44ZZCC Overlap between determinations and access undertakings.............. 196

44ZZCD Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings....... 196

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          197

44ZZD.. Enforcement of determinations........................................................ 197

44ZZE... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............................. 197

44ZZF... Consent injunctions......................................................................... 198

44ZZG.. Interim injunctions.......................................................................... 199

44ZZH.. Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........................ 199

44ZZI.... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........................ 199

44ZZJ.... Enforcement of access undertakings............................................... 199

44ZZK... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......................... 200

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     201

44ZZL... Register of determinations............................................................... 201

44ZZM.. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws  201

44ZZMA How duty is imposed..................................................................... 201

44ZZMB When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty......................... 203

44ZZN.. Compensation for acquisition of property....................................... 203

44ZZNA........................ Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part  203

44ZZO.. Conduct by directors, servants or agents......................................... 204

44ZZOAAA Information to be given to Tribunal.......................................... 205

44ZZOAA Tribunal only to consider particular material................................ 207

44ZZOA........................................................... Time limit for Tribunal decisions  208

44ZZP... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................................... 211

44ZZQ.. Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers..................... 211

44ZZR... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law....................................................................................... 211

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      213

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   213

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               213

44ZZRA Simplified outline............................................................................ 213

44ZZRB Definitions...................................................................................... 213

44ZZRC Extended meaning of party............................................................. 215

44ZZRD Cartel provisions............................................................................. 215

44ZZRE Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act.................. 220

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              220

44ZZRF Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........................ 220

44ZZRG Giving effect to a cartel provision................................................... 221

44ZZRH Determining guilt............................................................................ 222

44ZZRI. Court may make related civil orders................................................ 222

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         223

44ZZRJ. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........................ 223

44ZZRK Giving effect to a cartel provision................................................... 223

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  223

44ZZRL Conduct notified.............................................................................. 223

44ZZRM Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation........................... 224

44ZZRN Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate          224

44ZZRO Joint ventures—prosecution............................................................ 225

44ZZRP Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................................... 228

44ZZRQ Covenants affecting competition..................................................... 230

44ZZRR Resale price maintenance................................................................. 230

44ZZRS Exclusive dealing............................................................................ 230

44ZZRT Dual listed company arrangement................................................... 231

44ZZRU Acquisition of shares or assets........................................................ 232

44ZZRV Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding    232

Division 1A—Anti‑competitive disclosure of pricing and other information      234

44ZZS... Definitions...................................................................................... 234

44ZZT... Goods and services to which this Division applies......................... 234

44ZZU.. Provisions affecting whether a corporation has disclosed information to a person   235

44ZZV.. Meaning of private disclosure to competitors................................. 236

44ZZW.. Corporation must not make private disclosure of pricing information etc. to competitors        237

44ZZX.. Corporation must not make disclosure of pricing information etc. for purpose of substantially lessening competition........................................................................................................ 237

44ZZY.. Exceptions that apply to sections 44ZZW and 44ZZX.................... 239

44ZZZ... Additional exceptions that only apply to section 44ZZW................ 240

44ZZZA Burden of proof.............................................................................. 243

44ZZZB Mere receipt of information does not constitute being knowingly involved in contravention   244

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               245

45.......... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            245

45B....... Covenants affecting competition..................................................... 248

45C....... Covenants in relation to prices........................................................ 251

45D....... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage              253

45DA.... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               254

45DB.... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................................. 255

45DC.... Involvement and liability of employee organisations....................... 255

45DD.... Situations in which boycotts permitted............................................ 257

45E........ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services 260

45EA..... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect............ 264

45EB..... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part               264

46.......... Misuse of market power................................................................. 264

46A....... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          268

46B....... No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws.. 270

47.......... Exclusive dealing............................................................................ 270

48.......... Resale price maintenance................................................................. 276

49.......... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition.............. 276

50.......... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition             278

50A....... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................................ 280

51.......... Exceptions....................................................................................... 282

51AAA. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws............................ 287

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            288

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          288

51ACA. Definitions...................................................................................... 288

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              290

51AD.... Contravention of industry codes..................................................... 290

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   291

51ADA. Commission may issue a public warning notice.............................. 291

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       292

51ADB. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc......... 292

51ADC. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       294

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        296

51ADD. Commission may require corporation to provide information......... 296

51ADE.. Extending periods for complying with notices................................ 296

51ADF.. Compliance with notices................................................................. 296

51ADG. False or misleading information etc................................................. 297

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     298

51AE..... Regulations relating to industry codes............................................. 298

51AEA.. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws............................ 298

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    299

75B....... Interpretation................................................................................... 299

76.......... Pecuniary penalties.......................................................................... 299

76A....... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 95AZN          302

76B....... What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 95AZN and an offence?  303

76C....... Defence to proceedings relating to exclusionary provisions............ 304

77.......... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............................. 305

77A....... Indemnification of officers.............................................................. 305

77B....... Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void...... 306

77C....... Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate 306

78.......... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV 306

79.......... Offences against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG............................... 307

79A....... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................................... 308

79B....... Preference must be given to compensation for victims.................... 310

80.......... Injunctions...................................................................................... 310

80AB.... Stay of injunctions.......................................................................... 313

80AC.... Injunctions to prevent mergers if clearance or authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information........................................................................................................ 314

81.......... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A............... 315

81A....... Divestiture where merger done under clearance or authorisation granted on false etc. information          317

82.......... Actions for damages....................................................................... 319

83.......... Finding in proceedings to be evidence............................................ 319

84.......... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................................... 319

85.......... Defences......................................................................................... 321

86.......... Jurisdiction of courts....................................................................... 322

86AA.... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Magistrates Court.......................... 323

86A....... Transfer of matters.......................................................................... 323

86C....... Non‑punitive orders........................................................................ 324

86D....... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................................. 326

86E........ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations............. 326

86F........ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              328

87.......... Other orders.................................................................................... 328

87AA.... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   332

87B....... Enforcement of undertakings.......................................................... 333

87C....... Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department.......... 334

87CA.... Intervention by Commission........................................................... 335

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              336

87CB..... Application of Part.......................................................................... 336

87CC..... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment 336

87CD.... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............................... 337

87CE..... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   338

87CF..... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................................. 338

87CG.... Subsequent actions.......................................................................... 339

87CH.... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.................... 339

87CI...... Application of Part.......................................................................... 339

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 340

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        340

87D....... Definitions...................................................................................... 340

87E........ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................................ 341

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            343

87F........ Basic rule........................................................................................ 343

87G....... Date of discoverability.................................................................... 344

87H....... Long‑stop period............................................................................. 345

87J........ The effect of minority or incapacity................................................. 346

87K....... The effect of close relationships...................................................... 346

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                347

87L........ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................................... 347

87M...... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss.................... 347

87N....... Index numbers................................................................................ 348

87P........ Most extreme cases......................................................................... 348

87Q....... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case....... 348

87R....... Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case 349

87S........ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case............................... 350

87T........ Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....................... 350

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity    351

87U....... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity...................... 351

87V....... Average weekly earnings................................................................ 351

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services             353

87W...... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff             353

87X....... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services      354

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            356

87Y....... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate.......................... 356

87Z........ Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements........................... 356

87ZA..... Interest on damages......................................................................... 357

87ZB..... Exemplary and aggravated damages................................................ 358

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                   359

87ZC..... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements 359

Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices              360

Division 1—Authorisations (other than section 50 merger authorisations)        360

87ZP..... Definitions...................................................................................... 360

88.......... Power of Commission to grant authorisations................................ 360

89.......... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register................. 367

90.......... Determination of applications for authorisations............................. 370

90A....... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation        376

90B....... Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC. 379

91.......... Grant and variation of authorisations.............................................. 381

91A....... Minor variations of authorizations.................................................. 383

91B....... Revocation of an authorization........................................................ 384

91C....... Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement... 386

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        389

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing and private disclosure of pricing information       389

93.......... Notification of exclusive dealing or private disclosure of pricing information          389

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                             394

93AA.... Definitions...................................................................................... 394

93AB.... Notification of collective bargaining................................................ 394

93AC.... Commission’s objection notice....................................................... 399

93AD.... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force          400

93AE..... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice...................................... 402

93AEA.. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given       403

93AF..... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given          403

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                               404

93A....... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice 404

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                         406

95.......... Register of notifications.................................................................. 406

Division 3—Merger clearances and authorisations                                 410

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               410

95AA.... Simplified outline of this Division.................................................. 410

95AB.... Definitions...................................................................................... 411

Subdivision B—Merger clearances                                                                   412

95AC.... Commission may grant clearance for a merger................................ 412

95AD.... Application for clearance................................................................. 412

95AE..... Requirements for valid clearance application................................... 412

95AF..... Commission to notify if clearance application is invalid.................. 413

95AG.... Application to be published on the internet..................................... 413

95AH.... Merger clearance register................................................................ 413

95AI...... Confidentiality claims etc................................................................ 414

95AJ..... Commission may seek additional information from applicant......... 415

95AK.... Commission may seek further information and consult others........ 415

95AL..... Applicant may withdraw application............................................... 416

95AM... Commission to make determination on application......................... 416

95AN.... When clearance must not be granted............................................... 417

95AO.... Time limits for determining application........................................... 417

95AP..... Clearance subject to conditions....................................................... 417

95AQ.... When clearance is in force............................................................... 418

95AR.... Minor variations of clearances........................................................ 419

95AS..... Revocation of clearance or revocation of clearance and substitution of a new clearance           422

Subdivision C—Merger authorisations                                                            426

95AT..... Tribunal may grant authorisation for a merger................................ 426

95AU.... Application for authorisation........................................................... 427

95AV.... Requirements for valid authorisation application............................. 427

95AW... Tribunal to notify if authorisation application is invalid.................. 427

95AX.... Tribunal to notify Commission of authorisation application............ 428

95AY.... Application to be published on the internet..................................... 428

95AZ..... Merger authorisation register.......................................................... 428

95AZA.. Confidentiality claims etc................................................................ 429

95AZC.. Tribunal may seek additional information from applicant................ 430

95AZD.. Tribunal may seek further information and consult others etc......... 430

95AZE.. Applicant may withdraw application............................................... 431

95AZEA................................. Tribunal must require Commission to give report  431

95AZF.. Commission to assist Tribunal........................................................ 431

95AZFA.......................................................... Commission may make enquiries  432

95AZG.. Tribunal to make determination on application................................ 432

95AZH.. When authorisation must not be granted......................................... 433

95AZI... Time limits for determining application........................................... 433

95AZJ... Authorisation subject to conditions................................................. 434

95AZK.. When authorisation is in force......................................................... 434

95AZL.. Minor variations of authorisations.................................................. 434

95AZM. Revocation of authorisation or revocation of authorisation and substitution of a new authorisation         438

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            443

95AZN.. Providing false or misleading information...................................... 443

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                 444

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          444

95A....... Interpretation................................................................................... 444

95B....... Exempt supplies.............................................................................. 447

95C....... Application of Part.......................................................................... 448

95D....... Crown to be bound......................................................................... 449

95E........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 449

95F........ Simplified overview of this Part...................................................... 449

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                               451

95G....... Commission’s functions under this Part......................................... 451

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    453

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                453

95H....... Price inquiries................................................................................. 453

95J........ Content of inquiry notices............................................................... 454

95K....... Period for completing inquiry......................................................... 455

95L........ Notice of holding of inquiry............................................................ 455

95M...... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry...................... 456

95N....... Price restrictions.............................................................................. 456

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                459

95P........ Copies of report to be made available.............................................. 459

95Q....... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report..................... 459

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                            460

95R....... Public inquiries etc.......................................................................... 460

95S........ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation....................................... 461

95T........ Failure of witness to attend............................................................. 462

95U....... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question..................................... 462

95V....... Protection of witnesses................................................................... 463

95W...... Allowances to witnesses................................................................. 463

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            464

95X....... Declarations by Minister or Commission........................................ 464

95Y....... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities.................. 464

95Z........ Price restrictions.............................................................................. 466

95ZA..... Later notices modifying a locality notice......................................... 468

95ZB..... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice.............................. 469

95ZC..... Register of price notifications.......................................................... 470

95ZD..... Delegation by Commission............................................................. 471

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               472

95ZE..... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry......... 472

95ZF..... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business.......... 472

95ZG..... Exceptions to price monitoring........................................................ 473

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                               474

95ZH..... Ministerial directions....................................................................... 474

95ZI...... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals                474

95ZJ...... Withdrawal of notices..................................................................... 475

95ZK..... Power to obtain information or documents..................................... 475

95ZL..... Inspection of documents etc............................................................ 478

95ZM.... Retention of documents................................................................... 478

95ZN..... Confidential information................................................................. 479

95ZO..... Immunity......................................................................................... 480

95ZP..... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc........... 480

95ZQ..... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission          482

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                    484

96.......... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance................... 484

96A....... Resale price maintenance in relation to services.............................. 486

97.......... Recommended prices...................................................................... 486

98.......... Withholding the supply of goods.................................................... 487

99.......... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................................. 488

100........ Evidentiary provisions.................................................................... 488

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission       490

Division 1—Applications for review (other than for merger clearances)            490

101........ Applications for review................................................................... 490

101A..... Application for review of notice under subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2)               491

102........ Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................................. 491

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                               496

102A..... Definition........................................................................................ 496

103........ Procedure generally......................................................................... 496

104........ Regulations as to certain matters..................................................... 496

105........ Power to take evidence on oath....................................................... 497

106........ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances................. 497

107........ Evidence in form of written statement............................................. 498

108........ Taking of evidence by single member............................................. 498

109........ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal.................................... 498

110........ Representation................................................................................. 498

Division 3—Review of Commission’s determinations on merger clearances     500

111........ Applications for review................................................................... 500

112........ Tribunal to notify Commission....................................................... 501

113........ Commission to give material to Tribunal......................................... 501

114........ Tribunal may consult etc. to clarify information.............................. 501

115........ Commission to assist Tribunal........................................................ 502

116........ Tribunal only to consider material before the Commission............. 502

117........ Tribunal to make decision on review............................................... 502

118........ Time limits for making review decision.......................................... 502

119........ Tribunal’s decision taken to be Commission’s................................ 503


An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                          (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the
Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2 as applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

authorisation means:

                     (a)  an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission; or

                     (b)  an authorisation under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Tribunal.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.

business includes a business not carried on for profit.

cartel provision has the meaning given by section 44ZZRD.

Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Commission.

clearance means a clearance under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission.

Commission means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission established by section 6A, and includes a member of the Commission or a Division of the Commission performing functions of the Commission.

competition includes competition from imported goods or from services rendered by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

Competition Principles Agreement means the Competition Principles Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

Conduct Code Agreement means the Conduct Code Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

corporation means a body corporate that:

                     (a)  is a foreign corporation;

                     (b)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of Australia or is a financial corporation so formed;

                     (c)  is incorporated in a Territory; or

                     (d)  is the holding company of a body corporate of a kind referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Council means the National Competition Council established by section 29A.

Councillor means a member of the Council, including the Council President.

Council President means the Council President referred to in subsection 29C(1).

covenant means a covenant (including a promise not under seal) annexed to or running with an estate or interest in land (whether at law or in equity and whether or not for the benefit of other land), and proposed covenant has a corresponding meaning.

debenture includes debenture stock, bonds, notes and any other document evidencing or acknowledging indebtedness of a body corporate, whether constituting a charge on property of the body corporate or not.

Deputy Chairperson means a Deputy Chairperson of the Commission.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of the Tribunal, and includes a person appointed to act as a Deputy President of the Tribunal.

Deputy Registrar means a Deputy Registrar of the Tribunal.

designated Commonwealth energy law means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (b)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (c)  the Offshore Western Australian Pipelines (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (d)  the National Energy Retail Law and Regulations (Commonwealth) (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004).

document means any record of information, and includes:

                     (a)  anything on which there is writing; and

                     (b)  anything on which there are marks, figures, symbols or perforations having a meaning for persons qualified to interpret them; and

                     (c)  anything from which sounds, images or writings can be reproduced with or without the aid of anything else; and

                     (d)  a map, plan, drawing or photograph.

dual listed company arrangement has the same meaning as in section 125‑60 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

financial corporation means a financial corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that carries on as its sole or principal business the business of banking (other than State banking not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned) or insurance (other than State insurance not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned).

foreign corporation means a foreign corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that is incorporated in an external Territory.

fully‑participating jurisdiction means a State or Territory that:

                     (a)  is a participating jurisdiction as defined in section 150A; and

                     (b)  is not named in a notice in operation under section 150K.

give effect to, in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, includes do an act or thing in pursuance of or in accordance with or enforce or purport to enforce.

goods includes:

                     (a)  ships, aircraft and other vehicles;

                     (b)  animals, including fish;

                     (c)  minerals, trees and crops, whether on, under or attached to land or not; and

                     (d)  gas and electricity.

local energy instrument means a regulation, rule, order, declaration or other instrument if:

                     (a)  the instrument is made or has effect under a law of a State or Territory; and

                     (b)  the law of the State or Territory applies a uniform energy law as a law of its own jurisdiction.

member of the Commission includes the Chairperson and a person appointed to act as a member of the Commission but does not include an associate member of the Commission.

member of the Tribunal includes the President and a person appointed to act as a member of the Tribunal.

New Zealand Commerce Commission means the Commission established by section 8 of the Commerce Act 1986 of New Zealand.

New Zealand Crown corporation means a body corporate that is an instrument of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand.

organisation of employees means an organisation that exists or is carried on for the purpose, or for purposes that include the purpose, of furthering the interests of its members in relation to their employment.

personal injury includes:

                     (a)  pre‑natal injury; or

                     (b)  impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; or

                     (c)  disease;

but does not include an impairment of a person’s mental condition unless the impairment consists of a recognised psychiatric illness.

practice of exclusive dealing means the practice of exclusive dealing referred to in subsection 47(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) or (9).

practice of resale price maintenance means the practice of resale price maintenance referred to in Part VIII.

President means the President of the Tribunal and includes a person appointed to act as President of the Tribunal.

presidential member or presidential member of the Tribunal means the President or a Deputy President.

price includes a charge of any description.

provision, in relation to an understanding, means any matter forming part of the understanding.

registered charity means an entity that is registered under the Australian Charities and Not‑for‑profits Commission Act 2012 as the type of entity mentioned in column 1 of item 1 of the table in subsection 25‑5(5) of that Act.

Registrar means the Registrar of the Tribunal.

require, in relation to the giving of a covenant, means require or demand the giving of a covenant, whether by way of making a contract containing the covenant or otherwise, and whether or not a covenant is given in pursuance of the requirement or demand.

send includes deliver, and sent and sender have corresponding meanings.

services includes any rights (including rights in relation to, and interests in, real or personal property), benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred in trade or commerce, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes the rights, benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred under:

                     (a)  a contract for or in relation to:

                              (i)  the performance of work (including work of a professional nature), whether with or without the supply of goods;

                             (ii)  the provision of, or the use or enjoyment of facilities for, amusement, entertainment, recreation or instruction; or

                            (iii)  the conferring of rights, benefits or privileges for which remuneration is payable in the form of a royalty, tribute, levy or similar exaction;

                     (b)  a contract of insurance;

                     (c)  a contract between a banker and a customer of the banker entered into in the course of the carrying on by the banker of the business of banking; or

                     (d)  any contract for or in relation to the lending of moneys;

but does not include rights or benefits being the supply of goods or the performance of work under a contract of service.

share includes stock.

South Australian Electricity Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 4 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Energy Retail Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Energy Retail Law set out in the Schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011 of South Australia, as amended from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as amended from time to time, made under Part 11 of the National Energy Retail Law.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Energy Retail Law set out in the Schedule to the National Energy Retail Law (South Australia) Act 2011 of South Australia, as amended from time to time, includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as amended from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

State/Territory AER member means an AER member referred to in section 44AP.

State/Territory energy law means any of the following laws:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that applies as a law of a State or Territory;

                     (b)  a law of a State or Territory that applies a law mentioned in paragraph (a) as a law of its own jurisdiction;

                     (c)  any other provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

supply, when used as a verb, includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—supply (including re‑supply) by way of sale, exchange, lease, hire or hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—provide, grant or confer;

and, when used as a noun, has a corresponding meaning, and supplied and supplier have corresponding meanings.

Telstra has the same meaning as in the Telstra Corporation Act 1991.

Territory means:

                     (a)  an internal Territory; or

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

the Court or the Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

the Family Court means the Family Court of Australia.

this Act includes Schedule 2 to the extent that it is applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

trade or commerce means trade or commerce within Australia or between Australia and places outside Australia.

trading corporation means a trading corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution.

Tribunal means the Australian Competition Tribunal, and includes a member of that Tribunal or a Division of that Tribunal performing functions of that Tribunal.

uniform energy law means:

                     (a)  the South Australian Electricity Legislation; or

                     (b)  the South Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (c)  the Western Australian Gas Legislation; or

                    (ca)  the South Australian Energy Retail Legislation; or

                     (d)  provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this subparagraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

Western Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

             (2)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to engaging in conduct shall be read as a reference to doing or refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (b)  a reference to conduct, when that expression is used as a noun otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (a), shall be read as a reference to the doing of or the refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (c)  a reference to refusing to do an act includes a reference to:

                              (i)  refraining (otherwise than inadvertently) from doing that act; or

                             (ii)  making it known that that act will not be done; and

                     (d)  a reference to a person offering to do an act, or to do an act on a particular condition, includes a reference to the person making it known that the person will accept applications, offers or proposals for the person to do that act or to do that act on that condition, as the case may be.

             (3)  Where a provision of this Act is expressed to render a provision of a contract, or to render a covenant, unenforceable if the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have a particular effect, that provision of this Act applies in relation to the provision of the contract or the covenant at any time when the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have that effect notwithstanding that:

                     (a)  at an earlier time the provision of the contract or the covenant did not have that effect or was not regarded as likely to have that effect; or

                     (b)  the provision of the contract or the covenant will not or may not have that effect at a later time.

             (4)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of shares in the capital of a body corporate shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such shares; and

                     (b)  a reference to the acquisition of assets of a person shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such assets but does not include a reference to an acquisition by way of charge only or an acquisition in the ordinary course of business.

4A  Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall, subject to subsection (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another body corporate if:

                     (a)  that other body corporate:

                              (i)  controls the composition of the board of directors of the first‑mentioned body corporate;

                             (ii)  is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one‑half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first‑mentioned body corporate; or

                            (iii)  holds more than one‑half of the allotted share capital of the first‑mentioned body corporate (excluding any part of that allotted share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or

                     (b)  the first‑mentioned body corporate is a subsidiary of any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary (including any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary by another application or other applications of this paragraph).

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the composition of a body corporate’s board of directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another body corporate if that other body corporate, by the exercise of some power exercisable by it without the consent or concurrence of any other person, can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors, and for the purposes of this provision that other body corporate shall be deemed to have power to make such an appointment if:

                     (a)  a person cannot be appointed as a director without the exercise in his or her favour by that other body corporate of such a power; or

                     (b)  a person’s appointment as a director follows necessarily from his or her being a director or other officer of that other body corporate.

             (3)  In determining whether a body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate:

                     (a)  any shares held or power exercisable by that other body corporate in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held or exercisable by it;

                     (b)  subject to paragraphs (c) and (d), any shares held or power exercisable:

                              (i) by any person as a nominee for that other body corporate (except where that other body corporate is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity); or

                             (ii)  by, or by a nominee for, a subsidiary of that other body corporate, not being a subsidiary that is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity;

                            shall be treated as held or exercisable by that other body corporate;

                     (c)  any shares held or power exercisable by any person by virtue of the provisions of any debentures of the first‑mentioned body corporate, or of a trust deed for securing any allotment of such debentures, shall be disregarded; and

                     (d)  any shares held or power exercisable by, or by a nominee for, that other body corporate or its subsidiary (not being held or exercisable as mentioned in paragraph (c)) shall be treated as not held or exercisable by that other body corporate if the ordinary business of that other body corporate or its subsidiary, as the case may be, includes the lending of money and the shares are held or the power is exercisable by way of security only for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of that business.

             (4)  A reference in this Act to the holding company of a body corporate shall be read as a reference to a body corporate of which that other body corporate is a subsidiary.

             (5)  Where a body corporate:

                     (a) is the holding company of another body corporate;

                     (b)  is a subsidiary of another body corporate; or

                     (c)  is a subsidiary of the holding company of another body corporate;

that first‑mentioned body corporate and that other body corporate shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be related to each other.

          (5A)  For the purposes of Parts IV, VI and VII:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is a party to a dual listed company arrangement is taken to be related to the other body corporate that is a party to the arrangement; and

                     (b)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to the other party to the arrangement; and

                     (c)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to each body corporate that is related to the other party to the arrangement.

             (6)  In proceedings under this Act, whether in the Court or before the Tribunal or the Commission, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that bodies corporate are not, or were not at a particular time, related to each other.

4B  Consumers

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular goods as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the goods did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the goods were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption or the goods consisted of a commercial road vehicle;

                            and the person did not acquire the goods, or hold himself or herself out as acquiring the goods, for the purpose of
re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them, in trade or commerce, in the course of a process of production or manufacture or of repairing or treating other goods or fixtures on land; and

                     (b)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular services as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the services did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the services were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1):

                     (a)  the prescribed amount is $40,000 or, if a greater amount is prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph, that greater amount;

                     (b)  subject to paragraph (c), the price of goods or services purchased by a person shall be taken to have been the amount paid or payable by the person for the goods or services;

                     (c)  where a person purchased goods or services together with other property or services, or with both other property and services, and a specified price was not allocated to the goods or services in the contract under which they were purchased, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased from the supplier the goods or services without the other property or services;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier except together with the other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier without other property or services—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, goods or services of the kind acquired were not available for purchase from any supplier except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time;

                     (d)  where a person acquired goods or services otherwise than by way of purchase, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased the goods or services from the supplier;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier or were so available only together with other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if goods or services of the kind acquired were not available, at the time of the acquisition, for purchase from any supplier or were not so available except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time; and

                     (e)  without limiting by implication the meaning of the expression services in subsection 4(1), the obtaining of credit by a person in connection with the acquisition of goods or services by him or her shall be deemed to be the acquisition by him or her of a service and any amount by which the amount paid or payable by him or her for the goods or services is increased by reason of his or her so obtaining credit shall be deemed to be paid or payable by him or her for that service.

             (3)  Where it is alleged in any proceeding under this Act or in any other proceeding in respect of a matter arising under this Act that a person was a consumer in relation to particular goods or services, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that the person was a consumer in relation to those goods or services.

             (4)  In this section, commercial road vehicle means a vehicle or trailer acquired for use principally in the transport of goods on public roads.

4C  Acquisition, supply and re‑supply