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Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Authoritative Version
  • - C2012C00411
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Telecommunications Legislation Amendment (Universal Service Reform) Act 2012
An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes
Administered by: Industry, Innovation, Science, Research and Tertiary Education; Infrastructure and Transport; Treasury; Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
General Comments: This compilation is affected by a retrospective amendment, please see Statute Law Revision Act 2012 [Act No. 136 of 2012], for details.
Registered 02 May 2012
Start Date 12 Apr 2012
End Date 05 Jun 2012
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title [see Note 1]
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re-supply
4D Exclusionary provisions
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practicesPart VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Expand Volume 3Volume 3

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 19 April 2012
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 44 of 2012

Volume 1 includes:     Table of Contents
                                    Sections 1 – 119

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be
affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Volume 2 includes:      Table of Contents
                                   
Sections 10.01 – 179

Volume 3 includes:      Table of Contents
                                    Schedules 1 and 2
                                    Note 1
                                    Table of Acts
                                    Act Notes
                                    Table of Amendments
                                    Notes 2 – 8
                                    Table A

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney‑General’s Department, Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                              1

1............ Short title [see Note 1]........................................................................ 1

2............ Object of this Act................................................................................ 1

2A......... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities 1

2B......... Application of Act to States and Territories........................................ 2

2BA...... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............................. 2

2C......... Activities that are not business............................................................ 2

3............ Repeal................................................................................................. 4

4............ Interpretation....................................................................................... 4

4A......... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate.............................. 14

4B......... Consumers........................................................................................ 16

4C......... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................................... 18

4D......... Exclusionary provisions.................................................................... 19

4E.......... Market............................................................................................... 20

4F.......... References to purpose or reason....................................................... 20

4G......... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition                21

4H......... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings               21

4J.......... Joint ventures.................................................................................... 21

4K......... Loss or damage to include injury...................................................... 22

4KA...... Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2............... 22

4L.......... Severability....................................................................................... 22

4M........ Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence 23

4N......... Extended application of Part IIIA...................................................... 23

5............ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia........... 23

6............ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations 25

6AA...... Application of the Criminal Code..................................................... 31

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission     32

6A......... Establishment of Commission........................................................... 32

7............ Constitution of Commission............................................................. 32

8............ Terms and conditions of appointment............................................... 33

8A......... Associate members........................................................................... 33

8AB...... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members........... 34

9............ Remuneration.................................................................................... 35

10.......... Deputy Chairpersons........................................................................ 35

11.......... Acting Chairperson........................................................................... 36

12.......... Leave of absence............................................................................... 36

13.......... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission............ 37

14.......... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission 37

15.......... Resignation....................................................................................... 37

16.......... Arrangement of business.................................................................. 38

17.......... Disclosure of interests by members.................................................. 38

18.......... Meetings of Commission.................................................................. 39

19.......... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions................... 40

25.......... Delegation by Commission............................................................... 41

26.......... Delegation by Commission of certain functions and powers............ 41

27.......... Staff of Commission......................................................................... 42

27A....... Consultants....................................................................................... 42

28.......... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research             42

29.......... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament          43

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                   45

29A....... Establishment of Council.................................................................. 45

29B....... Functions and powers of Council..................................................... 45

29BA.... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council.... 46

29BB..... How duty is imposed........................................................................ 46

29BC..... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........................... 47

29C....... Membership of Council.................................................................... 47

29D....... Terms and conditions of office.......................................................... 48

29E........ Acting Council President.................................................................. 48

29F........ Remuneration of Councillors............................................................ 48

29G....... Leave of absence............................................................................... 49

29H....... Termination of appointment of Councillors....................................... 49

29I......... Resignation of Councillors................................................................ 49

29J........ Arrangement of Council business..................................................... 49

29K....... Disclosure of interests by Councillors.............................................. 50

29L........ Council meetings............................................................................... 50

29LA..... Resolutions without meetings........................................................... 51

29M...... Staff to help Council......................................................................... 52

29N....... Consultants....................................................................................... 52

29O....... Annual report.................................................................................... 52

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                              54

29P........ Definition.......................................................................................... 54

30.......... Constitution of Tribunal.................................................................... 54

31.......... Qualifications of members of Tribunal.............................................. 54

31A....... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc.  55

32.......... Terms and conditions of appointment............................................... 55

33.......... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal..................... 55

34.......... Acting appointments......................................................................... 55

35.......... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............................. 57

36.......... Resignation....................................................................................... 57

37.......... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters.................................. 58

38.......... Validity of determinations................................................................. 58

39.......... President may give directions............................................................ 58

40.......... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal................................ 58

41.......... Presidential member to preside.......................................................... 59

42.......... Decision of questions........................................................................ 59

43.......... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available...................................... 59

43A....... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................................ 60

43B....... Consultants....................................................................................... 60

44.......... Staff of Tribunal................................................................................ 60

44A....... Acting appointments......................................................................... 61

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                              62

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            62

44AB.... Definitions........................................................................................ 62

44AC.... This Part binds the Crown................................................................ 62

44AD.... Extra‑territorial operation.................................................................. 62

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                              64

44AE..... Establishment of the AER................................................................. 64

44AF..... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth.. 64

44AG.... Constitution of the AER.................................................................... 64

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                             65

44AH.... Commonwealth functions................................................................. 65

44AI...... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER......... 65

44AJ..... How duty is imposed........................................................................ 65

44AK.... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty........................... 66

44AL..... Powers of the AER........................................................................... 67

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                  68

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                 68

44AM... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member................................ 68

44AN.... Membership of AER and Commission............................................. 68

44AO.... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member...................... 69

44AP..... Appointment of State/Territory AER members................................. 69

44AQ.... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member........................ 69

44AR.... AER Chair........................................................................................ 70

44AS..... Acting AER Chair............................................................................. 70

44AT..... Remuneration of AER members....................................................... 71

44AU.... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................................. 71

44AV.... Leave of absence............................................................................... 71

44AW... Other terms and conditions............................................................... 72

44AX.... Outside employment......................................................................... 72

44AY.... Disclosure of interests....................................................................... 72

44AZ..... Resignation....................................................................................... 72

44AAB. Termination of appointment.............................................................. 73

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                       74

44AAC. Staff etc. to assist the AER................................................................ 74

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                          74

44AAD. Meetings........................................................................................... 74

44AAE.. Resolutions without meetings........................................................... 74

44AAEA  Arbitration...................................................................................... 75

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                              75

44AAF.. Confidentiality................................................................................... 75

44AAG. Federal Court may make certain orders............................................. 77

44AAGA  Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs   78

44AAH. Delegation by the AER..................................................................... 79

44AAI... Fees................................................................................................... 79

44AAJ.. Annual report.................................................................................... 79

44AAK. Regulations may deal with transitional matters.................................. 80

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                        81

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            81

44AA.... Objects of Part.................................................................................. 81

44B....... Definitions........................................................................................ 81

44C....... How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures................... 85

44D....... Meaning of designated Minister....................................................... 86

44DA.... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines  86

44E........ This Part binds the Crown................................................................ 87

Division 2—Declared services                                                                               88

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                           88

44F........ Person may request recommendation................................................ 88

44FA..... Council may request information...................................................... 89

44G....... Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service........... 90

44GA.... Time limit for Council recommendations.......................................... 91

44GB.... Council may invite public submissions on the application................ 93

44GC.... Council must publish its recommendation......................................... 94

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                                95

44H....... Designated Minister may declare a service........................................ 95

44HA.... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision....................... 97

44I......... Duration and effect of declaration..................................................... 98

44J........ Revocation of declaration.................................................................. 99

44K....... Review of declaration........................................................................ 99

44KA.... Tribunal may stay operation of declaration...................................... 101

44KB..... Tribunal may order costs be awarded.............................................. 102

44L........ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration............................... 103

Division 2AA—Services that are ineligible to be declared                   105

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      105

44LA..... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......................... 105

Subdivision B—Ineligibility recommendation by Council                          105

44LB..... Ineligibility recommendation........................................................... 105

44LC..... Council may request information.................................................... 107

44LD..... Time limit for Council recommendations........................................ 107

44LE..... Council may invite public submissions on the application.............. 109

44LF..... Council must publish its recommendation....................................... 110

Subdivision C—Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility                 111

44LG..... Designated Minister’s decision on ineligibility............................... 111

44LH..... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision..................... 113

Subdivision D—Revocation of ineligibility decision                                     113

44LI...... Revocation of ineligibility decision................................................. 113

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  115

44LJ...... Review of ineligibility decisions..................................................... 115

44LK..... Review of decision to revoke or not revoke an ineligibility decision 117

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                            118

44LL..... Ineligibility decisions subject to alteration, cancellation etc............. 118

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                           120

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                120

44M...... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime        120

44MA... Council may request information.................................................... 121

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                 121

44N....... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime.................... 121

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision          122

44NA.... Recommendation by Council.......................................................... 122

44NAA. Council may request information.................................................... 123

44NB.... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister....................................... 124

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            125

44NC.... Time limit for Council recommendations........................................ 125

44NE..... Council may invite public submissions........................................... 127

44NF..... Publication—Council...................................................................... 129

44NG.... Publication—Commonwealth Minister........................................... 129

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  130

44O....... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime.. 130

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement               131

44P........ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement          131

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities   133

44PA..... Approval of competitive tender process.......................................... 133

44PAA.. Commission may request information............................................. 134

44PB..... Report on conduct of tender process............................................... 135

44PC..... Revocation of approval decision..................................................... 135

44PD..... Time limit for Commission decisions.............................................. 137

44PE..... Commission may invite public submissions................................... 138

44PF..... Commission must publish its decisions.......................................... 140

44PG..... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................................ 140

44PH..... Review of decision to revoke an approval....................................... 142

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                              144

44Q....... Register of decisions, declarations and ineligibility decisions......... 144

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                         145

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                      145

44R....... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......................... 145

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                              145

44S........ Notification of access disputes........................................................ 145

44T........ Withdrawal of notifications............................................................. 145

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                               146

44U....... Parties to the arbitration................................................................... 146

44V....... Determination by Commission........................................................ 146

44W...... Restrictions on access determinations............................................. 147

44X....... Matters that the Commission must take into account....................... 149

44XA.... Time limit for Commission’s final determination............................ 150

44Y....... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases................... 152

44YA.... Commission must terminate arbitration if declaration varied or set aside by Tribunal              152

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                      152

44Z........ Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration................... 152

44ZA..... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration................... 153

44ZB..... Reconstitution of Commission........................................................ 153

44ZC..... Determination of questions............................................................. 153

44ZD..... Hearing to be in private................................................................... 154

44ZE..... Right to representation.................................................................... 154

44ZF..... Procedure of Commission............................................................... 154

44ZG..... Particular powers of Commission................................................... 155

44ZH..... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation................................ 156

44ZI...... Failing to attend as a witness........................................................... 156

44ZJ...... Failing to answer questions etc....................................................... 156

44ZK..... Intimidation etc................................................................................ 157

44ZL..... Party may request Commission to treat material as
confidential...................................................................................... 157

44ZM.... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration 158

44ZN..... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration................................................ 158

44ZNA.. Joint arbitration hearings................................................................. 158

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                               160

44ZNB.. Arbitration reports........................................................................... 160

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                        161

44ZO..... Operation of final determinations.................................................... 161

44ZOA.. Effect and duration of interim determinations.................................. 163

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                             163

44ZP..... Review by Tribunal......................................................................... 163

44ZQ..... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review.......... 164

44ZR..... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal....... 165

44ZS..... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal               165

44ZT..... Transmission of documents............................................................ 166

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                    166

44ZU..... Variation of final determinations..................................................... 166

44ZUA.. Variation and revocation of interim determinations......................... 167

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services   168

44ZV..... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division.......................... 168

44ZW.... Registration of contract................................................................... 168

44ZX..... Review of decision not to register contract...................................... 169

44ZY..... Effect of registration of contract...................................................... 170

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                  171

44ZZ..... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services....................... 171

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services       172

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes              172

44ZZA.. Access undertakings by providers.................................................. 172

44ZZAAA  Proposed amendments to access undertakings........................... 174

44ZZAAB  Access undertakings containing fixed principles........................ 176

44ZZAA  Access codes prepared by industry bodies.................................... 178

44ZZAB Commission may rely on industry body consultations.................... 179

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes               180

44ZZBA When access undertakings and access codes come into operation... 180

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes       181

44ZZBB Extensions of access undertakings and access codes...................... 181

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                            183

44ZZBC Time limit for Commission decisions.............................................. 183

44ZZBCA  Commission may request information......................................... 185

44ZZBD Commission may invite public submissions................................... 185

44ZZBE Commission must publish its decisions.......................................... 187

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                  188

44ZZBF Review of decisions........................................................................ 188

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes            190

44ZZC... Register of access undertakings and access codes........................... 190

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes               191

44ZZCA Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes  191

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts, access undertakings and Tribunal review                                                                                                     192

44ZZCB Deferring access disputes or access undertakings........................... 192

44ZZCBA  Deferral of arbitration if review is underway.............................. 193

44ZZCC Overlap between determinations and access undertakings.............. 195

44ZZCD Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings....... 195

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                          196

44ZZD.. Enforcement of determinations........................................................ 196

44ZZE... Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............................. 196

44ZZF... Consent injunctions......................................................................... 197

44ZZG.. Interim injunctions.......................................................................... 198

44ZZH.. Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction........................ 198

44ZZI.... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction........................ 198

44ZZJ.... Enforcement of access undertakings............................................... 198

44ZZK... Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......................... 199

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                     200

44ZZL... Register of determinations............................................................... 200

44ZZM.. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws  200

44ZZMA  How duty is imposed.................................................................... 200

44ZZMB  When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty........................ 201

44ZZN.. Compensation for acquisition of property....................................... 202

44ZZNA  Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part................ 202

44ZZO.. Conduct by directors, servants or agents......................................... 202

44ZZOAAA  Information to be given to Tribunal......................................... 204

44ZZOAA  Tribunal only to consider particular material............................... 206

44ZZOA  Time limit for Tribunal decisions................................................... 206

44ZZP... Regulations about review by the Tribunal....................................... 209

44ZZQ.. Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers..................... 210

44ZZR... Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law....................................................................................... 210

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                      212

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   212

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                               212

44ZZRA Simplified outline............................................................................ 212

44ZZRB Definitions...................................................................................... 212

44ZZRC Extended meaning of party............................................................. 214

44ZZRD Cartel provisions............................................................................. 214

44ZZRE Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act.................. 219

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                              219

44ZZRF Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........................ 219

44ZZRG Giving effect to a cartel provision................................................... 220

44ZZRH Determining guilt............................................................................ 221

44ZZRI. Court may make related civil orders................................................ 221

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                         222

44ZZRJ. Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision........................ 222

44ZZRK Giving effect to a cartel provision................................................... 222

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                  222

44ZZRL Conduct notified.............................................................................. 222

44ZZRM  Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation.......................... 223

44ZZRN Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate          223

44ZZRO Joint ventures—prosecution............................................................ 224

44ZZRP Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings....................................... 227

44ZZRQ Covenants affecting competition..................................................... 229

44ZZRR Resale price maintenance................................................................. 229

44ZZRS Exclusive dealing............................................................................ 229

44ZZRT Dual listed company arrangement................................................... 230

44ZZRU Acquisition of shares or assets........................................................ 231

44ZZRV Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding    231

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                               233

45.......... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition            233

45B....... Covenants affecting competition..................................................... 236

45C....... Covenants in relation to prices........................................................ 239

45D....... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage              241

45DA.... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition               242

45DB.... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................................. 243

45DC.... Involvement and liability of employee organisations....................... 243

45DD.... Situations in which boycotts permitted............................................ 245

45E........ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services 248

45EA..... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect............ 252

45EB..... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part               252

46.......... Misuse of market power................................................................. 252

46A....... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market          256

46B....... No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws.. 258

47.......... Exclusive dealing............................................................................ 258

48.......... Resale price maintenance................................................................. 264

49.......... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition.............. 264

50.......... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition             266

50A....... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia........................................ 268

51.......... Exceptions....................................................................................... 270

51AAA. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws............................ 275

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                            276

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          276

51ACA. Definitions...................................................................................... 276

Division 2—Contravention of industry codes                                              278

51AD.... Contravention of industry codes..................................................... 278

Division 3—Public warning notices                                                                   279

51ADA. Commission may issue a public warning notice.............................. 279

Division 4—Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       280

51ADB. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc......... 280

51ADC. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑parties etc.       282

Division 5—Investigation power                                                                        284

51ADD. Commission may require corporation to provide information......... 284

51ADE.. Extending periods for complying with notices................................ 284

51ADF.. Compliance with notices................................................................. 284

51ADG. False or misleading information etc................................................. 285

Division 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                     286

51AE..... Regulations relating to industry codes............................................. 286

51AEA.. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws............................ 286

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                    287

75B....... Interpretation................................................................................... 287

76.......... Pecuniary penalties.......................................................................... 287

76A....... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 95AZN          290

76B....... What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 95AZN and an offence?  291

76C....... Defence to proceedings relating to exclusionary provisions............ 292

77.......... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties.............................. 293

77A....... Indemnification of officers.............................................................. 293

77B....... Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents
void................................................................................................. 294

77C....... Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate 294

78.......... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV 294

79.......... Offences against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG............................... 295

79A....... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines...................................... 296

79B....... Preference must be given to compensation for victims.................... 298

80.......... Injunctions...................................................................................... 298

80AB.... Stay of injunctions.......................................................................... 301

80AC.... Injunctions to prevent mergers if clearance or authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information........................................................................................................ 302

81.......... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A............... 303

81A....... Divestiture where merger done under clearance or authorisation granted on false etc. information          305

82.......... Actions for damages....................................................................... 307

83.......... Finding in proceedings to be evidence............................................ 307

84.......... Conduct by directors, employees or agents..................................... 308

85.......... Defences......................................................................................... 309

86.......... Jurisdiction of courts....................................................................... 310

86AA.... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Magistrates Court.......................... 311

86A....... Transfer of matters.......................................................................... 311

86C....... Non‑punitive orders........................................................................ 312

86D....... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................................. 314

86E........ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations............. 315

86F........ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations              316

87.......... Other orders [see Note 2]................................................................ 317

87AA.... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct   321

87B....... Enforcement of undertakings.......................................................... 322

87C....... Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary of the Department.......... 322

87CA.... Intervention by Commission........................................................... 323

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct              324

87CB..... Application of Part.......................................................................... 324

87CC..... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment 324

87CD.... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............................... 325

87CE..... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware   326

87CF..... Contribution not recoverable from defendant.................................. 326

87CG.... Subsequent actions.......................................................................... 327

87CH.... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action.................... 327

87CI...... Application of Part.......................................................................... 327

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury 328

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        328

87D....... Definitions...................................................................................... 328

87E........ Proceedings to which this Part applies............................................ 329

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                            331

87F........ Basic rule........................................................................................ 331

87G....... Date of discoverability.................................................................... 332

87H....... Long‑stop period............................................................................. 333

87J........ The effect of minority or incapacity................................................. 334

87K....... The effect of close relationships...................................................... 334

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                335

87L........ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................................... 335

87M...... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss.................... 335

87N....... Index numbers................................................................................ 336

87P........ Most extreme cases......................................................................... 336

87Q....... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case....... 336

87R....... Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case 337

87S........ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case............................... 338

87T........ Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....................... 338

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity    339

87U....... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity...................... 339

87V....... Average weekly earnings................................................................ 339

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services             341

87W...... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff             341

87X....... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services      342

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            344

87Y....... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate.......................... 344

87Z........ Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements........................... 344

87ZA..... Interest on damages......................................................................... 345

87ZB..... Exemplary and aggravated damages................................................ 346

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                   347

87ZC..... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements 347

Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices              348

Division 1—Authorisations (other than section 50 merger authorisations)        348

87ZP..... Definitions...................................................................................... 348

88.......... Power of Commission to grant authorisations................................ 348

89.......... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register................. 355

90.......... Determination of applications for authorisations............................. 358

90A....... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation        363

90B....... Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC. 367

91.......... Grant and variation of authorisations.............................................. 368

91A....... Minor variations of authorizations.................................................. 370

91B....... Revocation of an authorization........................................................ 371

91C....... Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement... 373

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        376

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing                                                                     376

93.......... Notification of exclusive dealing..................................................... 376

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                             381

93AA.... Definitions...................................................................................... 381

93AB.... Notification of collective bargaining................................................ 381

93AC.... Commission’s objection notice....................................................... 386

93AD.... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force          387

93AE..... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice...................................... 389

93AEA.. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given       390

93AF..... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given          390

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                               391

93A....... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice 391

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                         393

95.......... Register of notifications.................................................................. 393

Division 3—Merger clearances and authorisations                                 397

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                               397

95AA.... Simplified outline of this Division.................................................. 397

95AB.... Definitions...................................................................................... 398

Subdivision B—Merger clearances                                                                   399

95AC.... Commission may grant clearance for a merger................................ 399

95AD.... Application for clearance................................................................. 399

95AE..... Requirements for valid clearance application................................... 399

95AF..... Commission to notify if clearance application is invalid.................. 400

95AG.... Application to be published on the internet..................................... 400

95AH.... Merger clearance register................................................................ 400

95AI...... Confidentiality claims etc................................................................ 401

95AJ..... Commission may seek additional information from applicant......... 402

95AK.... Commission may seek further information and consult others........ 402

95AL..... Applicant may withdraw application............................................... 403

95AM... Commission to make determination on application......................... 403

95AN.... When clearance must not be granted............................................... 404

95AO.... Time limits for determining application........................................... 404

95AP..... Clearance subject to conditions....................................................... 404

95AQ.... When clearance is in force............................................................... 405

95AR.... Minor variations of clearances........................................................ 406

95AS..... Revocation of clearance or revocation of clearance and substitution of a new clearance           409

Subdivision C—Merger authorisations                                                            413

95AT..... Tribunal may grant authorisation for a merger................................ 413

95AU.... Application for authorisation........................................................... 414

95AV.... Requirements for valid authorisation application............................. 414

95AW... Tribunal to notify if authorisation application is invalid.................. 414

95AX.... Tribunal to notify Commission of authorisation application............ 415

95AY.... Application to be published on the internet..................................... 415

95AZ..... Merger authorisation register.......................................................... 415

95AZA.. Confidentiality claims etc................................................................ 416

95AZC.. Tribunal may seek additional information from applicant................ 417

95AZD.. Tribunal may seek further information and consult others etc......... 417

95AZE.. Applicant may withdraw application............................................... 418

95AZEA  Tribunal must require Commission to give report......................... 418

95AZF.. Commission to assist Tribunal........................................................ 418

95AZFA  Commission may make enquiries.................................................. 419

95AZG.. Tribunal to make determination on application................................ 419

95AZH.. When authorisation must not be granted......................................... 420

95AZI... Time limits for determining application........................................... 420

95AZJ... Authorisation subject to conditions................................................. 421

95AZK.. When authorisation is in force......................................................... 421

95AZL.. Minor variations of authorisations.................................................. 421

95AZM. Revocation of authorisation or revocation of authorisation and substitution of a new authorisation         425

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                            430

95AZN.. Providing false or misleading information...................................... 430

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                 431

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          431

95A....... Interpretation................................................................................... 431

95B....... Exempt supplies.............................................................................. 434

95C....... Application of Part.......................................................................... 435

95D....... Crown to be bound......................................................................... 436

95E........ Object of this Part........................................................................... 436

95F........ Simplified overview of this Part...................................................... 436

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                               438

95G....... Commission’s functions under this Part......................................... 438

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    440

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                440

95H....... Price inquiries................................................................................. 440

95J........ Content of inquiry notices............................................................... 441

95K....... Period for completing inquiry......................................................... 442

95L........ Notice of holding of inquiry............................................................ 442

95M...... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry...................... 443

95N....... Price restrictions.............................................................................. 443

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                446

95P........ Copies of report to be made available.............................................. 446

95Q....... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report..................... 446

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                            447

95R....... Public inquiries etc.......................................................................... 447

95S........ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation....................................... 448

95T........ Failure of witness to attend............................................................. 449

95U....... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question..................................... 449

95V....... Protection of witnesses................................................................... 450

95W...... Allowances to witnesses................................................................. 450

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            451

95X....... Declarations by Minister or Commission........................................ 451

95Y....... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities.................. 451

95Z........ Price restrictions.............................................................................. 453

95ZA..... Later notices modifying a locality notice......................................... 455

95ZB..... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice.............................. 456

95ZC..... Register of price notifications.......................................................... 457

95ZD..... Delegation by Commission............................................................. 458

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               459

95ZE..... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry......... 459

95ZF..... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business.......... 459

95ZG..... Exceptions to price monitoring........................................................ 460

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                               461

95ZH..... Ministerial directions....................................................................... 461

95ZI...... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals                461

95ZJ...... Withdrawal of notices..................................................................... 462

95ZK..... Power to obtain information or documents..................................... 462

95ZL..... Inspection of documents etc............................................................ 465

95ZM.... Retention of documents................................................................... 465

95ZN..... Confidential information................................................................. 466

95ZO..... Immunity......................................................................................... 467

95ZP..... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc........... 467

95ZQ..... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission          469

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                    471

96.......... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance................... 471

96A....... Resale price maintenance in relation to services.............................. 473

97.......... Recommended prices...................................................................... 473

98.......... Withholding the supply of goods.................................................... 474

99.......... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................................. 475

100........ Evidentiary provisions.................................................................... 475

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission       477

Division 1—Applications for review (other than for merger clearances)            477

101........ Applications for review................................................................... 477

101A..... Application for review of notice under subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2)               478

102........ Functions and powers of Tribunal.................................................. 478

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                               483

102A..... Definition........................................................................................ 483

103........ Procedure generally......................................................................... 483

104........ Regulations as to certain matters..................................................... 483

105........ Power to take evidence on oath....................................................... 484

106........ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances................. 484

107........ Evidence in form of written statement............................................. 485

108........ Taking of evidence by single member............................................. 485

109........ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal.................................... 485

110........ Representation................................................................................. 485

Division 3—Review of Commission’s determinations on merger clearances     487

111........ Applications for review................................................................... 487

112........ Tribunal to notify Commission....................................................... 488

113........ Commission to give material to Tribunal......................................... 488

114........ Tribunal may consult etc. to clarify information.............................. 488

115........ Commission to assist Tribunal........................................................ 489

116........ Tribunal only to consider material before the Commission............. 489

117........ Tribunal to make decision on review............................................... 489

118........ Time limits for making review decision.......................................... 489

119........ Tribunal’s decision taken to be Commission’s................................ 490


An Act relating to competition, fair trading and consumer protection, and for other purposes

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                          (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the
Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2 as applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

authorisation means:

                     (a)  an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission; or

                     (b)  an authorisation under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Tribunal.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.

business includes a business not carried on for profit.

cartel provision has the meaning given by section 44ZZRD.

Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Commission.

clearance means a clearance under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission.

Commission means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission established by section 6A, and includes a member of the Commission or a Division of the Commission performing functions of the Commission.

competition includes competition from imported goods or from services rendered by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

Competition Principles Agreement means the Competition Principles Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

Conduct Code Agreement means the Conduct Code Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

corporation means a body corporate that:

                     (a)  is a foreign corporation;

                     (b)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of Australia or is a financial corporation so formed;

                     (c)  is incorporated in a Territory; or

                     (d)  is the holding company of a body corporate of a kind referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Council means the National Competition Council established by section 29A.

Councillor means a member of the Council, including the Council President.

Council President means the Council President referred to in subsection 29C(1).

covenant means a covenant (including a promise not under seal) annexed to or running with an estate or interest in land (whether at law or in equity and whether or not for the benefit of other land), and proposed covenant has a corresponding meaning.

debenture includes debenture stock, bonds, notes and any other document evidencing or acknowledging indebtedness of a body corporate, whether constituting a charge on property of the body corporate or not.

Deputy Chairperson means a Deputy Chairperson of the Commission.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of the Tribunal, and includes a person appointed to act as a Deputy President of the Tribunal.

Deputy Registrar means a Deputy Registrar of the Tribunal.

designated Commonwealth energy law means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (b)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (c)  the Offshore Western Australian Pipelines (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004).

document means any record of information, and includes:

                     (a)  anything on which there is writing; and

                     (b)  anything on which there are marks, figures, symbols or perforations having a meaning for persons qualified to interpret them; and

                     (c)  anything from which sounds, images or writings can be reproduced with or without the aid of anything else; and

                     (d)  a map, plan, drawing or photograph.

dual listed company arrangement has the same meaning as in section 125‑60 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

financial corporation means a financial corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that carries on as its sole or principal business the business of banking (other than State banking not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned) or insurance (other than State insurance not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned).

foreign corporation means a foreign corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that is incorporated in an external Territory.

fully‑participating jurisdiction means a State or Territory that:

                     (a)  is a participating jurisdiction as defined in section 150A; and

                     (b)  is not named in a notice in operation under section 150K.

give effect to, in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, includes do an act or thing in pursuance of or in accordance with or enforce or purport to enforce.

goods includes:

                     (a)  ships, aircraft and other vehicles;

                     (b)  animals, including fish;

                     (c)  minerals, trees and crops, whether on, under or attached to land or not; and

                     (d)  gas and electricity.

member of the Commission includes the Chairperson and a person appointed to act as a member of the Commission but does not include an associate member of the Commission.

member of the Tribunal includes the President and a person appointed to act as a member of the Tribunal.

New Zealand Commerce Commission means the Commission established by section 8 of the Commerce Act 1986 of New Zealand.

New Zealand Crown corporation means a body corporate that is an instrument of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand.

organisation of employees means an organisation that exists or is carried on for the purpose, or for purposes that include the purpose, of furthering the interests of its members in relation to their employment.

personal injury includes:

                     (a)  pre‑natal injury; or

                     (b)  impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; or

                     (c)  disease;

but does not include an impairment of a person’s mental condition unless the impairment consists of a recognised psychiatric illness.

practice of exclusive dealing means the practice of exclusive dealing referred to in subsection 47(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) or (9).

practice of resale price maintenance means the practice of resale price maintenance referred to in Part VIII.

President means the President of the Tribunal and includes a person appointed to act as President of the Tribunal.

presidential member or presidential member of the Tribunal means the President or a Deputy President.

price includes a charge of any description.

provision, in relation to an understanding, means any matter forming part of the understanding.

Registrar means the Registrar of the Tribunal.

require, in relation to the giving of a covenant, means require or demand the giving of a covenant, whether by way of making a contract containing the covenant or otherwise, and whether or not a covenant is given in pursuance of the requirement or demand.

send includes deliver, and sent and sender have corresponding meanings.

services includes any rights (including rights in relation to, and interests in, real or personal property), benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred in trade or commerce, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes the rights, benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred under:

                     (a)  a contract for or in relation to:

                              (i)  the performance of work (including work of a professional nature), whether with or without the supply of goods;

                             (ii)  the provision of, or the use or enjoyment of facilities for, amusement, entertainment, recreation or instruction; or

                            (iii)  the conferring of rights, benefits or privileges for which remuneration is payable in the form of a royalty, tribute, levy or similar exaction;

                     (b)  a contract of insurance;

                     (c)  a contract between a banker and a customer of the banker entered into in the course of the carrying on by the banker of the business of banking; or

                     (d)  any contract for or in relation to the lending of moneys;

but does not include rights or benefits being the supply of goods or the performance of work under a contract of service.

share includes stock.

South Australian Electricity Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 4 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

State/Territory AER member means an AER member referred to in section 44AP.

State/Territory energy law means any of the following laws:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that applies as a law of a State or Territory;

                     (b)  a law of a State or Territory that applies a law mentioned in paragraph (a) as a law of its own jurisdiction;

                     (c)  any other provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

supply, when used as a verb, includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—supply (including re‑supply) by way of sale, exchange, lease, hire or hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—provide, grant or confer;

and, when used as a noun, has a corresponding meaning, and supplied and supplier have corresponding meanings.

Telstra has the same meaning as in the Telstra Corporation Act 1991.

Territory means:

                     (a)  an internal Territory; or

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

the Court or the Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

the Family Court means the Family Court of Australia.

this Act includes Schedule 2 to the extent that it is applied under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part XI.

trade or commerce means trade or commerce within Australia or between Australia and places outside Australia.

trading corporation means a trading corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution.

Tribunal means the Australian Competition Tribunal, and includes a member of that Tribunal or a Division of that Tribunal performing functions of that Tribunal.

uniform energy law means:

                     (a)  the South Australian Electricity Legislation; or

                     (b)  the South Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (c)  the Western Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (d)  provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this subparagraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

Western Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

             (2)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to engaging in conduct shall be read as a reference to doing or refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (b)  a reference to conduct, when that expression is used as a noun otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (a), shall be read as a reference to the doing of or the refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (c)  a reference to refusing to do an act includes a reference to:

                              (i)  refraining (otherwise than inadvertently) from doing that act; or

                             (ii)  making it known that that act will not be done; and

                     (d)  a reference to a person offering to do an act, or to do an act on a particular condition, includes a reference to the person making it known that the person will accept applications, offers or proposals for the person to do that act or to do that act on that condition, as the case may be.

             (3)  Where a provision of this Act is expressed to render a provision of a contract, or to render a covenant, unenforceable if the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have a particular effect, that provision of this Act applies in relation to the provision of the contract or the covenant at any time when the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have that effect notwithstanding that:

                     (a)  at an earlier time the provision of the contract or the covenant did not have that effect or was not regarded as likely to have that effect; or

                     (b)  the provision of the contract or the covenant will not or may not have that effect at a later time.

             (4)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of shares in the capital of a body corporate shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such shares; and

                     (b)  a reference to the acquisition of assets of a person shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such assets but does not include a reference to an acquisition by way of charge only or an acquisition in the ordinary course of business.

4A  Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall, subject to subsection (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another body corporate if:

                     (a)  that other body corporate:

                              (i)  controls the composition of the board of directors of the first‑mentioned body corporate;

                             (ii)  is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one‑half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first‑mentioned body corporate; or

                            (iii)  holds more than one‑half of the allotted share capital of the first‑mentioned body corporate (excluding any part of that allotted share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or

                     (b)  the first‑mentioned body corporate is a subsidiary of any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary (including any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary by another application or other applications of this paragraph).

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the composition of a body corporate’s board of directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another body corporate if that other body corporate, by the exercise of some power exercisable by it without the consent or concurrence of any other person, can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors, and for the purposes of this provision that other body corporate shall be deemed to have power to make such an appointment if:

                     (a)  a person cannot be appointed as a director without the exercise in his or her favour by that other body corporate of such a power; or

                     (b)  a person’s appointment as a director follows necessarily from his or her being a director or other officer of that other body corporate.

             (3)  In determining whether a body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate:

                     (a)  any shares held or power exercisable by that other body corporate in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held or exercisable by it;

                     (b)  subject to paragraphs (c) and (d), any shares held or power exercisable:

                              (i) by any person as a nominee for that other body corporate (except where that other body corporate is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity); or

                             (ii)  by, or by a nominee for, a subsidiary of that other body corporate, not being a subsidiary that is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity;

                            shall be treated as held or exercisable by that other body corporate;

                     (c)  any shares held or power exercisable by any person by virtue of the provisions of any debentures of the first‑mentioned body corporate, or of a trust deed for securing any allotment of such debentures, shall be disregarded; and

                     (d)  any shares held or power exercisable by, or by a nominee for, that other body corporate or its subsidiary (not being held or exercisable as mentioned in paragraph (c)) shall be treated as not held or exercisable by that other body corporate if the ordinary business of that other body corporate or its subsidiary, as the case may be, includes the lending of money and the shares are held or the power is exercisable by way of security only for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of that business.

             (4)  A reference in this Act to the holding company of a body corporate shall be read as a reference to a body corporate of which that other body corporate is a subsidiary.

             (5)  Where a body corporate:

                     (a) is the holding company of another body corporate;

                     (b)  is a subsidiary of another body corporate; or

                     (c)  is a subsidiary of the holding company of another body corporate;

that first‑mentioned body corporate and that other body corporate shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be related to each other.

          (5A)  For the purposes of Parts IV, VI and VII:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is a party to a dual listed company arrangement is taken to be related to the other body corporate that is a party to the arrangement; and

                     (b)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to the other party to the arrangement; and

                     (c)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to each body corporate that is related to the other party to the arrangement.

             (6)  In proceedings under this Act, whether in the Court or before the Tribunal or the Commission, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that bodies corporate are not, or were not at a particular time, related to each other.

4B  Consumers

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular goods as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the goods did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the goods were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption or the goods consisted of a commercial road vehicle;

                            and the person did not acquire the goods, or hold himself or herself out as acquiring the goods, for the purpose of
re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them, in trade or commerce, in the course of a process of production or manufacture or of repairing or treating other goods or fixtures on land; and

                     (b)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular services as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the services did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the services were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1):

                     (a)  the prescribed amount is $40,000 or, if a greater amount is prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph, that greater amount;

                     (b)  subject to paragraph (c), the price of goods or services purchased by a person shall be taken to have been the amount paid or payable by the person for the goods or services;

                     (c)  where a person purchased goods or services together with other property or services, or with both other property and services, and a specified price was not allocated to the goods or services in the contract under which they were purchased, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased from the supplier the goods or services without the other property or services;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier except together with the other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier without other property or services—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, goods or services of the kind acquired were not available for purchase from any supplier except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time;

                     (d)  where a person acquired goods or services otherwise than by way of purchase, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased the goods or services from the supplier;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier or were so available only together with other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if goods or services of the kind acquired were not available, at the time of the acquisition, for purchase from any supplier or were not so available except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time; and

                     (e)  without limiting by implication the meaning of the expression services in subsection 4(1), the obtaining of credit by a person in connection with the acquisition of goods or services by him or her shall be deemed to be the acquisition by him or her of a service and any amount by which the amount paid or payable by him or her for the goods or services is increased by reason of his or her so obtaining credit shall be deemed to be paid or payable by him or her for that service.

             (3)  Where it is alleged in any proceeding under this Act or in any other proceeding in respect of a matter arising under this Act that a person was a consumer in relation to particular goods or services, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that the person was a consumer in relation to those goods or services.

             (4)  In this section, commercial road vehicle means a vehicle or trailer acquired for use principally in the transport of goods on public roads.

4C  Acquisition, supply and re‑supply

                   In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of goods includes a reference to the acquisition of property in, or rights in relation to, goods in pursuance of a supply of the goods;

                     (b)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods or services includes a reference to agreeing to supply or acquire goods or services;

                     (c)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods together with other property or services, or both;

                     (d)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of services includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of services together with property or other services, or both;

                     (e)  a reference to the re‑supply of goods acquired from a person includes a reference to:

                              (i)  a supply of the goods to another person in an altered form or condition; and

                             (ii)  a supply to another person of goods in which the first‑mentioned goods have been incorporated;

                      (f)  a reference to the re‑supply of services (the original services) acquired from a person (the original supplier) includes a reference to:

                              (i)  a supply of the original services to another person in an altered form or condition; and

                             (ii)  a supply to another person of other services that are substantially similar to the original services, and could not have been supplied if the original services had not been acquired by the person who acquired them from the original supplier.

4D  Exclusionary provisions

             (1)  A provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, shall be taken to be an exclusionary provision for the purposes of this Act if:

                     (a)  the contract or arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, or the proposed contract or arrangement is to be made, or the proposed understanding is to be arrived at, between persons any 2 or more of whom are competitive with each other; and

                     (b)  the provision has the purpose of preventing, restricting or limiting:

                              (i)  the supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  the supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, particular persons or classes of persons in particular circumstances or on particular conditions;

                            by all or any of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding or of the proposed parties to the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding or, if a party or proposed party is a body corporate, by a body corporate that is related to the body corporate.

             (2)  A person shall be deemed to be competitive with another person for the purposes of subsection (1) if, and only if, the
first‑mentioned person or a body corporate that is related to that person is, or is likely to be, or, but for the provision of any contract, arrangement or understanding or of any proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, would be, or would be likely to be, in competition with the other person, or with a body corporate that is related to the other person, in relation to the supply or acquisition of all or any of the goods or services to which the relevant provision of the contract, arrangement or understanding or of the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding relates.

4E  Market

                   For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears, market means a market in Australia and, when used in relation to any goods or services, includes a market for those goods or services and other goods or services that are substitutable for, or otherwise competitive with, the first‑mentioned goods or services.

4F  References to purpose or reason

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act:

                     (a)  a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or a covenant or a proposed covenant, shall be deemed to have had, or to have, a particular purpose if:

                              (i)  the provision was included in the contract, arrangement or understanding or is to be included in the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or the covenant was required to be given or the proposed covenant is to be required to be given, as the case may be, for that purpose or for purposes that included or include that purpose; and

                             (ii)  that purpose was or is a substantial purpose; and

                     (b)  a person shall be deemed to have engaged or to engage in conduct for a particular purpose or a particular reason if:

                              (i)  the person engaged or engages in the conduct for purposes that included or include that purpose or for reasons that included or include that reason, as the case may be; and

                             (ii)  that purpose or reason was or is a substantial purpose or reason.

             (2)  This section does not apply for the purposes of subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1), 45DB(1), 45E(2) and 45E(3).

4G  Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition

                   For the purposes of this Act, references to the lessening of competition shall be read as including references to preventing or hindering competition.

4H  Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to a contract shall be construed as including a reference to a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building and shall be so construed notwithstanding the express references in this Act to such leases or licences;

                     (b)  a reference to making or entering into a contract, in relation to such a lease or licence, shall be read as a reference to granting or taking the lease or licence; and

                     (c)  a reference to a party to a contract, in relation to such a lease or licence, shall be read as including a reference to any person bound by, or entitled to the benefit of, any provision contained in the lease or licence.

4J  Joint ventures

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to a joint venture is a reference to an activity in trade or commerce:

                              (i)  carried on jointly by two or more persons, whether or not in partnership; or

                             (ii)  carried on by a body corporate formed by two or more persons for the purpose of enabling those persons to carry on that activity jointly by means of their joint control, or by means of their ownership of shares in the capital, of that body corporate; and

                     (b)  a reference to a contract or arrangement made or understanding arrived at, or to a proposed contract or arrangement to be made or proposed understanding to be arrived at, for the purposes of a joint venture shall, in relation to a joint venture by way of an activity carried on by a body corporate as mentioned in subparagraph (a)(ii), be read as including a reference to the memorandum and articles of association, rules or other document that constitute or constitutes, or are or is to constitute, that body corporate.

4K  Loss or damage to include injury

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to loss or damage, other than a reference to the amount of any loss or damage, includes a reference to injury; and

                     (b)  a reference to the amount of any loss or damage includes a reference to damages in respect of an injury.

4KA  Definitions etc. that do not apply in Part XI or Schedule 2

                   Despite any other provision of this Act, sections 4 to 4K do not affect the meaning of any expression used in Part XI or Schedule 2, unless a contrary intention appears.

4L  Severability

                   If the making of a contract after the commencement of this section contravenes this Act by reason of the inclusion of a particular provision in the contract, then, subject to any order made under section 51ADB or 87, nothing in this Act affects the validity or enforceability of the contract otherwise than in relation to that provision in so far as that provision is severable.

4M  Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence

                   This Act does not affect the operation of:

                     (a)  the law relating to restraint of trade in so far as that law is capable of operating concurrently with this Act; or

                     (b)  the law relating to breaches of confidence;

but nothing in the law referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) affects the interpretation of this Act.

4N  Extended application of Part IIIA

             (1)  Part IIIA, and the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to Part IIIA, extend to services provided by means of facilities that are, or will be, wholly or partly within:

                     (a)  an external Territory; or

                     (b)  the offshore area in respect of a State, of the Northern Territory, or of an external Territory, as specified in section 7 of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (1) affects the operation of section 15B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 in respect of the application of Part IIIA, and of the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to Part IIIA, in any part of:

                     (a)  the coastal sea of Australia; or

                     (b)  the coastal sea of an external Territory;

that is on the landward side of each of the offshore areas referred to in that subsection.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section:

service includes proposed service covered by Division 2A of Part IIIA.

5  Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia

             (1)  Each of the following provisions:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                     (b)  Part XI;

                     (c)  the Australian Consumer Law (other than Part 5‑3);

                      (f)  the remaining provisions of this Act (to the extent to which they relate to any of the provisions covered by paragraph (a), (b) or (c));

extends to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by:

                     (g)  bodies corporate incorporated or carrying on business within Australia; or

                     (h)  Australian citizens; or