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Fair Work Act 2009

  • - C2010C00741
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Act No. 51 of 2010
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Attorney-General's; Education, Employment and Workplace Relations
General Comments: This compilation is affected by a retrospective amendment, please see Statute Law Revision Act 2012 [Act No. 136 of 2012], for details.
Registered 01 Nov 2010
Start Date 01 Nov 2010
End Date 28 Jul 2011

Fair Work Act 2009

Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 1 November 2010
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 51 of 2010

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney‑General’s Department, Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction                                                                                                     1

Part 1‑1—Introduction                                                                                                          1

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                              1

1............ Short title [see Note 1]....................................................................... 1

2............ Commencement.................................................................................. 1

Division 2—Object of this Act                                                                                 4

3............ Object of this Act............................................................................... 4

Division 3—Guide to this Act                                                                                  5

4............ Guide to this Act................................................................................ 5

5............ Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)............................ 5

6............ Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)            7

7............ Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4).......................................... 7

8............ Administration (Chapter 5)................................................................ 8

9............ Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)................................................................. 8

Part 1‑2—Definitions                                                                                                          10

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          10

10.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 10

11.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 10

Division 2—The Dictionary                                                                                     11

12.......... The Dictionary................................................................................. 11

Division 3—Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.  34

13.......... Meaning of national system employee.............................................. 34

14.......... Meaning of national system employer.............................................. 34

14A....... Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.         36

15.......... Ordinary meanings of employee and employer................................. 36

Division 4—Other definitions                                                                                38

16.......... Meaning of base rate of pay............................................................. 38

17.......... Meaning of child of a person............................................................ 39

18.......... Meaning of full rate of pay................................................................ 39

19.......... Meaning of industrial action............................................................. 40

20.......... Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees              41

21.......... Meaning of pieceworker................................................................... 42

22.......... Meanings of service and continuous service.................................... 43

23.......... Meaning of small business employer................................................ 46

Part 1‑3—Application of this Act                                                                                  47

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          47

24.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 47

25.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 47

Division 2—Interaction with State and Territory laws                              48

26.......... Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws................................ 48

27.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26.......... 49

28.......... Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws............................ 51

29.......... Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws        51

30.......... Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases.......... 52

Division 2A—Application of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009  53

30A....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 53

30B....... Meaning of referring State................................................................ 57

30C....... Extended meaning of national system employee................................ 60

30D....... Extended meaning of national system employer................................ 60

30E........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 61

30F........ Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 61

30G....... General protections.......................................................................... 62

30H....... Division only has effect if supported by reference.......................... 62

Division 2B—Application of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010                                                                                     63

30K....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 63

30L........ Meaning of referring State................................................................ 67

30M...... Extended meaning of national system employee................................ 70

30N....... Extended meaning of national system employer................................ 71

30P........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 71

30Q....... Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 71

30R....... General protections.......................................................................... 72

30S........ Division only has effect if supported by reference.......................... 72

Division 3—Geographical application of this Act                                        73

31.......... Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia... 73

32.......... Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia        73

33.......... Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf     74

34.......... Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf            75

35.......... Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee.. 76

35A....... Regulations excluding application of Act......................................... 77

36.......... Geographical application of offences............................................... 77

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                      78

37.......... Act binds Crown.............................................................................. 78

38.......... Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power................ 78

39.......... Acquisition of property................................................................... 79

40.......... Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws    79

40A....... Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901............................... 80

Chapter 2—Terms and conditions of employment                                             81

Part 2‑1—Core provisions for this Chapter                                                           81

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          81

41.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 81

42.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 82

Division 2—Core provisions for this Chapter                                               83

Subdivision A—Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act   83

43.......... Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act...... 83

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards       84

44.......... Contravening the National Employment Standards......................... 84

Subdivision C—Terms and conditions of employment provided by a modern award           84

45.......... Contravening a modern award.......................................................... 84

46.......... The significance of a modern award applying to a person............... 84

47.......... When a modern award applies to an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity                85

48.......... When a modern award covers an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity     86

49.......... When a modern award is in operation.............................................. 87

Subdivision D—Terms and conditions of employment provided by an enterprise agreement           88

50.......... Contravening an enterprise agreement.............................................. 88

51.......... The significance of an enterprise agreement applying to a person... 88

52.......... When an enterprise agreement applies to an employer, employee or employee organisation 88

53.......... When an enterprise agreement covers an employer, employee or employee organisation      89

54.......... When an enterprise agreement is in operation.................................. 90

Division 3—Interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                            91

Subdivision A—Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or an enterprise agreement                                                                                                         91

55.......... Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or enterprise agreement               91

56.......... Terms of a modern award or enterprise agreement contravening section 55 have no effect    93

Subdivision B—Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements              93

57.......... Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements....... 93

57A....... Designated outworker terms of a modern award continue to apply 94

Subdivision C—Interaction between one or more enterprise agreements     94

58.......... Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee.............. 94

Part 2‑2—The National Employment Standards                                                 96

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          96

59.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 96

60.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 96

Division 2—The National Employment Standards                                      97

61.......... The National Employment Standards are minimum standards applying to employment of employees                97

Division 3—Maximum weekly hours                                                                 98

62.......... Maximum weekly hours................................................................... 98

63.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for averaging of hours of work       99

64.......... Averaging of hours of work for award/agreement free employees. 100

Division 4—Requests for flexible working arrangements                    101

65.......... Requests for flexible working arrangements................................... 101

66.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 102

Division 5—Parental leave and related entitlements                              103

Subdivision A—General                                                                                         103

67.......... General rule—employee must have completed at least 12 months of service         103

68.......... General rule for adoption‑related leave—child must be under 16 etc. 105

69.......... Transfer of employment situations in which employee is entitled to continue on leave etc.  105

Subdivision B—Parental leave                                                                              106

70.......... Entitlement to unpaid parental leave.............................................. 106

71.......... The period of leave—other than for members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave    106

72.......... The period of leave—members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave           107

73.......... Pregnant employee may be required to take unpaid parental leave within 6 weeks before the birth      109

74.......... Notice and evidence requirements.................................................. 111

75.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending to use more of available parental leave period   112

76.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending for up to 12 months beyond available parental leave period........................................................................................................ 113

77.......... Reducing period of unpaid parental leave....................................... 114

78.......... Employee who ceases to have responsibility for care of child....... 114

79.......... Interaction with paid leave............................................................. 115

Subdivision C—Other entitlements                                                                     115

80.......... Unpaid special maternity leave...................................................... 115

81.......... Transfer to a safe job...................................................................... 116

82.......... Employee on paid no safe job leave may be asked to provide a further medical certificate    118

83.......... Consultation with employee on unpaid parental leave.................. 118

84.......... Return to work guarantee............................................................... 119

85.......... Unpaid pre‑adoption leave............................................................. 119

Division 6—Annual leave                                                                                       121

86.......... Division applies to employees other than casual employees......... 121

87.......... Entitlement to annual leave............................................................. 121

88.......... Taking paid annual leave................................................................. 122

89.......... Employee not taken to be on paid annual leave at certain times.... 122

90.......... Payment for annual leave................................................................ 123

91.......... Transfer of employment situations that affect entitlement to payment for period of untaken paid annual leave  123

92.......... Paid annual leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms        124

93.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out and taking paid annual leave........................................................................................................ 124

94.......... Cashing out and taking paid annual leave for award/agreement free employees      125

Division 7—Personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave           127

Subdivision A—Paid personal/carer’s leave                                                      127

95.......... Subdivision applies to employees other than casual employees.... 127

96.......... Entitlement to paid personal/carer’s leave...................................... 127

97.......... Taking paid personal/carer’s leave.................................................. 127

98.......... Employee taken not to be on paid personal/carer’s leave on public holiday           128

99.......... Payment for paid personal/carer’s leave......................................... 128

100........ Paid personal/carer’s leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms         128

101........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out paid personal/carer’s leave........................................................................................................ 128

Subdivision B—Unpaid carer’s leave                                                                   129

102........ Entitlement to unpaid carer’s leave................................................ 129

103........ Taking unpaid carer’s leave............................................................ 129

Subdivision C—Compassionate leave                                                                  129

104........ Entitlement to compassionate leave............................................... 129

105........ Taking compassionate leave........................................................... 130

106........ Payment for compassionate leave (other than for casual employees) 130

Subdivision D—Notice and evidence requirements                                          131

107........ Notice and evidence requirements.................................................. 131

Division 8—Community service leave                                                            133

108........ Entitlement to be absent from employment for engaging in eligible community service activity            133

109........ Meaning of eligible community service activity.............................. 133

110........ Notice and evidence requirements.................................................. 135

111........ Payment to employees (other than casuals) on jury service.......... 135

112........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 137

Division 9—Long service leave                                                                          138

113........ Entitlement to long service leave.................................................... 138

113A..... Enterprise agreements may contain terms discounting service under prior agreements etc. in certain circumstances........................................................................................................ 140

Division 10—Public holidays                                                                                142

114........ Entitlement to be absent from employment on public holiday...... 142

115........ Meaning of public holiday.............................................................. 143

116........ Payment for absence on public holiday.......................................... 144

Division 11—Notice of termination and redundancy pay                       145

Subdivision A—Notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice               145

117........ Requirement for notice of termination or payment in lieu............. 145

118........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for notice of termination by employees         146

Subdivision B—Redundancy pay                                                                          146

119........ Redundancy pay............................................................................. 146

120........ Variation of redundancy pay for other employment or incapacity to pay             147

121........ Exclusions from obligation to pay redundancy pay....................... 148

122........ Transfer of employment situations that affect the obligation to pay redundancy pay           148

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                               149

123........ Limits on scope of this Division.................................................... 149

Division 12—Fair Work Information Statement                                        151

124........ Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish Fair Work Information Statement                151

125........ Giving new employees the Fair Work Information Statement....... 151

Division 13—Miscellaneous                                                                                 152

126........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for school‑based apprentices and trainees to be paid loadings in lieu.............................................................................................. 152

127........ Regulations about what modern awards and enterprise agreements can do             152

128........ Relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements etc. permitted by this Part for award/agreement free employees................................................................................ 152

129........ Regulations about what can be agreed to etc. in relation to award/agreement free employees                153

130........ Restriction on taking or accruing leave or absence while receiving workers’ compensation    153

131........ Relationship with other Commonwealth laws............................... 154

Part 2‑3—Modern awards                                                                                              155

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        155

132........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 155

133........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 156

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                157

134........ The modern awards objective......................................................... 157

135........ Special provisions relating to modern award minimum wages....... 158

Division 3—Terms of modern awards                                                             159

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                                 159

136........ What can be included in modern awards......................................... 159

137........ Terms that contravene section 136 have no effect......................... 159

138........ Achieving the modern awards objective......................................... 160

Subdivision B—Terms that may be included in modern awards                     160

139........ Terms that may be included in modern awards—general............... 160

140........ Outworker terms............................................................................ 161

141........ Industry‑specific redundancy schemes.......................................... 162

142........ Incidental and machinery terms...................................................... 163

Subdivision C—Terms that must be included in modern awards                   163

143........ Coverage terms of modern awards other than modern enterprise awards and State reference public sector modern awards............................................................................................. 163

143A..... Coverage terms of modern enterprise awards................................. 165

143B..... Coverage terms of State reference public sector modern awards.... 167

144........ Flexibility terms.............................................................................. 168

145........ Effect of individual flexibility arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term             169

146........ Terms about settling disputes........................................................ 170

147........ Ordinary hours of work.................................................................. 170

148........ Base and full rates of pay for pieceworkers................................... 170

149........ Automatic variation of allowances................................................. 171

Subdivision D—Terms that must not be included in modern awards            171

150........ Objectionable terms........................................................................ 171

151........ Terms about payments and deductions for benefit of employer etc. 171

152........ Terms about right of entry............................................................. 171

153........ Terms that are discriminatory........................................................ 171

154........ Terms that contain State‑based differences.................................... 172

155........ Terms dealing with long service leave............................................. 173

Division 4—4 yearly reviews of modern awards                                        174

156........ 4 yearly reviews of modern awards to be conducted..................... 174

Division 5—Exercising modern award powers outside 4 yearly reviews and annual wage reviews      176

Subdivision A—Exercise of powers if necessary to achieve modern awards objective       176

157........ FWA may vary etc. modern awards if necessary to achieve modern awards objective          176

158........ Applications to vary, revoke or make modern award.................... 177

Subdivision B—Other situations                                                                         179

159........ Variation of modern award to update or omit name of employer, organisation or outworker entity      179

160........ Variation of modern award to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error    180

161........ Variation of modern award on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission 180

Division 6—General provisions relating to modern award powers 182

162........ General............................................................................................ 182

163........ Special criteria relating to changing coverage of modern awards..... 182

164........ Special criteria for revoking modern awards................................... 183

165........ When variation determinations come into operation, other than determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages.................................................................... 183

166........ When variation determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages come into operation........................................................................................................ 184

167........ Special rules relating to retrospective variations of awards............ 185

168........ Varied modern award must be published........................................ 186

Division 7—Additional provisions relating to modern enterprise awards           187

168A..... Modern enterprise awards.............................................................. 187

168B..... The modern enterprise awards objective........................................ 188

168C..... Rules about making and revoking modern enterprise awards......... 188

168D..... Rules about changing coverage of modern enterprise awards......... 189

Division 8—Additional provisions relating to State reference public sector modern awards   191

168E...... State reference public sector modern awards.................................. 191

168F...... The State reference public sector modern awards objective........... 191

168G..... Making State reference public sector modern awards on application 192

168H..... State reference public sector modern awards may contain State‑based differences 193

168J...... When State reference public sector modern awards come into operation                193

168K..... Rules about revoking State reference public sector modern awards 193

168L...... Rules about varying coverage of State reference public sector modern awards       194

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements                                                                              196

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        196

169........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 196

170........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 197

171........ Objects of this Part......................................................................... 197

Division 2—Employers and employees may make enterprise agreements        199

172........ Making an enterprise agreement..................................................... 199

Division 3—Bargaining and representation during bargaining          201

173........ Notice of employee representational rights.................................... 201

174........ Content of notice of employee representational rights.................. 202

176........ Bargaining representatives for proposed enterprise agreements that are not greenfields agreements      203

178........ Appointment of bargaining representatives—other matters.......... 205

178A..... Revocation of appointment of bargaining representatives etc........ 205

Division 4—Approval of enterprise agreements                                       207

Subdivision A—Pre‑approval steps and applications for FWA approval       207

180........ Employees must be given a copy of a proposed enterprise agreement etc.            207

181........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed enterprise agreement 208

182........ When an enterprise agreement is made........................................... 208

183........ Entitlement of an employee organisation to have an enterprise agreement cover it                209

184........ Multi‑enterprise agreement to be varied if not all employees approve the agreement            210

185........ Bargaining representative must apply for FWA approval of an enterprise agreement           210

Subdivision B—Approval of enterprise agreements by FWA                         211

186........ When FWA must approve an enterprise agreement—general requirements           211

187........ When FWA must approve an enterprise agreement—additional requirements       213

188........ When employees have genuinely agreed to an enterprise agreement 214

189........ FWA may approve an enterprise agreement that does not pass better off overall test—public interest test        215

190........ FWA may approve an enterprise agreement with undertakings.... 216

191........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 216

192........ When FWA may refuse to approve an enterprise agreement......... 217

Subdivision C—Better off overall test                                                                 217

193........ Passing the better off overall test................................................... 217

Subdivision D—Unlawful terms                                                                            219

194........ Meaning of unlawful term............................................................... 219

195........ Meaning of discriminatory term..................................................... 220

Subdivision E—Approval requirements relating to particular kinds of employees            221

196........ Shiftworkers................................................................................... 221

197........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement includes pieceworker term... 221

198........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement does not include a pieceworker term            222

199........ School‑based apprentices and school‑based trainees...................... 222

200........ Outworkers..................................................................................... 223

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                              223

201........ Approval decision to note certain matters..................................... 223

Division 5—Mandatory terms of enterprise agreements                     225

202........ Enterprise agreements to include a flexibility term etc................... 225

203........ Requirements to be met by a flexibility term................................. 226

204........ Effect of arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term              227

205........ Enterprise agreements to include a consultation term etc............... 228

Division 6—Base rate of pay under enterprise agreements               229

206........ Base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement must not be less than the modern award rate or the national minimum wage order rate etc.......................................................................... 229

Division 7—Variation and termination of enterprise agreements    230

Subdivision A—Variation of enterprise agreements by employers and employees            230

207........ Variation of an enterprise agreement may be made by employers and employees 230

208........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed variation of an enterprise agreement         231

209........ When a variation of an enterprise agreement is made..................... 231

210........ Application for FWA approval of a variation of an enterprise agreement              231

211........ When FWA must approve a variation of an enterprise agreement. 232

212........ FWA may approve a variation of an enterprise agreement with undertakings        234

213........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 235

214........ When FWA may refuse to approve a variation of an enterprise agreement            235

215........ Approval decision to note undertakings......................................... 236

216........ When variation comes into operation............................................. 236

Subdivision B—Variations of enterprise agreements where there is ambiguity, uncertainty or discrimination        236

217........ Variation of an enterprise agreement to remove an ambiguity or uncertainty         236

217A..... FWA may deal with certain disputes about variations.................. 236

218........ Variation of an enterprise agreement on referral by Australian Human Rights Commission  237

Subdivision C—Termination of enterprise agreements by employers and employees       238

219........ Employers and employees may agree to terminate an enterprise agreement           238

220........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed termination of an enterprise agreement     238

221........ When termination of an enterprise agreement is agreed to............. 239

222........ Application for FWA approval of a termination of an enterprise agreement          239

223........ When FWA must approve a termination of an enterprise agreement 240

224........ When termination comes into operation......................................... 240

Subdivision D—Termination of enterprise agreements after nominal expiry date            240

225........ Application for termination of an enterprise agreement after its nominal expiry date            240

226........ When FWA must terminate an enterprise agreement..................... 241

227........ When termination comes into operation......................................... 241

Division 8—FWA’s general role in facilitating bargaining                   242

Subdivision A—Bargaining orders                                                                     242

228........ Bargaining representatives must meet the good faith bargaining requirements        242

229........ Applications for bargaining orders................................................. 242

230........ When FWA may make a bargaining order...................................... 244

231........ What a bargaining order must specify............................................ 245

232........ Operation of a bargaining order...................................................... 246

233........ Contravening a bargaining order...................................................... 246

Subdivision B—Serious breach declarations                                                    247

234........ Applications for serious breach declarations.................................. 247

235........ When FWA may make a serious breach declaration....................... 247

Subdivision C—Majority support determinations and scope orders             249

236........ Majority support determinations................................................... 249

237........ When FWA must make a majority support determination............ 249

238........ Scope orders................................................................................... 250

239........ Operation of a scope order............................................................. 252

Subdivision D—FWA may deal with a bargaining dispute on request          252

240........ Application for FWA to deal with a bargaining dispute................ 252

Division 9—Low‑paid bargaining                                                                       254

241........ Objects of this Division.................................................................. 254

242........ Low‑paid authorisations................................................................. 254

243........ When FWA must make a low‑paid authorisation.......................... 255

244........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—general............................... 257

245........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—enterprise agreement etc. comes into operation         257

246........ FWA assistance for the low‑paid................................................... 258

Division 10—Single interest employer authorisations                           259

Subdivision A—Declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement    259

247........ Ministerial declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement       259

Subdivision B—Single interest employer authorisations                               260

248........ Single interest employer authorisations.......................................... 260

249........ When FWA must make a single interest employer authorisation.. 260

250........ What a single interest employer authorisation must specify......... 261

251........ Variation of single interest employer authorisations...................... 262

252........ Variation to extend period single interest employer authorisation is in operation  263

Division 11—Other matters                                                                                  264

253........ Terms of an enterprise agreement that are of no effect.................. 264

254........ Applications by bargaining representatives................................... 264

255........ Part does not empower FWA to make certain orders.................... 265

256........ Prospective employers and employees.......................................... 265

256A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described        265

257........ Enterprise agreements may incorporate material in force from time to time etc.    266

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations                                                                      267

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        267

258........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 267

259........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 268

Division 2—Low‑paid workplace determinations                                      269

260........ Applications for low‑paid workplace determinations.................... 269

261........ When FWA must make a consent low‑paid workplace determination 270

262........ When FWA must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—general requirements                270

263........ When FWA must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—additional requirements            271

264........ Terms etc. of a low‑paid workplace determination........................ 272

265........ No other terms................................................................................ 273

Division 3—Industrial action related workplace determinations      274

266........ When FWA must make an industrial action related workplace determination        274

267........ Terms etc. of an industrial action related workplace determination 275

268........ No other terms................................................................................ 276

Division 4—Bargaining related workplace determinations                 277

269........ When FWA must make a bargaining related workplace determination 277

270........ Terms etc. of a bargaining related workplace determination........... 278

271........ No other terms................................................................................ 279

Division 5—Core terms, mandatory terms and agreed terms of workplace determinations etc.            280

272........ Core terms of workplace determinations........................................ 280

273........ Mandatory terms of workplace determinations............................. 281

274........ Agreed terms for workplace determinations................................... 282

275........ Factors FWA must take into account in deciding terms of a workplace determination          282

Division 6—Operation, coverage and interaction etc. of workplace determinations     284

276........ When a workplace determination operates etc............................... 284

277........ Employers, employees and employee organisations covered by a workplace determination 284

278........ Interaction of a workplace determination with enterprise agreements etc.              285

279........ Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement     286

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                    287

280........ Contravening a workplace determination....................................... 287

281........ Applications by bargaining representatives................................... 287

281A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described        287

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages                                                                                            289

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        289

282........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 289

283........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 290

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                291

284........ The minimum wages objective........................................................ 291

Division 3—Annual wage reviews                                                                     293

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                          293

285........ Annual wage reviews to be conducted............................................ 293

286........ When annual wage review determinations varying modern awards come into operation        293

287........ When national minimum wage orders come into operation etc...... 294

Subdivision B—Provisions about conduct of annual wage reviews                296

288........ General............................................................................................ 296

289........ Everyone to have a reasonable opportunity to make and comment on submissions              296

290........ President may direct investigations and reports............................. 297

291........ Research must be published........................................................... 297

292........ Varied wage rates must be published.............................................. 298

Division 4—National minimum wage orders                                                299

293........ Contravening a national minimum wage order................................ 299

294........ Content of national minimum wage order—main provisions......... 299

295........ Content of national minimum wage order—other matters............. 300

296........ Variation of national minimum wage order to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error            301

297........ When determinations varying national minimum wage orders come into operation                301

298........ Special rule about retrospective variations of national minimum wage orders        302

299........ When a national minimum wage order is in operation.................... 302

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration                                                                                     303

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        303

300........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 303

301........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 303

Division 2—Equal remuneration orders                                                         304

302........ FWA may make an order requiring equal remuneration................. 304

303........ Equal remuneration order may increase, but must not reduce, rates of remuneration             305

304........ Equal remuneration order may implement equal remuneration in stages 305

305........ Contravening an equal remuneration order..................................... 305

306........ Inconsistency with modern awards, enterprise agreements and orders of FWA     305

Part 2‑8—Transfer of business                                                                                   306

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        306

307........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 306

308........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 306

309........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 306

Division 2—Transfer of instruments                                                                308

310........ Application of this Division........................................................... 308

311........ When does a transfer of business occur.......................................... 308

312........ Instruments that may transfer........................................................ 310

313........ Transferring employees and new employer covered by transferable instrument    310

314........ New non‑transferring employees of new employer may be covered by transferable instrument           311

315........ Organisations covered by transferable instrument......................... 311

316........ Transferring employees who are high income employees.............. 312

Division 3—Powers of FWA                                                                                 314

317........ FWA may make orders in relation to a transfer of business.......... 314

318........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and transferring employees               314

319........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and non‑transferring employees       315

320........ Variation of transferable instruments............................................. 317

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment                                   320

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        320

321........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 320

322........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 320

Division 2—Payment of wages                                                                             321

323........ Method and frequency of payment................................................ 321

324........ Permitted deductions...................................................................... 321

325........ Unreasonable requirements to spend amount................................. 322

326........ Certain terms have no effect........................................................... 323

327........ Things given or provided, and amounts required to be spent, in contravention of this Division            323

Division 3—Guarantee of annual earnings                                                    325

328........ Employer obligations in relation to guarantee of annual earnings... 325

329........ High income employee................................................................... 326

330........ Guarantee of annual earnings and annual rate of guarantee............. 326

331........ Guaranteed period.......................................................................... 327

332........ Earnings.......................................................................................... 327

333........ High income threshold.................................................................... 329

333A..... Prospective employees................................................................... 329

Chapter 3—Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc.        330

Part 3‑1—General protections                                                                                     330

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        330

334........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 330

335........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 330

336........ Objects of this Part......................................................................... 331

Division 2—Application of this Part                                                                  332

337........ Application of this Part.................................................................. 332

338........ Action to which this Part applies................................................... 332

339........ Additional effect of this Part.......................................................... 333

Division 3—Workplace rights                                                                              334

340........ Protection....................................................................................... 334

341........ Meaning of workplace right........................................................... 334

342........ Meaning of adverse action............................................................. 336

343........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 339

344........ Undue influence or pressure........................................................... 339

345........ Misrepresentations......................................................................... 339

Division 4—Industrial activities                                                                         340

346........ Protection....................................................................................... 340

347........ Meaning of engages in industrial activity....................................... 340

348........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 341

349........ Misrepresentations......................................................................... 341

350........ Inducements—membership action................................................. 341

Division 5—Other protections                                                                            343

351........ Discrimination................................................................................ 343

352........ Temporary absence—illness or injury........................................... 344

353........ Bargaining services fees.................................................................. 344

354........ Coverage by particular instruments................................................ 344

355........ Coercion—allocation of duties etc. to particular person................ 345

356........ Objectionable terms........................................................................ 345

Division 6—Sham arrangements                                                                        346

357........ Misrepresenting employment as independent contracting arrangement  346

358........ Dismissing to engage as independent contractor............................ 346

359........ Misrepresentation to engage as independent contractor................ 346

Division 7—Ancillary rules                                                                                    348

360........ Multiple reasons for action............................................................ 348

361........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise.......... 348

362........ Advising, encouraging, inciting or coercing action.......................... 348

363........ Actions of industrial associations................................................... 348

364........ Unincorporated industrial associations.......................................... 350

Division 8—Compliance                                                                                          351

Subdivision A—Contraventions involving dismissal                                        351

365........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute................................. 351

366........ Time for application....................................................................... 351

367........ Application fees............................................................................. 351

368........ Conferences.................................................................................... 352

369........ Certificate if dispute not resolved.................................................. 352

370........ Advice on general protections court application............................ 352

371........ General protections court applications.......................................... 352

Subdivision B—Other contraventions                                                                 353

372........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute................................. 353

373........ Application fees............................................................................. 353

374........ Conferences.................................................................................... 353

375........ Advice on general protections court application............................ 354

Subdivision C—Conference costs                                                                        354

376........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................ 354

377........ Applications for costs orders......................................................... 355

378........ Contravening costs orders.............................................................. 355

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal                                                                                             356

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        356

379........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 356

380........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 356

381........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 356

Division 2—Protection from unfair dismissal                                              358

382........ When a person is protected from unfair dismissal......................... 358

383........ Meaning of minimum employment period...................................... 358

384........ Period of employment.................................................................... 358

Division 3—What is an unfair dismissal                                                          360

385........ What is an unfair dismissal............................................................. 360

386........ Meaning of dismissed..................................................................... 360

387........ Criteria for considering harshness etc............................................. 361

388........ The Small Business Fair Dismissal Code....................................... 361

389........ Meaning of genuine redundancy..................................................... 362

Division 4—Remedies for unfair dismissal                                                   363

390........ When FWA may order remedy for unfair dismissal....................... 363

391........ Remedy—reinstatement etc........................................................... 363

392........ Remedy—compensation................................................................ 365

393........ Monetary orders may be in instalments......................................... 366

Division 5—Procedural matters                                                                          367

394........ Application for unfair dismissal remedy........................................ 367

395........ Application fees............................................................................. 367

396........ Initial matters to be considered before merits................................. 368

397........ Matters involving contested facts.................................................. 368

398........ Conferences.................................................................................... 368

399........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 369

400........ Appeal rights.................................................................................. 369

401........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................ 369

402........ Applications for costs orders......................................................... 370

403........ Schedule of costs............................................................................ 370

404........ Security for costs............................................................................ 371

405........ Contravening orders under this Part............................................... 371

Part 3‑3—Industrial action                                                                                             372

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        372

406........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 372

407........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 373

Division 2—Protected industrial action                                                          374

Subdivision A—What is protected industrial action                                        374

408........ Protected industrial action.............................................................. 374

409........ Employee claim action.................................................................... 374

410........ Employee response action.............................................................. 375

411........ Employer response action.............................................................. 376

412........ Pattern bargaining........................................................................... 376

Subdivision B—Common requirements for industrial action to be protected industrial action       378

413........ Common requirements that apply for industrial action to be protected industrial action       378

414........ Notice requirements for industrial action....................................... 379

Subdivision C—Significance of industrial action being protected industrial action          380

415........ Immunity provision........................................................................ 380

416........ Employer response action—employer may refuse to make payments to employees            381

416A..... Employer response action does not affect continuity of employment 381

Division 3—No industrial action before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       382

417........ Industrial action must not be organised or engaged in before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.     382

Division 4—FWA orders stopping etc. industrial action                       384

418........ FWA must order that industrial action by employees or employers stop etc.       384

419........ FWA must order that industrial action by non‑national system employees or non‑national system employers stop etc......................................................................................................... 385

420........ Interim orders etc............................................................................ 385

421........ Contravening an order etc............................................................... 386

Division 5—Injunction against industrial action if pattern bargaining is being engaged in         388

422........ Injunction against industrial action if a bargaining representative is engaging in pattern bargaining        388

Division 6—Suspension or termination of protected industrial action by FWA                389

423........ FWA may suspend or terminate protected industrial action—significant economic harm etc.               389

424........ FWA must suspend or terminate protected industrial action—endangering life etc.              391

425........ FWA must suspend protected industrial action—cooling off........ 392

426........ FWA must suspend protected industrial action—significant harm to a third party               392

427........ FWA must specify the period of suspension................................ 394

428........ Extension of a period of suspension............................................... 394

429........ Employee claim action without a further protected action ballot after a period of suspension etc.       395

430........ Notice of employee claim action engaged in after a period of suspension etc.        396

Division 7—Ministerial declarations                                                                397

431........ Ministerial declaration terminating industrial action...................... 397

432........ Informing people of declaration...................................................... 397

433........ Ministerial directions to remove or reduce threat........................... 397

434........ Contravening a Ministerial direction.............................................. 398

Division 8—Protected action ballots                                                                399

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                                 399

435........ Guide to this Division.................................................................... 399

436........ Object of this Division................................................................... 399

Subdivision B—Protected action ballot orders                                                  400

437........ Application for a protected action ballot order.............................. 400

438........ Restriction on when application may be made............................... 401

439........ Joint applications........................................................................... 401

440........ Notice of application...................................................................... 401

441........ Application to be determined within 2 days after it is made......... 402

442........ Dealing with multiple applications together................................... 402

443........ When FWA must make a protected action ballot order................. 402

444........ FWA may decide on ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission and independent advisor        403

445........ Notice of protected action ballot order........................................... 404

446........ Protected action ballot order may require 2 or more protected action ballots to be held at the same time             404

447........ Variation of protected action ballot order....................................... 405

448........ Revocation of protected action ballot order................................... 405

Subdivision C—Conduct of protected action ballot                                           405

449........ Protected action ballot to be conducted by Australian Electoral Commission or other specified ballot agent        405

450........ Directions for conduct of protected action ballot........................... 406

451........ Timetable for protected action ballot............................................. 407

452........ Compilation of roll of voters.......................................................... 407

453........ Who is eligible to be included on the roll of voters......................... 408

454........ Variation of roll of voters............................................................... 408

455........ Protected action ballot papers........................................................ 410

456........ Who may vote in protected action ballot....................................... 410

457........ Results of protected action ballot................................................... 410

458........ Report about conduct of protected action ballot............................ 411

Subdivision D—Effect of protected action ballot                                                412

459........ Circumstances in which industrial action is authorised by protected action ballot 412

460........ Immunity for persons who act in good faith on protected action ballot results      413

461........ Validity of protected action ballot etc. not affected by technical breaches             414

Subdivision E—Compliance                                                                                   414

462........ Interferences etc. with protected action ballot............................... 414

463........ Contravening a protected action ballot order etc............................ 416

Subdivision F—Liability for costs of protected action ballot                           417

464........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission            417

465........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by protected action ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission.................................................................................... 417

466........ Costs of legal challenges................................................................. 418

Subdivision G—Miscellaneous                                                                             418

467........ Information about employees on roll of voters not to be disclosed 418

468........ Records........................................................................................... 419

469........ Regulations..................................................................................... 419

Division 9—Payments relating to periods of industrial action            420

Subdivision A—Protected industrial action                                                       420

470........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action                420

471........ Payments relating to partial work bans.......................................... 421

472........ Orders by FWA relating to certain partial work bans.................... 423

473........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action  424

Subdivision B—Industrial action that is not protected industrial action      424

474........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action                424

475........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action  425

Subdivision CMiscellaneous                                                                             426

476........ Other responses to industrial action unaffected............................. 426

Division 10—Other matters                                                                                  427

477........ Applications by bargaining representatives................................... 427

Part 3‑4—Right of entry                                                                                                  428

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        428

478........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 428

479........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 428

480........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 428

Division 2—Entry rights under this Act                                                         430

Subdivision A—Entry to investigate suspected contravention                        430

481........ Entry to investigate suspected contravention................................ 430

482........ Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................ 430

483........ Later access to record or document................................................ 432

483AA.. Application to FWA for access to non‑member records................ 433

Subdivision AA—Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF outworkers          433

483A..... Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF outworkers             433

483B..... Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................ 434

483C..... Later access to record or document................................................ 435

483D..... Entry onto other premises to access records and documents......... 436

483E...... Later access to record or document—other premises..................... 437

Subdivision B—Entry to hold discussions                                                          438

484........ Entry to hold discussions............................................................... 438

Subdivision C—Requirements for permit holders                                            438

486........ Permit holder must not contravene this Subdivision...................... 438

487........ Giving entry notice or exemption certificate.................................. 439

488........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................ 439

489........ Producing authority documents...................................................... 440

490........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 440

491........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................. 441

492........ Conduct of interviews in particular room etc................................. 441

493........ Residential premises....................................................................... 442

Division 3—State or Territory OHS rights                                                   443

494........ Official must be permit holder to exercise State or Territory OHS right 443

495........ Giving notice of entry..................................................................... 444

496........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................ 445

497........ Producing entry permit................................................................... 445

498........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 445

499........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................. 445

Division 4—Prohibitions                                                                                         446

500........ Permit holder must not hinder or obstruct..................................... 446

501........ Person must not refuse or delay entry........................................... 446

502........ Person must not hinder or obstruct permit holder......................... 446

503........ Misrepresentations about things authorised by this Part.............. 446

504........ Unauthorised use or disclosure of information or documents........ 447

Division 5—Powers of FWA                                                                                 449

Subdivision A—Dealing with disputes                                                                449

505........ FWA may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part.... 449

506........ Contravening order made to deal with dispute............................... 450

Subdivision B—Taking action against permit holder                                      450

507........ FWA may take action against permit holder.................................. 450

Subdivision C—Restricting rights of organisations and officials where misuse of rights              450

508........ FWA may restrict rights if organisation or official has misused rights 450

509........ Contravening order made for misuse of rights................................ 451

Subdivision D—When FWA must revoke or suspend entry permits            452

510........ When FWA must revoke or suspend entry permits...................... 452

Subdivision E—General rules for suspending entry permits                         453

511........ General rules for suspending entry permits................................... 453

Division 6—Entry permits, entry notices and certificates                    454

Subdivision A—Entry permits                                                                              454

512........ FWA may issue entry permits....................................................... 454

513........ Considering application.................................................................. 454

514........ When FWA must not issue permit................................................. 455

515........ Conditions on entry permit............................................................ 455

516........ Expiry of entry permit................................................................... 456

517........ Return of entry permits to FWA................................................... 456

Subdivision B—Entry notices                                                                               457

518........ Entry notice requirements.............................................................. 457

Subdivision C—Exemption certificates                                                               459

519........ Exemption certificates.................................................................... 459

Subdivision D—Affected member certificates                                                   459

520........ Affected member certificates.......................................................... 459

Subdivision E—Miscellaneous                                                                              460

521........ Regulations dealing with instruments under this Part.................... 460

Part 3‑5—Stand down                                                                                                       461

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        461

522........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 461

523........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 461

Division 2—Circumstances allowing stand down                                      462

524........ Employer may stand down employees in certain circumstances... 462

525........ Employee not stood down during a period of authorised leave or absence             462

Division 3—Dealing with disputes                                                                     464

526........ FWA may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part.... 464

527........ Contravening an FWA order dealing with a dispute about the operation of this Part             464

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities                                                          465

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        465

528........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 465

529........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 465

Division 2—Notification and consultation relating to certain dismissals              466

Subdivision A—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                           466

530........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed dismissals..... 466

Subdivision B—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations  467

531........ FWA may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about dismissals     467

532........ Orders that FWA may make.......................................................... 468

533........ Application for FWA order............................................................ 469

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                               469

534........ Limits on scope of this Division.................................................... 469

Division 3—Employer obligations in relation to employee records and pay slips           470

535........ Employer obligations in relation to employee records................... 470

536........ Employer obligations in relation to pay slips................................ 470

Chapter 4—Compliance and enforcement                                                            471

Part 4‑1—Civil remedies                                                                                                 471

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        471

537........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 471

538........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 471

Division 2—Orders                                                                                                    472

Subdivision A—Applications for orders                                                             472

539........ Applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions   472

540........ Limitations on who may apply for orders etc................................ 482

541........ Applications for orders in relation to safety net contractual entitlements              484

542........ Entitlements under contracts.......................................................... 484

543........ Applications for orders in relation to statutory entitlements derived from contracts             485

544........ Time limit on applications.............................................................. 485

Subdivision B—Orders                                                                                          485

545........ Orders that can be made by particular courts................................. 485

546........ Pecuniary penalty orders................................................................ 487

547........ Interest up to judgment.................................................................. 488

Division 3—Small claims procedure                                                                 489

548........ Plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure................................ 489

Division 4—General provisions relating to civil remedies                  491

549........ Contravening a civil remedy provision is not an offence................ 491

550........ Involvement in contravention treated in same way as actual contravention            491

551........ Civil evidence and procedure rules for proceedings relating to civil remedy provisions         491

552........ Civil proceedings after criminal proceedings.................................. 491

553........ Criminal proceedings during civil proceedings................................ 492

554........ Criminal proceedings after civil proceedings.................................. 492

555........ Evidence given in proceedings for pecuniary penalty not admissible in criminal proceedings                492

556........ Civil double jeopardy..................................................................... 493

557........ Course of conduct........................................................................... 493

558........ Regulations dealing with infringement notices................................ 494

Division 5—Unclaimed money                                                                             495

559........ Unclaimed money........................................................................... 495

Part 4‑2—Jurisdiction and powers of courts                                                        496

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        496

560........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 496

561........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 496

Division 2—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court                  497

562........ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Court.................................. 497

563........ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court 497

564........ No limitation on Federal Court’s powers....................................... 498

565........ Appeals from eligible State or Territory courts............................. 498

Division 3—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Magistrates Court               499

566........ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Magistrates Court.............. 499

567........ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Magistrates Court               499

568........ No limitation on Federal Magistrates Court’s powers................... 499

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                    500

569........ Minister’s entitlement to intervene................................................ 500

569A..... State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to intervene................... 500

570........ Costs only if proceedings instituted vexatiously etc...................... 501

571........ No imprisonment for failure to pay pecuniary penalty................. 501

572........ Regulations dealing with matters relating to court proceedings...... 501

Chapter 5—Administration                                                                                            502

Part 5‑1—Fair Work Australia                                                                                    502

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        502

573........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 502

574........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 503

Division 2—Establishment and functions of Fair Work Australia    504

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions of Fair Work Australia         504

575........ Establishment of Fair Work Australia............................................ 504

576........ Functions of FWA.......................................................................... 504

577........ Performance of functions etc. by FWA.......................................... 505

578........ Matters FWA must take into account in performing functions etc. 505

579........ FWA has privileges and immunities of the Crown......................... 506

580........ Protection of FWA Members......................................................... 506

Subdivision B—Functions and powers of the President                                   506

581........ Functions of the President.............................................................. 506

582........ Directions by the President............................................................ 506

583........ President not subject to direction................................................... 507

584........ Delegation of functions and powers of the President..................... 507

Division 3—Conduct of matters before FWA                                              509

Subdivision A—Applications to FWA                                                                  509

585........ Applications in accordance with procedural rules.......................... 509

586........ Correcting and amending applications and documents etc............. 509

587........ Dismissing applications.................................................................. 509

588........ Discontinuing applications............................................................. 510

Subdivision B—Conduct of matters before FWA                                              510

589........ Procedural and interim decisions.................................................... 510

590........ Powers of FWA to inform itself..................................................... 510

591........ FWA not bound by rules of evidence and procedure..................... 511

592........ Conferences.................................................................................... 511

593........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 511

594........ Confidential evidence...................................................................... 512

595........ FWA’s power to deal with disputes.............................................. 512

Subdivision C—Representation by lawyers and paid agents and Minister’s entitlement to make submissions           513

596........ Representation by lawyers and paid agents................................... 513

597........ Minister’s entitlement to make submissions.................................. 514

597A..... State or Territory Minister’s entitlement to make submissions.... 514

Subdivision D—Decisions of FWA                                                                      515

598........ Decisions of FWA.......................................................................... 515

599........ FWA not required to decide an application in terms applied for... 515

600........ Determining matters in the absence of a person............................. 515

601........ Writing and publication requirements for FWA’s decisions.......... 515

602........ Correcting obvious errors etc. in relation to FWA’s decisions....... 516

603........ Varying and revoking FWA’s decisions......................................... 517

Subdivision E—Appeals, reviews and referring questions of law                   518

604........ Appeal of decisions........................................................................ 518

605........ Minister’s entitlement to apply for review of a decision............... 518

606........ Staying decisions that are appealed or reviewed............................ 519

607........ Process for appealing or reviewing decisions................................. 519

608........ Referring questions of law to the Federal Court............................. 520

Subdivision F—Miscellaneous                                                                              520

609........ Procedural rules.............................................................................. 520

610........ Regulations dealing with FWA matters.......................................... 521

611........ Costs............................................................................................... 521

Division 4—Organisation of FWA                                                                     523

Subdivision A—Functions etc. to be performed by a single FWA Member, a Full Bench or the Minimum Wage Panel                                                                                                       523

612........ FWA functions etc. may generally be performed by single FWA Member            523

613........ Appeal of decisions to be heard by a Full Bench, the President or a Deputy President         523

614........ Review of decisions by a Full Bench.............................................. 524

615........ FWA functions etc. performed by a Full Bench on direction by the President      524

616........ FWA functions etc. that must be performed by a Full Bench....... 524

617........ FWA functions etc. that must be performed by the Minimum Wage Panel           525

Subdivision B—Constitution of FWA by a single FWA Member, a Full Bench or the Minimum Wage Panel             525

618........ Constitution and decision‑making of a Full Bench......................... 525

619........ Seniority of FWA Members........................................................... 526

620........ Constitution and decision‑making of the Minimum Wage Panel.... 526

621........ Reconstitution of FWA when single FWA Member becomes unavailable              527

622........ Reconstitution of FWA when FWA Member of a Full Bench or the Minimum Wage Panel becomes unavailable........................................................................................................ 527

623........ When new FWA Members begin to deal with matters.................. 528

624........ FWA’s decisions not invalid when improperly constituted.......... 528

Subdivision C—Delegation of FWA’s functions and powers                          528

625........ Delegation by the President of functions and powers of FWA..... 528

Division 5—FWA Members                                                                                 530

Subdivision A—Appointment of FWA Members                                               530

626........ Appointment of FWA Members................................................... 530

627........ Qualifications for appointment of FWA Members........................ 530

628........ Basis of appointment of FWA Members....................................... 532

629........ Period of appointment of FWA Members..................................... 532

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of FWA Members                               533

629A..... Status of the President.................................................................... 533

630........ Appointment of a Judge not to affect tenure etc............................ 533

631........ Dual federal and State appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners     533

632........ Dual federal and Territory appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners              534

633........ Outside employment of FWA Members....................................... 534

634........ Oath or affirmation of office........................................................... 534

635........ Remuneration of the President....................................................... 535

636........ Application of Judges’ Pensions Act to the President................... 535

637........ Remuneration of FWA Members other than the President............ 536

638........ Remuneration of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners performing duties on a part‑time basis           537

639........ Leave of absence of FWA Members other than the President....... 538

640........ Disclosure of interests by FWA Members other than the President 538

641........ Termination of appointment on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity                539

642........ Suspension on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity.................. 539

643........ Termination of appointment for bankruptcy, etc.......................... 540

644........ Termination of appointment for outside employment................... 540

645........ Resignation of FWA Members....................................................... 541

646........ Other terms and conditions of FWA Members.............................. 541

647........ Appointment of acting President................................................... 541

648........ Appointment of acting Deputy Presidents.................................... 542

Division 6—Cooperation with the States                                                       544

649........ President to cooperate with prescribed State industrial authorities 544

650........ Provision of administrative support............................................... 544

Division 7—Seals and additional powers and functions of the President and the General Manager     545

651........ Seals................................................................................................ 545

652........ Annual report................................................................................. 545

653........ Reports about making enterprise agreements, individual flexibility arrangements etc.            546

653A..... Arrangements with the Federal Court and the Federal Magistrates Court              547

654........ President must provide certain information etc. to the Minister and Fair Work Ombudsman               547

655........ Disclosure of information by FWA................................................ 548

Division 8—General Manager, staff and consultants                              549

Subdivision A—Functions of the General Manager                                         549

656........ Establishment................................................................................. 549

657........ Functions and powers of the General Manager.............................. 549

658........ Directions from the President......................................................... 549

659........ General Manager not otherwise subject to direction...................... 550

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the General Manager               550

660........ Appointment of the General Manager........................................... 550

661........ Remuneration of the General Manager........................................... 550

662........ Leave of absence of the General Manager...................................... 550

663........ Outside employment of the General Manager............................... 551

664........ Disclosure of interests to the President.......................................... 551

665........ Resignation of the General Manager............................................... 551

666........ Termination of appointment of the General Manager.................... 551

667........ Other terms and conditions of the General Manager...................... 552

668........ Appointment of acting General Manager....................................... 552

669........ Minister to consult the President................................................... 552

Subdivision C—Staff and consultants                                                                 553

670........ Staff................................................................................................ 553

671........ Delegation by General Manager to staff......................................... 553

672........ Persons assisting FWA................................................................... 553

673........ Consultants..................................................................................... 553

Division 9—Offences relating to Fair Work Australia                            554

674........ Offences in relation to FWA.......................................................... 554

675........ Contravening an FWA order........................................................... 556

676........ Intimidation etc............................................................................... 556

677........ Offences in relation to attending before FWA................................ 557

678........ False or misleading evidence........................................................... 558

Part 5‑2—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                                559

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        559

679........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 559

680........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 559

Division 2—Fair Work Ombudsman                                                                560

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions and powers of the Fair Work Ombudsman                560

681........ Establishment................................................................................. 560

682........ Functions of the Fair Work Ombudsman....................................... 560

683........ Delegation by the Fair Work Ombudsman..................................... 561

684........ Directions from the Minister.......................................................... 561

685........ Minister may require reports......................................................... 561

686........ Annual report................................................................................. 562

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman   562

687........ Appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman................................. 562

688........ Remuneration of the Fair Work Ombudsman................................. 562

689........ Leave of absence of the Fair Work Ombudsman............................ 563

690........ Outside employment of the Fair Work Ombudsman..................... 563

691........ Disclosure of interests to the Minister........................................... 563

692........ Resignation of the Fair Work Ombudsman.................................... 563

693........ Termination of appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman......... 563

694........ Other terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman........... 564

695........ Appointment of acting Fair Work Ombudsman............................. 564

Division 3—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                    566

Subdivision A—Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 566

696........ Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman........... 566

Subdivision B—Staff and consultants etc.                                                          566

697........ Staff................................................................................................ 566

698........ Persons assisting the Fair Work Ombudsman................................ 566

699........ Consultants..................................................................................... 567

Subdivision C—Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors                                   567

700........ Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors.......................................... 567

701........ Fair Work Ombudsman is a Fair Work Inspector.......................... 567

702........ Identity cards.................................................................................. 567

Subdivision D—Functions and powers of Fair Work Inspectors                   568

703........ Conditions and restrictions on functions and powers.................... 568

704........ General directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman......................... 569

705........ Particular directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman...................... 569

706........ Purpose for which powers of inspectors may be exercised........... 569

707........ When powers of inspectors may be exercised................................ 570

708........ Power of inspectors to enter premises........................................... 570

709........ Powers of inspectors while on premises........................................ 570

710........ Persons assisting inspectors........................................................... 571

711........ Power to ask for person’s name and address................................. 571

712........ Power to require persons to produce records or documents.......... 572

713........ Self‑incrimination [see Note 2]....................................................... 572

713A..... Certain records and documents are inadmissible............................ 573

714........ Power to keep records or documents............................................. 573

715........ Enforceable undertakings relating to contraventions of civil remedy provisions     574

716........ Compliance notices......................................................................... 575

717........ Review of compliance notices........................................................ 577

Subdivision E—Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman  577

718........ Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 577

Chapter 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                            579

Part 6‑1—Multiple actions                                                                                             579

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        579

719........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 579

720........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 579

Division 2—Certain actions not permitted if alternative action can be taken    580

721........ Equal remuneration applications.................................................... 580

722........ Notification and consultation requirements applications............... 580

723........ Unlawful termination applications................................................. 581

Division 3—Preventing multiple actions                                                        582

Subdivision A—Equal remuneration applications                                             582

724........ Equal remuneration applications.................................................... 582

Subdivision B—Applications and complaints relating to dismissal              583

725........ General rule..................................................................................... 583

726........ Dismissal remedy bargaining order applications............................ 583

727........ General protections FWA applications.......................................... 583

728........ General protections court applications.......................................... 584

729........ Unfair dismissal applications......................................................... 584

730........ Unlawful termination FWA applications....................................... 584

731........ Unlawful termination court applications........................................ 585

732........ Applications and complaints under other laws.............................. 585

733........ Dismissal does not include failure to provide benefits................... 586

Subdivision C—General protections applications that do not relate to dismissal               586

734........ General rule..................................................................................... 586

Part 6‑2—Dealing with disputes                                                                                 587

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        587

735........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 587

736........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 587

Division 2—Dealing with disputes                                                                     588

Subdivision A—Model term about dealing with disputes                                 588

737........ Model term about dealing with disputes........................................ 588

Subdivision B—Dealing with disputes                                                                588

738........ Application of this Division........................................................... 588

739........ Disputes dealt with by FWA......................................................... 588

740........ Dispute dealt with by persons other than FWA............................ 589

Part 6‑3—Extension of National Employment Standards entitlements 591

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        591

741........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 591

742........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 591

Division 2—Extension of entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements          592

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                          592

743........ Object of this Division................................................................... 592

744........ Extending the entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements          592

745........ Contravening the extended parental leave provisions..................... 593

746........ References to the National Employment Standards include extended parental leave provisions            594

747........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 594

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended parental leave provisions     594

748........ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees            594

749........ Modification of meaning of base rate of pay for pieceworkers...... 594

750........ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers........ 595

751........ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if determined by State industrial instrument      595

752........ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if not determined by State industrial instrument               595

753........ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours  595

754........ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................................ 596

755........ Modification of provision about interaction with paid leave......... 596

756........ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements             596

757........ Modification of power to make regulations................................... 596

Division 3—Extension of entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice      598

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                          598

758........ Object of this Division................................................................... 598

759........ Extending entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice           598

760........ Contravening the extended notice of termination provisions......... 599

761........ References to the National Employment Standards include extended notice of termination provisions 599

762........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 600

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended notice of termination provisions 600

763........ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees            600

764........ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers........ 600

765........ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................................ 600

766........ Modification of provision about notice of termination by employee 601

767........ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements             601

768........ Modification of power to make regulations................................... 601

Part 6‑4—Additional provisions relating to termination of employment 602

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        602

769........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 602

770........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 602

Division 2—Termination of employment                                                       603

771........ Object of this Division................................................................... 603

772........ Employment not to be terminated on certain grounds................... 603

773........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute................................. 605

774........ Time for application....................................................................... 605

775........ Application fees............................................................................. 605

776........ Conferences.................................................................................... 606

777........ Certificate if dispute not resolved.................................................. 606

778........ Advice on unlawful termination court application......................... 606

779........ Unlawful termination court applications........................................ 606

780........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................ 607

781........ Applications for costs orders......................................................... 608

782........ Contravening costs orders.............................................................. 608

783........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise.......... 608

Division 3—Notification and consultation requirements relating to certain terminations of employment                                                                                                                    609

Subdivision A—Object of this Division                                                               609

784........ Object of this Division................................................................... 609

Subdivision B—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                           609

785........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed terminations.. 609

Subdivision C—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations  610

786........ FWA may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about terminations  610

787........ Orders that FWA may make.......................................................... 611

788........ Application to FWA for order....................................................... 612

Subdivision D—Limits on scope of this Division                                               612

789........ Limits on scope of this Division.................................................... 612

Part 6‑5—Miscellaneous                                                                                                614

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        614

790........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 614

791........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 614

Division 2—Miscellaneous                                                                                    615

792........ Delegation by Minister................................................................... 615

793........ Liability of bodies corporate.......................................................... 615

794........ Signature on behalf of body corporate............................................ 616

795........ Public sector employer to act through employing authority.......... 616

796........ Regulations—general...................................................................... 618

796A..... Regulations conferring functions.................................................... 618

797........ Regulations dealing with offences................................................... 618

798........ Regulations dealing with civil penalties.......................................... 618

799........ Regulations dealing with infringement notices................................ 618

800........ Regulations dealing with exhibiting fair work instruments............. 619

Notes                                                                                                                                          621


An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes

Chapter 1Introduction

Part 1‑1Introduction

Division 1Preliminary

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Fair Work Act 2009.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provision(s)

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

7 April 2009

2.  Sections 3 to 40

A single day to be fixed by Proclamation.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

26 May 2009

(see F2009L01818)

3.  Sections 41 to 572

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 41–43, 50–54, 58,
169–281A,
300–327, 332, 333, 334–572: 1 July 2009
(see F2009L02563)

Sections 44–49, 55–57A,
59–168,
282–299,
328–331, 333A: 1 January 2010
(see F2009L02563)

4.  Sections 573 to 718

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

5.  Sections 719 to 800

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections
719–740,
769–800: 1 July 2009
(see F2009L02563)

Sections
741–768: 1 January 2010
(see F2009L02563)

6.  Schedule 1

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally passed by both Houses of the Parliament and assented to. It will not be expanded to deal with provisions inserted in this Act after assent.

             (2)  Column 3 of the table contains additional information that is not part of this Act. Information in this column may be added to or edited in any published version of this Act.


 

Division 2Object of this Act

3  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to provide a balanced framework for cooperative and productive workplace relations that promotes national economic prosperity and social inclusion for all Australians by:

                     (a)  providing workplace relations laws that are fair to working Australians, are flexible for businesses, promote productivity and economic growth for Australia’s future economic prosperity and take into account Australia’s international labour obligations; and

                     (b)  ensuring a guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum terms and conditions through the National Employment Standards, modern awards and national minimum wage orders; and

                     (c)  ensuring that the guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum wages and conditions can no longer be undermined by the making of statutory individual employment agreements of any kind given that such agreements can never be part of a fair workplace relations system; and

                     (d)  assisting employees to balance their work and family responsibilities by providing for flexible working arrangements; and

                     (e)  enabling fairness and representation at work and the prevention of discrimination by recognising the right to freedom of association and the right to be represented, protecting against unfair treatment and discrimination, providing accessible and effective procedures to resolve grievances and disputes and providing effective compliance mechanisms; and

                      (f)  achieving productivity and fairness through an emphasis on enterprise‑level collective bargaining underpinned by simple good faith bargaining obligations and clear rules governing industrial action; and

                     (g)  acknowledging the special circumstances of small and medium‑sized businesses.


 

Division 3Guide to this Act

4  Guide to this Act

Overview of this Act

             (1)  This Act is about workplace relations. It:

                     (a)  provides for terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2); and

                     (b)  sets out rights and responsibilities of employees, employers and organisations in relation to that employment (Chapter 3); and

                     (c)  provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act (Chapter 4); and

                     (d)  provides for the administration of this Act by establishing Fair Work Australia and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman (Chapter 5); and

                     (e)  deals with other matters relating to the above (Chapter 6).

Overview of the rest of this Chapter

             (2)  The rest of this Chapter deals with:

                     (a)  definitions that are used in this Act (Part 1‑2); and

                     (b)  the application of this Act (Part 1‑3), including how this Act interacts with certain State and Territory laws and its geographical application.

Definitions

             (3)  Many of the terms in this Act are defined. The Dictionary in section 12 contains a list of every term that is defined in this Act.

5  Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)

             (1)  Chapter 2 provides for terms and conditions of employment of national system employees.

             (2)  Part 2‑1 has the core provisions for the Chapter. It deals with compliance with, and interaction between, the sources of the main terms and conditions provided under this Act—the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

Note:          Workplace determinations are another source of main terms and conditions. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279).

Main terms and conditions

             (3)  Part 2‑2 contains the National Employment Standards, which are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

             (4)  Part 2‑3 is about modern awards. A modern award is made for a particular industry or occupation and provides additional minimum terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A modern award can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (5)  Part 2‑4 is about enterprise agreements. An enterprise agreement is made at the enterprise level and provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. An enterprise agreement can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (6)  Part 2‑5 is about workplace determinations. A workplace determination provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A workplace determination is made by FWA if certain conditions are met.

             (7)  Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements, workplace determinations and other instruments if there is a transfer of business from one national system employer to another national system employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (8)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment for national system employees include those:

                     (a)  provided by a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6) or an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  provided by Part 2‑9 (which deals with the frequency and method of making payments to employees, deductions from payments and high‑income employees).

6  Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)

             (1)  Chapter 3 sets out rights and responsibilities of national system employees, national system employers, organisations and others (such as independent contractors and industrial associations).

             (2)  Part 3‑1 provides general workplace protections. It:

                     (a)  protects workplace rights; and

                     (b)  protects freedom of association and involvement in lawful industrial activities; and

                     (c)  provides other protections, including protection from discrimination.

             (3)  Part 3‑2 deals with unfair dismissal of national system employees, and the granting of remedies when that happens.

             (4)  Part 3‑3 deals mainly with industrial action by national system employees and national system employers and sets out when industrial action is protected industrial action. No action lies under any law in force in a State or Territory in relation to protected industrial action except in certain circumstances.

             (5)  Part 3‑4 is about the rights of officials of organisations who hold entry permits to enter premises for purposes related to their representative role under this Act and under State or Territory OHS laws. In exercising those rights, permit holders must comply with the requirements set out in the Part.

             (6)  Part 3‑5 allows a national system employer to stand down a national system employee without pay in certain circumstances.

             (7)  Part 3‑6 deals with other rights and responsibilities of national system employers in relation to:

                     (a)  termination of employment; and

                     (b)  keeping records and giving payslips.

7  Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)

             (1)  Chapter 4 provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act.

             (2)  Part 4‑1 is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions. Part 4‑1:

                     (a)  deals with applications for orders for contraventions of civil remedy provisions; and

                     (b)  sets out the orders the courts can make in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

             (3)  Part 4‑2 is about the jurisdiction and powers of the courts in relation to matters arising under this Act.

8  Administration (Chapter 5)

             (1)  Chapter 5 provides for the administration of this Act by establishing Fair Work Australia and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman.

             (2)  Part 5‑1 is about FWA. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on FWA; and

                     (b)  sets out how matters before FWA are to be conducted (for example, how FWA is to deal with applications made to it).

             (3)  Part 5‑2 is about the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the Fair Work Ombudsman; and

                     (b)  confers functions and powers on Fair Work Inspectors.

9  Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)

             (1)  Chapter 6 is a collection of miscellaneous matters that relate to the other Chapters.

             (2)  Part 6‑1 provides rules relating to applications for remedies under this Act. It prevents certain applications if other remedies are available and prevents multiple applications or complaints in relation to the same conduct.

             (3)  Part 6‑2 is about dealing with disputes between national system employees and their employers under modern awards, enterprise agreements and contracts of employment.

             (4)  Part 6‑3 extends the National Employment Standards relating to unpaid parental leave and notice of termination to non‑national system employees.

             (5)  Part 6‑4 contains provisions to give effect, or further effect, to certain international agreements relating to termination of employment.

             (6)  Part 6‑5 deals with miscellaneous matters such as delegations and regulations.


 

Part 1‑2Definitions

Division 1Introduction

10  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the terms that are defined in this Act.

Division 2 has the Dictionary (see section 12). The Dictionary is a list of every term that is defined in this Act. A term will either be defined in the Dictionary itself, or in another provision of this Act. If another provision defines the term, the Dictionary will have a signpost to that definition.

Division 3 has definitions relating to the meanings of employee and employer.

Division 4 has some other definitions that apply across this Act.

11  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.


 

Division 2The Dictionary

12  The Dictionary

                   In this Act:

4 yearly review of modern awards: see subsection 156(1).

access period for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 180(4).

action includes an omission.

adoption‑related leave: see subsection 67(5).

adverse action: see section 342.

affected employees for a variation of an enterprise agreement: see subsection 207(2).

affected employer:

                     (a)  in relation to an entry under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part 3‑4: see subsection 482(2); and

                    (aa)  in relation to an entry under section 483A other than a designated outworker terms entry: see paragraph 483B(3)(a); and

                    (ab)  in relation to a designated outworker terms entry under section 483A: see paragraph 483B(3)(b); and

                     (b)  in relation to an entry in accordance with Division 3 of Part 3‑4: see paragraph 495(2)(a); and

                     (c)  in relation to a State or Territory OHS right to inspect or otherwise access an employee record: see paragraph 495(2)(b).

affected member certificate: see subsection 520(1).

agreed terms for a workplace determination: see section 274.

agreed to in relation to a termination of an enterprise agreement: see section 221.

annual rate of an employee’s guaranteed annual earnings: see subsection 330(3).

annual wage review: see subsection 285(1).

anti‑discrimination law: see subsection 351(3).

applicable agreement‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(5).

applicable award‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(3).

application or complaint under another law: see subsection 732(2).

applies:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 47; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 52.

applies to employment generally: see subsection 26(4).

appointment of a bargaining representative means an appointment of a bargaining representative under paragraph 176(1)(c) or (d).

appropriate safe job: see subsection 81(4).

approved by FWA, in relation to an enterprise agreement, means approved by FWA under section 186 or 189.

associated entity has the meaning given by section 50AAA of the Corporations Act 2001.

Australian‑based employee: see subsections 35(2) and (3).

Australian employer: see subsection 35(1).

Australian ship means a ship that has Australian nationality under section 29 of the Shipping Registration Act 1981.

authority documents: see subsection 489(3).

available parental leave period: see subsection 75(2).

award/agreement free employee means a national system employee to whom neither a modern award nor an enterprise agreement applies.

award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(4).

award modernisation process means:

                     (a)  the process of making modern awards under Part 10A of the Workplace Relations Act 1996, as continued by Part 2 of Schedule 5 of the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009; and

                     (b)  the enterprise instrument modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6 of the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009; and

                     (c)  the State reference public sector transitional award modernisation process provided for by Part 2 of Schedule 6A of the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009.

bargaining order: see subsection 229(1).

bargaining related workplace determination: see subsection 269(1).

bargaining representative for a proposed enterprise agreement: see section 176.

bargaining services: see subsection 353(3).

bargaining services fee: see subsection 353(2).

base rate of pay: see section 16.

birth‑related leave: see subsection 67(4).

child of a person: see subsection 17(1).

civil remedy provision: see subsections 539(1) and (3).

Commissioner means a Commissioner of FWA.

common requirements in relation to industrial action: see section 413.

Commonwealth authority means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a public purpose by or under a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a body corporate:

                              (i)  incorporated under a law of the Commonwealth or a State or a Territory; and

                             (ii)  in which the Commonwealth has a controlling interest.

Commonwealth place means a place referred to in paragraph 52(i) of the Constitution, other than the seat of government.

compassionate leave means compassionate leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 104.

compliance powers: see section 703.

compliance purposes: see subsection 706(1).

conduct includes an omission.

conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(5).

connected with a Territory: an arrangement for work to be performed for a person (either directly or indirectly) is connected with a Territory if one or more of the following apply:

                     (a)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a Territory in Australia;

                     (b)  the work is to be performed in such a Territory;

                     (c)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that Territory;

                     (d)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

Note:          In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

consent low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(2).

consistent with the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code: see subsection 388(2).

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

constitutionally‑covered entity: see subsection 338(2).

constitutional trade or commerce means trade or commerce:

                     (a)  between Australia and a place outside Australia; or

                     (b)  among the States; or

                     (c)  between a State and a Territory; or

                     (d)  between 2 Territories; or

                     (e)  within a Territory.

continental shelf means the continental shelf (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

continuous service has a meaning affected by section 22.

coverage terms:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award (other than a modern enterprise award): see section 143; and

                     (b)  in relation to a modern enterprise award: see section 143A; and

                     (c)  in relation to a State reference public sector modern award: see section 143B.

covers:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 48; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 53; and

                     (c)  in relation to a workplace determination: see section 277.

day of placement: see subsection 67(6).

de facto partner of a national system employee:

                     (a)  means a person who, although not legally married to the employee, lives with the employee in a relationship as a couple on a genuine domestic basis (whether the employee and the person are of the same sex or different sexes); and

                     (b)  includes a former de facto partner of the employee.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of FWA.

designated outworker term of a modern award, enterprise agreement, workplace determination or other instrument, means any of the following terms, so far as the term relates to outworkers in the textile, clothing or footwear industry:

                     (a)  a term that deals with the registration of an employer or outworker entity;

                     (b)  a term that deals with the making and retaining of, or access to, records about work to which outworker terms of a modern award apply;

                     (c)  a term imposing conditions under which an arrangement may be entered into by an employer or an outworker entity for the performance of work, where the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (d)  a term relating to the liability of an employer or outworker entity for work undertaken by an outworker under such an arrangement, including a term which provides for the outworker to make a claim against an employer or outworker entity;

                     (e)  a term that requires minimum pay or other conditions, including the National Employment Standards, to be applied to an outworker who is not an employee;

                      (f)  any other terms prescribed by the regulations.

designated outworker terms entry: see subsection 483A(5).

Disability Discrimination Commissioner means the Disability Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992.

discriminatory term of an enterprise agreement: see section 195.

dismissal remedy bargaining order application: see subsection 726(2).

dismissed: see section 386.

earnings: see subsections 332(1) and (2).

eligible community service activity: see section 109.

eligible State or Territory court means one of the following courts:

                     (a)  a District, County or Local Court;

                     (b)  a magistrates court;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Court of South Australia;

                    (ca)  the Industrial Court of New South Wales;

                     (d)  any other State or Territory court that is prescribed by the regulations.

employee is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employee either as a national system employee or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsections 15(1), 30E(1) and 30P(1).

employee claim action: see section 409 and paragraph 471(4A)(c).

employee couple: 2 national system employees are an employee couple if each of the employees is the spouse or de facto partner of the other.

employee organisation means an organisation of employees.

employee record, in relation to an employee, has the meaning given by the Privacy Act 1988.

employee response action: see section 410 and paragraph 471(4A)(d).

employee with a disability means a national system employee who is qualified for a disability support pension as set out in section 94 or 95 of the Social Security Act 1991, or who would be so qualified but for paragraph 94(1)(e) or 95(1)(c) of that Act.

employer is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employer either as a national system employer or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsections 15(2), 30E(2) and 30P(2).

employer organisation means an organisation of employers.

employer response action: see section 411.

employing authority: see subsection 795(6).

engages in industrial activity: see section 347.

enterprise means a business, activity, project or undertaking.

enterprise agreement means:

                     (a)  a single‑enterprise agreement; or

                     (b)  a multi‑enterprise agreement.

entry notice: see subsection 487(2).

entry permit: see section 512.

equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value: see subsection 302(2).

equal remuneration order: see subsection 302(1).

exclusive economic zone means the exclusive economic zone (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

exemption certificate: see subsection 519(1).

extended notice of termination provisions: see subsection 759(3).

extended parental leave provisions: see subsection 744(3).

Fair Work Australia or FWA means the body established by section 575.

Fair Work Information Statement: see subsection 124(1).

Fair Work Inspector means:

                     (a)  a person appointed as a Fair Work Inspector under section 700; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work Ombudsman in his or her capacity as a Fair Work Inspector under section 701.

fair work instrument means:

                     (a)  a modern award; or

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement; or

                     (c)  a workplace determination; or

                     (d)  an FWA order.

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

first employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

fixed platform means an artificial island, installation or structure permanently attached to the sea‑bed for the purpose of exploration for, or exploitation of, resources or for other economic purposes.

flexibility term:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see subsection 202(1).

flight crew officer means a person who performs (whether with or without other duties) duties as a pilot, navigator or flight engineer of aircraft, and includes a person being trained for the performance of such duties.

franchise has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

Full Bench means a Full Bench of FWA constituted under section 618.

full rate of pay: see section 18.

FWA: see Fair Work Australia.

FWA Member means the President, a Deputy President, a Commissioner or a Minimum Wage Panel Member.

General Manager means the General Manager of FWA.

general protections court application: see subsection 370(2).

general protections FWA application: see subsection 727(2).

general State industrial law: see subsection 26(3).

genuinely agreed in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 188.

genuine redundancy: see section 389.

good faith bargaining requirements: see section 228.

greenfields agreement: see subsection 172(4).

guaranteed period for a guarantee of annual earnings: see section 331.

guarantee of annual earnings: see subsection 330(1).

high income employee: see section 329.

high income threshold: see section 333.

ILO means the International Labour Organization.

immediate family of a national system employee means:

                     (a)  a spouse, de facto partner, child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of the employee; or

                     (b)  a child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of a spouse or de facto partner of the employee.

independent advisor for a protected action ballot means the person (if any) specified in the protected action ballot order as the independent advisor for the ballot.

independent contractor is not confined to an individual.

individual flexibility arrangement:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see paragraph 202(1)(a).

industrial action: see section 19.

industrial action related workplace determination: see subsection 266(1).

industrial association means:

                     (a)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, or an association of employers, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a workplace law; or

                     (b)  an association of employees, or independent contractors, or both (whether formed formally or informally), a purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning their employment, or their interests as independent contractors (as the case may be); or

                     (c)  an association of employers a principal purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning employment and/or independent contractors;

and includes:

                     (d)  a branch of such an association; and

                     (e)  an organisation; and

                      (f)  a branch of an organisation.

industrial body means:

                     (a)  FWA; or

                     (b)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under an industrial law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on FWA by this Act; or

                     (c)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under a workplace law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on FWA by the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

industrial law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009; or

                     (c)  a law of the Commonwealth, however designated, that regulates the relationships between employers and employees; or

                     (d)  a State or Territory industrial law.

industry‑specific redundancy scheme means redundancy or termination payment arrangements in a modern award that are described in the award as an industry‑specific redundancy scheme.

inspector means a Fair Work Inspector.

involved in: see section 550.

irregularity, in relation to the conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(6).

junior employee means a national system employee who is under 21.

jury service pay: see subsection 111(6).

jury service summons: see subsection 111(7).

lawyer means a person who is admitted to the legal profession by a Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

lock out: see subsection 19(3).

long term casual employee: a national system employee of a national system employer is a long term casual employee at a particular time if, at that time:

                     (a)  the employee is a casual employee; and

                     (b)  the employee has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis for a sequence of periods of employment during a period of at least 12 months.

low‑paid authorisation: see subsection 242(1).

low‑paid workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a consent low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  a special low‑paid workplace determination.

made:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 182; and

                     (b)  in relation to a variation of an enterprise agreement: see section 209.

magistrates court means:

                     (a)  a court constituted by a police, stipendiary or special magistrate; or

                     (b)  a court constituted by an industrial magistrate.

majority support determination: see subsection 236(1).

maritime employee means a person who is, or whose occupation is that of, a master as defined in section 6 of the Navigation Act 1912, a seaman as so defined or a pilot as so defined.

medical certificate means a certificate signed by a medical practitioner.

medical practitioner means a person registered, or licensed, as a medical practitioner under a law of a State or Territory that provides for the registration or licensing of medical practitioners.

membership action: see subsection 350(3).

minimum employment period: see section 383.

Minimum Wage Panel means the Minimum Wage Panel of FWA constituted under section 620.

Minimum Wage Panel Member means a Minimum Wage Panel Member of FWA.

minimum wages objective: see subsection 284(1).

miscellaneous modern award: see subsection 163(4).

model consultation term: see subsection 205(3).

model flexibility term: see subsection 202(5).

modern award means a modern award made under Part 2‑3.

modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(3).

modern award powers: see subsection 134(2).

modern awards objective: see subsection 134(1).

modern enterprise award: see subsection 168A(2).

modern enterprise awards objective: see subsection 168B(1).

modifications includes additions, omissions and substitutions.

multi‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(3).

named employer award: see subsection 312(2).

National Employment Standards: see subsection 61(3).

national minimum wage order means a national minimum wage order made in an annual wage review.

national system employee: see section 13.

Note:          Sections 30C and 30M extend the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

national system employer: see section 14.

Note:          Sections 30D and 30N extend the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

new employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

nominal expiry date:

                     (a)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 186, means the date specified in the agreement as its nominal expiry date; or

                     (b)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 189 (which deals with agreements that do not pass the better off overall test): see subsection 189(4); or

                     (c)  of a workplace determination, means the date specified in the determination as its nominal expiry date.

non‑excluded matters: see subsection 27(2).

non‑member record or document: see subsection 482(2A).

non‑monetary benefits: see subsection 332(3).

non‑national system employee means an employee who is not a national system employee.

non‑national system employer means an employer that is not a national system employer.

non‑transferring employee of a new employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 314(2).

notification time for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 173(2).

objectionable term means a term that:

                     (a)  requires, has the effect of requiring, or purports to require or have the effect of requiring; or

                     (b)  permits, has the effect of permitting, or purports to permit or have the effect of permitting;

either of the following:

                     (c)  a contravention of Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections);

                     (d)  the payment of a bargaining services fee.

occupier, of premises, includes a person in charge of the premises.

office, in an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an office of president, vice president, secretary or assistant secretary of the association; or

                     (b)  the office of a voting member of a collective body of the association, being a collective body that has power in relation to any of the following functions:

                              (i)  the management of the affairs of the association;

                             (ii)  the determination of policy for the association;

                            (iii)  the making, alteration or rescission of rules of the association;

                            (iv)  the enforcement of rules of the association, or the performance of functions in relation to the enforcement of such rules; or

                     (c)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(i) and (iv), other than an office the holder of which participates only in accordance with directions given by a collective body or another person for the purpose of implementing:

                              (i)  existing policy of the association; or

                             (ii)  decisions concerning the association; or

                     (d)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(ii) and (iii); or

                     (e)  the office of a person holding (whether as trustee or otherwise) property:

                              (i)  of the association; or

                             (ii)  in which the association has a beneficial interest.

Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman means the body established by section 696.

officer, of an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an official of the association; or

                     (b)  a delegate or other representative of the association.

official, of an industrial association, means a person who holds an office in, or is an employee of, the association.

old employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee: see section 20.

organisation means an organisation registered under the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

outworker means:

                     (a)  an employee who, for the purpose of the business of his or her employer, performs work at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises; or

                     (b)  an individual who, for the purpose of a contract for the provision of services, performs work:

                              (i)  in the textile, clothing or footwear industry; and

                             (ii)  at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises.

outworker entity means any of the following entities, other than in the entity’s capacity as a national system employer:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation;

                     (b)  the Commonwealth;

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority;

                     (d)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory;

                     (e)  a person so far as:

                              (i)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                             (ii)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                            (iii)  the arrangement is connected with a Territory.

Note:          Sections 30F and 30Q extend the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

outworker terms: see subsection 140(3).

paid agent, in relation to a matter before FWA, means an agent (other than a bargaining representative) who charges or receives a fee to represent a person in the matter.

paid annual leave means paid annual leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 87.

paid no safe job leave means paid no safe job leave to which a national system employee is entitled under paragraph 81(3)(b).

paid personal/carer’s leave means paid personal/carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 96.

partial work ban: see subsection 470(3).

part of a single enterprise: see subsection 168A(6).

passes the better off overall test:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement that is not a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(3).

pattern bargaining: see section 412.

peak council means a national or State council or federation that is effectively representative of a significant number of organisations (within the ordinary meaning of the term) representing employers or employees in a range of industries.

pecuniary penalty order means an order under subsection 546(1).

penalty unit has the meaning given by section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

period of employment: see section 384.

permissible occasion: see sections 102 and 104.

permit holder means a person who holds an entry permit.

permit qualification matters: see subsection 513(1).

permitted matters in relation to an enterprise agreement: see subsection 172(1).

pieceworker: see section 21.

pilot, in relation to an aircraft, includes a pilot in command, co‑pilot or pilot of any other description.

post‑declaration negotiating period: see subsection 269(2).

post‑industrial action negotiating period: see subsection 266(3).

premises includes:

                     (a)  any land, building, structure, mine, mine working, aircraft ship, vessel, vehicle or place; and

                     (b)  a part of premises (including premises referred to in paragraph (a)).

pre‑parental leave position: see subsection 83(2).

prescribed State industrial authority means a State board, court, tribunal, body or official prescribed by the regulations.

President means the President of FWA.

procedural rules means the procedural rules of FWA made under section 609.

process or proceedings under a workplace law or workplace instrument: see subsection 341(2).

prospective award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(5).

protected action ballot means a ballot conducted under Division 8 of Part 3‑3.

protected action ballot agent for a protected action ballot means the person that conducts the protected action ballot.

protected action ballot order: see subsection 437(1).

protected from unfair dismissal: see section 382.

protected industrial action: see section 408.

public holiday: see section 115.

public sector employment: see subsections 795(4) and (5).

public sector employment law: see subsection 40(3).

recognised emergency management body: see subsection 109(3).

registered employee association means:

                     (a)  an employee organisation; or

                     (b)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a State or Territory industrial law.

reinstatement includes appointment by an associated entity in the circumstances provided for in an order to which subsection 391(1A) applies.

related body corporate has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

relevant employee organisation, in relation to a greenfields agreement, means an employee organisation that is entitled to represent the industrial interests of one or more of the employees who will be covered by the agreement, in relation to work to be performed under the agreement.

safety net contractual entitlement means an entitlement under a contract between an employee and an employer that relates to any of the subject matters described in:

                     (a)  subsection 61(2) (which deals with the National Employment Standards); or

                     (b)  subsection 139(1) (which deals with modern awards).

school age, for a child, means the age at which the child is required by a law of the State or Territory in which the child lives to start attending school.

school‑based apprentice means a national system employee who is an apprentice to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based trainee means a national system employee (other than a school‑based apprentice) to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based training arrangement means a training arrangement undertaken as part of a course of secondary education.

scope order: see subsection 238(1).

second employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

serious breach declaration: see section 234.

serious misconduct has the meaning prescribed by the regulations.

service: see section 22.

setting modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

Sex Discrimination Commissioner means the Sex Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Sex Discrimination Act 1984.

ship includes a barge, lighter, hulk or other vessel.

single enterprise: see section 168A.

single‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(2).

single interest employer authorisation: see subsection 248(1).

small business employer: see section 23.

Small Business Fair Dismissal Code means the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code declared under subsection 388(1).

special low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(4).

spouse includes a former spouse.

State industrial instrument means an award, an agreement (whether individual or collective), or another industrial instrument or order, that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a law of a State that is a State or Territory industrial law; and

                     (b)  determines terms and conditions of employment.

state of mind: see subsection 793(3).

State or Territory industrial law: see subsection 26(2).

State or Territory OHS law: see subsection 494(3).

State or Territory OHS right: see subsection 494(2).

State reference public sector employee: see subsection 168E(3).

State reference public sector employer: see subsection 168E(4).

State reference public sector modern award: see subsection 168E(2).

State reference public sector modern awards objective: see section 168F.

step‑child: without limiting who is a step‑child of a person, someone who is a child of the person’s de facto partner is a step‑child of a person, if he or she would be the person’s step‑child except that the person is not legally married to the de facto partner.

TCF award means an instrument prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

TCF outworker means an outworker in the textile, clothing or footwear industry whose work is covered by a TCF award.

termination of industrial action instrument: see subsection 266(2).

territorial sea, in relation to Australia, has the meaning given by Division 1 of Part II of the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973.

Territory employer: see subsection 338(4).

test time: see subsection 193(6).

this Act includes the regulations.

trade and commerce employer: see subsection 338(3).

training arrangement means a combination of work and training that is subject to a training agreement, or a training contract, that takes effect under a law of a State or Territory relating to the training of employees.

transferable instrument: see subsection 312(1).

transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

transfer of employment between associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(a).

transfer of employment between non‑associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(b).

transferring employee, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(2).

transferring work, in relation to a transfer of business: see paragraph 311(1)(c).

unfair dismissal application: see subsection 729(2).

unfairly dismissed: see section 385.

unlawful term of an enterprise agreement: see section 194.

unlawful termination court application: see subsection 778(2).

unlawful termination FWA application: see subsection 730(2).

unpaid carer’s leave means unpaid carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 102.

unpaid parental leave means unpaid parental leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 70.

unpaid pre‑adoption leave means unpaid pre‑adoption leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 85.

unpaid special maternity leave means unpaid special maternity leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 80.

varying modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

vocational placement means a placement that is:

                     (a)  undertaken with an employer for which a person is not entitled to be paid any remuneration; and

                     (b)  undertaken as a requirement of an education or training course; and

                     (c)  authorised under a law or an administrative arrangement of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

voluntary emergency management activity: see subsection 109(2).

waters above the continental shelf means any part of the area in, on or over the continental shelf.

waterside worker has the meaning given by clause 1 of Schedule 2 to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 as in force immediately before the commencement of this section.

working day means a day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday or a public holiday.

workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  an industrial action related workplace determination; or

                     (c)  a bargaining related workplace determination.

workplace instrument means an instrument that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a workplace law; and

                     (b)  concerns the relationships between employers and employees.

workplace law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009; or

                     (c)  the Independent Contractors Act 2006; or

                     (d)  any other law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory that regulates the relationships between employers and employees (including by dealing with occupational health and safety matters).

workplace right: see subsection 341(1).

work value reasons: see subsection 156(4).


 

Division 3Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.

13  Meaning of national system employee

                   A national system employee is an individual so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in the definition of national system employer in section 14, by a national system employer, except on a vocational placement.

Note:          Sections 30C and 30M extend the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

14  Meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer is:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (b)  the Commonwealth, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (d)  a person so far as the person, in connection with constitutional trade or commerce, employs, or usually employs, an individual as:

                              (i)  a flight crew officer; or

                             (ii)  a maritime employee; or

                            (iii)  a waterside worker; or

                     (e)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory, so far as the body employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                      (f)  a person who carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a Territory in Australia, so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual in connection with the activity carried on in the Territory.

Note 1:       In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

Note 2:       Sections 30D and 30N extend the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

Particular employers declared not to be national system employers

             (2)  Despite subsection (1) and sections 30D and 30N, a particular employer is not a national system employer if:

                     (a)  that employer:

                              (i)  is a body established for a public purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory, by the Governor of a State, by the Administrator of a Territory or by a Minister of a State or Territory; or

                             (ii)  is a body established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory; or

                            (iii)  is a wholly‑owned subsidiary (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) of, or is wholly controlled by, an employer to which subparagraph (ii) applies; and

                     (b)  that employer is specifically declared, by or under a law of the State or Territory, not to be a national system employer for the purposes of this Act; and

                     (c)  an endorsement by the Minister under paragraph (4)(a) is in force in relation to the employer.

             (3)  Paragraph (2)(b) does not apply to an employer that is covered by a declaration by or under such a law only because it is included in a specified class or kind of employer.

Endorsement of declarations

             (4)  The Minister may, in writing:

                     (a)  endorse, in relation to an employer, a declaration referred to in paragraph (2)(b); or

                     (b)  revoke or amend such an endorsement.

             (5)  An endorsement, revocation or amendment under subsection (4) is a legislative instrument, but neither section 42 (disallowance) nor Part 6 (sunsetting) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 applies to the endorsement, revocation or amendment.

Employers that cannot be declared

             (6)  Subsection (2) does not apply to an employer that:

                     (a)  generates, supplies or distributes electricity; or

                     (b)  supplies or distributes gas; or

                     (c)  provides services for the supply, distribution or release of water; or

                     (d)  operates a rail service or a port;

unless the employer is a body established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State or Territory, or is a wholly‑owned subsidiary (within the meaning of the Corporations Act 2001) of, or is wholly controlled by, such a body.

             (7)  Subsection (2) does not apply to an employer if the employer is an Australian university (within the meaning of the Higher Education Support Act 2003) that is established by or under a law of a State or Territory.

14A  Transitional matters relating to employers etc. becoming, or ceasing to be, national system employers etc.

             (1)  The regulations may make provisions of a transitional, application or saving nature in relation to any of the following:

                     (a)  an employer ceasing to be a national system employer because subsection 14(2) applies to the employer;

                     (b)  an individual ceasing to be a national system employee because an employer ceases to be a national system employer for the reason referred to in paragraph (a);

                     (c)  an employer becoming a national system employer because subsection 14(2) ceases to apply to the employer;

                     (d)  an individual becoming a national system employee because an employer becomes a national system employer for the reason referred to in paragraph (c).

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), regulations made for the purpose of that subsection may:

                     (a)  modify provisions of this Act or the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009; or

                     (b)  provide for the application (with or without modifications) of provisions of this Act, or the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009, to matters to which they would otherwise not apply.

15  Ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning:

                     (a)  includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employee; and

                     (b)  does not include a person on a vocational placement.

Note:          Subsections 30E(1) and 30P(1) extend the meaning of employee in relation to a referring State.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employer.

Note:          Subsections 30E(2) and 30P(2) extend the meaning of employer in relation to a referring State.


 

Division 4Other definitions

16  Meaning of base rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The base rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee for his or her ordinary hours of work, but not including any of the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s base rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the base rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

Meaning for pieceworkers for the purpose of section 206

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the base rate of pay, for the purpose of section 206, of an employee who is a pieceworker. If the regulations do so, the employee’s base rate of pay, for the purpose of that section, is as prescribed by, or determined in accordance with, the regulations.

Note:          Section 206 deals with an employee’s base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement.

17  Meaning of child of a person

             (1)  A child of a person includes:

                     (a)  someone who is a child of the person within the meaning of the Family Law Act 1975; and

                     (b)  an adopted child or step‑child of the person.

It does not matter whether the child is an adult.

             (2)  If, under this section, one person is a child of another person, other family relationships are also to be determined on the basis that the child is a child of that other person.

Note:          For example, for the purpose of leave entitlements in relation to immediate family under Division 7 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave):

(a)           the other person is the parent of the child, and so is a member of the child’s immediate family; and

(b)           the child, and any other children, of the other person are siblings, and so are members of each other’s immediate family.

18  Meaning of full rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The full rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee, including all the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  However, if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s full rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the full rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

19  Meaning of industrial action

             (1)  Industrial action means action of any of the following kinds:

                     (a)  the performance of work by an employee in a manner different from that in which it is customarily performed, or the adoption of a practice in relation to work by an employee, the result of which is a restriction or limitation on, or a delay in, the performance of the work;

                     (b)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work by an employee or on the acceptance of or offering for work by an employee;

                     (c)  a failure or refusal by employees to attend for work or a failure or refusal to perform any work at all by employees who attend for work;

                     (d)  the lockout of employees from their employment by the employer of the employees.

Note:          In Automotive, Food, Metals, Engineering, Printing and Kindred Industries Union v The Age Company Limited, PR946290, the Full Bench of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission considered the nature of industrial action and noted that action will not be industrial in character if it stands completely outside the area of disputation and bargaining.

             (2)  However, industrial action does not include the following:

                     (a)  action by employees that is authorised or agreed to by the employer of the employees;

                     (b)  action by an employer that is authorised or agreed to by, or on behalf of, employees of the employer;

                     (c)  action by an employee if:

                              (i)  the action was based on a reasonable concern of the employee about an imminent risk to his or her health or safety; and

                             (ii)  the employee did not unreasonably fail to comply with a direction of his or her employer to perform other available work, whether at the same or another workplace, that was safe and appropriate for the employee to perform.

             (3)  An employer locks out employees from their employment if the employer prevents the employees from performing work under their contracts of employment without terminating those contracts.

Note:          In this section, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings (see section 11).

20  Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees

Agreed ordinary hours of work

             (1)  The ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee are the hours agreed by the employee and his or her national system employer as the employee’s ordinary hours of work.

If there is no agreement

             (2)  If there is no agreement about ordinary hours of work for an award/agreement free employee, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are:

                     (a)  for a full time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

If the agreed hours are less than usual weekly hours

             (3)  If, for an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee, there is an agreement under subsection (1) between the employee and his or her national system employer, but the agreed ordinary hours of work are less than the employee’s usual weekly hours of work, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are the lesser of:

                     (a)  38 hours; and

                     (b)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

Regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours

             (4)  For an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee and who does not have usual weekly hours of work, the regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, hours that are taken to be the employee’s usual weekly hours of work for the purposes of subsections (2) and (3).

21  Meaning of pieceworker

             (1)  A pieceworker is:

                     (a)  a national system employee to whom a modern award applies and who is defined or described in the award as a pieceworker; or

                     (b)  a national system employee to whom an enterprise agreement applies and who is defined or described in the agreement as a pieceworker; or

                     (c)  an award/agreement free employee who is in a class of employees prescribed by the regulations as pieceworkers.

Note:          Sections 197 and 198 affect whether FWA may approve an enterprise agreement covering a national system employee that includes a term that:

(a)           defines or describes the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and does not include such a term; or

(b)           does not define or describe the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and includes such a term.

             (2)  Without limiting the way in which a class may be described for the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the class may be described by reference to one or more of the following:

                     (a)  a particular industry or part of an industry;

                     (b)  a particular kind of work;

                     (c)  a particular type of employment.

22  Meanings of service and continuous service

General meaning

             (1)  A period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include any period (an excluded period) that does not count as service because of subsection (2).

             (2)  The following periods do not count as service:

                     (a)  any period of unauthorised absence;

                     (b)  any period of unpaid leave or unpaid authorised absence, other than:

                              (i)  a period of absence under Division 8 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with community service leave); or

                             (ii)  a period of stand down under Part 3‑5, under an enterprise agreement that applies to the employee, or under the employee’s contract of employment; or

                            (iii)  a period of leave or absence of a kind prescribed by the regulations;

                     (c)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  An excluded period does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service.

          (3A)  Regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (2)(c) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions of this Act (other than provisions to which subsection (4) applies). If they do so, subsection (3) applies accordingly.

Meaning for Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2

             (4)  For the purposes of Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2:

                     (a)  a period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include:

                              (i)  any period of unauthorised absence; or

                             (ii)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (b)  a period referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) or (ii) does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service; and

                     (c)  subsections (1), (2) and (3) do not apply.

Note:          Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2 deal, respectively, with requests for flexible working arrangements, parental leave and related entitlements, and notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice.

          (4A)  Regulations made for the purposes of subparagraph (4)(a)(ii) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions to which subsection (4) applies. If they do so, paragraph (4)(b) applies accordingly.

When service with one employer counts as service with another employer

             (5)  If there is a transfer of employment (see subsection (7)) in relation to a national system employee:

                     (a)  any period of service of the employee with the first employer counts as service of the employee with the second employer; and

                     (b)  the period between the termination of the employment with the first employer and the start of the employment with the second employer does not break the employee’s continuous service with the second employer (taking account of the effect of paragraph (a)), but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service with the second employer.

Note:          This subsection does not apply to a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities, for the purpose of Division 6 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with annual leave) or Subdivision B of Division 11 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with redundancy pay), if the second employer decides not to recognise the employee’s service with the first employer for the purpose of that Division or Subdivision (see subsections 91(1) and 122(1)).

             (6)  If the national system employee has already had the benefit of an entitlement the amount of which was calculated by reference to a period of service with the first employer, subsection (5) does not result in that period of service with the first employer being counted again when calculating the employee’s entitlements of that kind as an employee of the second employer.

Note:          For example:

(a)           the accrued paid annual leave to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer does not include any period of paid annual leave that the employee has already taken as an employee of the first employer; and

(b)           if an employee receives notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice in relation to a period of service with the first employer, that period of service is not counted again in calculating the amount of notice of termination, or payment in lieu, to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer.

Meaning of transfer of employment etc.

             (7)  There is a transfer of employment of a national system employee from one national system employer (the first employer) to another national system employer (the second employer) if:

                     (a)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee becomes employed by the second employer not more than 3 months after the termination of the employee’s employment with the first employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer; or

                     (b)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee is a transferring employee in relation to a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are not associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer.

Note:          Paragraph (a) applies whether or not there is a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer.

             (8)  A transfer of employment:

                     (a)  is a transfer of employment between associated entities if paragraph (7)(a) applies; and

                     (b)  is a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities if paragraph (7)(b) applies.

23  Meaning of small business employer

             (1)  A national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time if the employer employs fewer than 15 employees at that time.

             (2)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time:

                     (a)  subject to paragraph (b), all employees employed by the employer at that time are to be counted; and

                     (b)  a casual employee is not to be counted unless, at that time, he or she has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis.

             (3)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time, associated entities are taken to be one entity.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, in determining whether a national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time in relation to the dismissal of an employee, or termination of an employee’s employment, the employees that are to be counted include (subject to paragraph (2)(b)):

                     (a)  the employee who is being dismissed or whose employment is being terminated; and

                     (b)  any other employee of the employer who is also being dismissed or whose employment is also being terminated.


 

Part 1‑3Application of this Act

Division 1Introduction

24  Guide to this Part

This Part deals with the extent of the application of this Act.

Division 2 is about how this Act affects the operation of certain State or Territory laws.

Divisions 2A and 2B are about the extended application of this Act in States that have referred to the Parliament of the Commonwealth matters relating to this Act.

Division 3 is about the geographical application of this Act.

Division 4 deals with other matters relating to the application of this Act.

25  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.


 

Division 2Interaction with State and Territory laws

26  Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of all State or Territory industrial laws so far as they would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (2)  A State or Territory industrial law is:

                     (a)  a general State industrial law; or

                     (b)  an Act of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and has one or more of the following as its main purpose or one or more of its main purposes:

                              (i)  regulating workplace relations (including industrial matters, industrial activity, collective bargaining, industrial disputes and industrial action);

                             (ii)  providing for the establishment or enforcement of terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iii)  providing for the making and enforcement of agreements (including individual agreements and collective agreements), and other industrial instruments or orders, determining terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  prohibiting conduct relating to a person’s membership or non‑membership of an industrial association;

                             (v)  providing for rights and remedies connected with the termination of employment;

                            (vi)  providing for rights and remedies connected with conduct that adversely affects an employee in his or her employment; or

                     (c)  a law of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and deals with leave (other than long service leave or leave for victims of crime); or

                     (d)  a law of a State or Territory providing for a court or tribunal constituted by a law of the State or Territory to make an order in relation to equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value; or

                     (e)  a law of a State or Territory providing for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair; or

                      (f)  a law of a State or Territory that entitles a representative of a trade union to enter premises; or

                     (g)  an instrument made under a law described in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f), so far as the instrument is of a legislative character; or

                     (h)  either of the following:

                              (i)  a law that is a law of a State or Territory;

                             (ii)  an instrument of a legislative character made under such a law;

                            that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  Each of the following is a general State industrial law:

                     (a)  the Industrial Relations Act 1996 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Industrial Relations Act 1999 of Queensland;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Act 1979 of Western Australia;

                     (d)  the Fair Work Act 1994 of South Australia;

                     (e)  the Industrial Relations Act 1984 of Tasmania.

             (4)  A law or an Act of a State or Territory applies to employment generally if it applies (subject to constitutional limitations) to:

                     (a)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory except those identified (by reference to a class or otherwise) by a law of the State or Territory.

For this purpose, it does not matter whether or not the law also applies to other persons, or whether or not an exercise of a power under the law affects all the persons to whom the law applies.

27  State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26

          (1A)  Section 26 does not apply to any of the following laws:

                     (a)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1977 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1995 of Victoria;

                     (c)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1991 of Queensland;

                     (d)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of Western Australia;

                     (e)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of South Australia;

                      (f)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1998 of Tasmania;

                     (g)  the Discrimination Act 1991 of the Australian Capital Territory;

                     (h)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act of the Northern Territory.

             (1)  Section 26 does not apply to a law of a State or Territory so far as:

                     (b)  the law is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which section 26 does not apply; or

                     (c)  the law deals with any non‑excluded matters; or

                     (d)  the law deals with rights or remedies incidental to:

                              (i)  any law referred to in subsection (1A); or

                             (ii)  any matter dealt with by a law to which paragraph (b) applies; or

                            (iii)  any non‑excluded matters.

Note:          Examples of incidental matters covered by paragraph (d) are entry to premises for a purpose connected with workers compensation, occupational health and safety or outworkers.

             (2)  The non‑excluded matters are as follows:

                     (a)  superannuation;

                     (b)  workers compensation;

                     (c)  occupational health and safety;

                     (d)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                     (e)  child labour;

                      (f)  training arrangements, except in relation to terms and conditions of employment to the extent that those terms and conditions are provided for by the National Employment Standards or may be included in a modern award;

                     (g)  long service leave, except in relation to an employee who is entitled under Division 9 of Part 2‑2 to long service leave;

                     (h)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (i)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

Note:       See also section 112 for employee entitlements in relation to engaging in eligible community service activities.

                      (j)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays, except in relation to the rights and obligations of an employee or employer in relation to public holidays;

                     (k)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                      (l)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                    (m)  workplace surveillance;

                     (n)  business trading hours;

                     (o)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as the law in question provides for a matter to which paragraph 26(2)(e) applies;

                     (p)  any other matters prescribed by the regulations.

28  Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  However, subsection (1) applies only so far as the law of the State or Territory would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, subsection (1) has effect even if the law is covered by section 27 (so that section 26 does not apply to the law). This subsection does not limit subsection (1).

29  Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws

             (1)  A modern award or enterprise agreement prevails over a law of a State or Territory, to the extent of any inconsistency.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement applies subject to the following:

                     (a)  any law covered by subsection 27(1A);

                     (b)  any law of a State or Territory so far as it is covered by paragraph 27(1)(b), (c) or (d).

             (3)  Despite subsection (2), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement does not apply subject to a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which modern awards and enterprise agreements are not subject.

30  Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases

                   This Division is not a complete statement of the circumstances in which this Act and instruments made under it are intended to apply to the exclusion of, or prevail over, laws of the States and Territories or instruments made under those laws.


 

Division 2AApplication of this Act in States that refer matters before 1 July 2009

30A  Meaning of terms used in this Division

             (1)  In this Division:

amendment reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(4).

excluded subject matter means any of the following matters:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act;

                     (b)  superannuation;

                     (c)  workers compensation;

                     (d)  occupational health and safety;

                     (e)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                      (f)  child labour;

                     (g)  training arrangements;

                     (h)  long service leave;

                      (i)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (j)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

                     (k)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays;

                      (l)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                    (m)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                     (n)  workplace surveillance;

                     (o)  business trading hours;

                     (p)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as a law of a State provides for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair;

                     (q)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in a preceding paragraph of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as originally enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of the text of this Act (whether by the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution or relocation of words or matter), but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

fundamental workplace relations principles: see subsection 30B(9).

initial reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(3).

law enforcement officer means:

                     (a)  a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (b)  a person appointed to a position for the purpose of being trained as a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (c)  a person who has the powers and duties of a member of a police force or police service;

and, without limiting paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), includes a police reservist, a police recruit, a police cadet, a junior constable, a police medical officer, a special constable, an ancillary constable or a protective services officer.

local government employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a local government employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

local government employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate in which a body to which paragraph (a) applies has, or 2 or more such bodies together have, a controlling interest; or

                     (c)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (d)  any other body corporate that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations; or

                     (e)  any other person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30B(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of persons, including employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association in the context of workplace relations, and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                           (viii)  union rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30B.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

transition reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30B(5).

             (2)  Words or phrases in the definition of excluded subject matter in subsection (1), or in the definition of referred subject matters in subsection (1), that are defined in this Act (other than in this Division) have, in that definition, the meanings set out in this Act as in force on 1 July 2009.

30B  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has, before 1 July 2009, referred the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) in relation to the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth for the purposes of paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution:

                     (a)  if and to the extent that the matters are not otherwise included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the Commonwealth (otherwise than by a reference under paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution); and

                     (b)  if and to the extent that the matters are included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the State.

This subsection has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (2)  A State is a referring State even if:

                     (a)  the State’s referral law provides that the reference to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) is to terminate in particular circumstances; or

                     (b)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to State public sector employees, or State public sector employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5); or

                     (c)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to local government employees, or local government employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Reference covering referred provisions

             (3)  This subsection covers the matters to which the referred provisions relate to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by amending this Act, as originally enacted, to include the referred provisions.

Reference covering amendments

             (4)  This subsection covers the referred subject matters to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by making express amendments of this Act.

Reference covering transitional matters

             (5)  This subsection covers making laws with respect to the transition from the regime provided for by:

                     (a)  the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or

                     (b)  a law of a State relating to workplace relations;

to the regime provided for by this Act.

Effect of termination of reference

             (6)  Despite anything to the contrary in a referral law of a State, a State ceases to be a referring State if any or all of the following occurs:

                     (a)  the State’s initial reference terminates;

                     (b)  the State’s amendment reference terminates, and neither of subsections (7) and (8) apply to the termination;

                     (c)  the State’s transition reference terminates.

             (7)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 6 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  that State’s amendment reference, and the amendment reference of every other referring State (other than a referring State that has terminated its amendment reference in the circumstances referred to in subsection (8)), terminate on the same day.

             (8)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 3 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  the Governor of that State, as part of the proclamation by which the termination is to be effected, declares that, in the opinion of the Governor, this Act:

                              (i)  is proposed to be amended (by an amendment introduced into the Parliament by a Minister); or

                             (ii)  has been amended;

                            in a manner that is inconsistent with one or more of the fundamental workplace relations principles.

             (9)  The following are the fundamental workplace relations principles:

                     (a)  that this Act should provide for, and continue to provide for, the following:

                              (i)  a strong, simple and enforceable safety net of minimum employment standards;

                             (ii)  genuine rights and responsibilities to ensure fairness, choice and representation at work, including the freedom to choose whether or not to join and be represented by a union or participate in collective activities;

                            (iii)  collective bargaining at the enterprise level with no provision for individual statutory agreements;

                            (iv)  fair and effective remedies available through an independent umpire;

                             (v)  protection from unfair dismissal;

                     (b)  that there should be, and continue to be, in connection with the operation of this Act, the following:

                              (i)  an independent tribunal system;

                             (ii)  an independent authority able to assist employers and employees within a national workplace relations system.

30C  Extended meaning of national system employee

             (1)  A national system employee includes:

                     (a)  any individual in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in paragraph 30D(1)(a), except on a vocational placement; and

                     (b)  a law enforcement officer of the State to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 13 (which defines a national system employee).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employee.

30D  Extended meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer includes:

                     (a)  any person in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual; and

                     (b)  a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 14 (which defines a national system employer).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employer.

30E  Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a law enforcement officer of a State that is a referring State because of this Division if the State’s referral law so provides for the purposes of that law.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a holder of an office of a State that is a referring State because of this Division if the State’s referral law provides, for the purposes of that law, that the holder of the office is taken to be the employer of a law enforcement officer of the State.

             (3)  This section does not limit the operation of section 15 (which deals with references to employee and employer with their ordinary meanings).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meanings of employee and employer.

30F  Extended meaning of outworker entity

             (1)  An outworker entity includes a person, other than in the person’s capacity as a national system employer, so far as:

                     (a)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                     (b)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                     (c)  one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                             (ii)  the work is to be performed in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                            (iii)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that State;

                            (iv)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of the definition of outworker entity in section 12.

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of outworker entity.

30G  General protections

             (1)  Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections) applies to action taken in a State that is a referring State because of this Division.

             (2)  This section applies despite section 337 (which limits the application of Part 3‑1), and does not limit the operation of sections 338 and 339 (which set out the application of that Part).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the application of Part 3‑1.

30H  Division only has effect if supported by reference

                   A provision of this Division has effect in relation to a State that is a referring State because of this Division only to the extent that the State’s referral law refers to the Parliament of the Commonwealth the matters mentioned in subsection 30B(1) that result in the Parliament of the Commonwealth having sufficient legislative power for the provision so to have effect.


 

Division 2BApplication of this Act in States that refer matters after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010

30K  Meaning of terms used in this Division

             (1)  In this Division:

amendment reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(4).

excluded subject matter means any of the following matters:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act;

                     (b)  superannuation;

                     (c)  workers compensation;

                     (d)  occupational health and safety;

                     (e)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                      (f)  child labour;

                     (g)  training arrangements;

                     (h)  long service leave;

                      (i)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (j)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

                     (k)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays;

                      (l)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                    (m)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                     (n)  workplace surveillance;

                     (o)  business trading hours;

                     (p)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as a law of a State provides for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair;

                     (q)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in a preceding paragraph of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as originally enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of the text of this Act (whether by the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution or relocation of words or matter), but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

fundamental workplace relations principles: see subsection 30L(9).

initial reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(3).

law enforcement officer means:

                     (a)  a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (b)  a person appointed to a position for the purpose of being trained as a member of a police force or police service; or

                     (c)  a person who has the powers and duties of a member of a police force or police service;

and, without limiting paragraphs (a), (b) and (c), includes a police reservist, a police recruit, a police cadet, a junior constable, a police medical officer, a special constable, an ancillary constable or a protective services officer.

local government employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a local government employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

local government employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate in which a body to which paragraph (a) applies has, or 2 or more such bodies together have, a controlling interest; or

                     (c)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a local government purpose by or under a law of a State; or

                     (d)  any other body corporate that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations; or

                     (e)  any other person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is a local government body in the State of a kind specified in the regulations.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30L(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of persons, including employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association in the context of workplace relations, and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                           (viii)  union rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30L.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer of the State.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State, the Governor of the State or a Minister of the State; or

                     (b)  a body corporate that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  a person who employs individuals for the purposes of an unincorporated body that is established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of the State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (e)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office of the State whom the State’s referral law provides is to be taken, for the purposes of this Act, to be an employer of law enforcement officers of the State.

transition reference of a State means the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection 30L(5).

             (2)  Words or phrases in the definition of excluded subject matter in subsection (1), or in the definition of referred subject matters in subsection (1), that are defined in this Act (other than in this Division) have, in that definition, the meanings set out in this Act as in force on 1 July 2009.

30L  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has, after 1 July 2009 but on or before 1 January 2010, referred the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) in relation to the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth for the purposes of paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution:

                     (a)  if and to the extent that the matters are not otherwise included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the Commonwealth (otherwise than by a reference under paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution); and

                     (b)  if and to the extent that the matters are included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the State.

This subsection has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (2)  A State is a referring State even if:

                     (a)  the State’s referral law provides that the reference to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) is to terminate in particular circumstances; or

                     (b)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to State public sector employees, or State public sector employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5); or

                     (c)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters, or all matters, relating to local government employees, or local government employers, of the State are not included in any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Reference covering referred provisions

             (3)  This subsection covers the matters to which the referred provisions relate to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by amending this Act, as originally enacted, and as subsequently amended by amendments enacted at any time before the State’s referral law commenced, to include the referred provisions.

Reference covering amendments

             (4)  This subsection covers the referred subject matters to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by making express amendments of this Act.

Reference covering transitional matters

             (5)  This subsection covers making laws with respect to the transition from the regime provided for by:

                     (a)  the Workplace Relations Act 1996 (as it continues to apply because of the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009); or

                     (b)  a law of a State relating to workplace relations or industrial relations;

to the regime provided for by this Act.

Effect of termination of reference

             (6)  Despite anything to the contrary in a referral law of a State, a State ceases to be a referring State if any or all of the following occurs:

                     (a)  the State’s initial reference terminates;

                     (b)  the State’s amendment reference terminates, and neither of subsections (7) and (8) apply to the termination;

                     (c)  the State’s transition reference terminates.

             (7)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 6 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  that State’s amendment reference, and the amendment reference of every other referring State (other than a referring State that has terminated its amendment reference in the circumstances referred to in subsection (8)), terminate on the same day.

             (8)  A State does not cease to be a referring State because of the termination of its amendment reference if:

                     (a)  the termination is effected by the Governor of that State fixing a day by proclamation as the day on which the reference terminates; and

                     (b)  the day fixed is no earlier than the first day after the end of the period of 3 months beginning on the day on which the proclamation is published; and

                     (c)  the Governor of that State, as part of the proclamation by which the termination is to be effected, declares that, in the opinion of the Governor, this Act:

                              (i)  is proposed to be amended (by an amendment introduced into the Parliament by a Minister); or

                             (ii)  has been amended;

                            in a manner that is inconsistent with one or more of the fundamental workplace relations principles.

             (9)  The following are the fundamental workplace relations principles:

                     (a)  that this Act should provide for, and continue to provide for, the following:

                              (i)  a strong, simple and enforceable safety net of minimum employment standards;

                             (ii)  genuine rights and responsibilities to ensure fairness, choice and representation at work, including the freedom to choose whether or not to join and be represented by a union or participate in collective activities;

                            (iii)  collective bargaining at the enterprise level with no provision for individual statutory agreements;

                            (iv)  fair and effective remedies available through an independent umpire;

                             (v)  protection from unfair dismissal;

                     (b)  that there should be, and continue to be, in connection with the operation of this Act, the following:

                              (i)  an independent tribunal system;

                             (ii)  an independent authority able to assist employers and employees within a national workplace relations system.

30M  Extended meaning of national system employee

             (1)  A national system employee includes:

                     (a)  any individual in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in paragraph 30N(1)(a), except on a vocational placement; and

                     (b)  a law enforcement officer of the State to whom subsection 30P(1) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 13 (which defines a national system employee).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employee.

30N  Extended meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer includes:

                     (a)  any person in a State that is a referring State because of this Division so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual; and

                     (b)  a holder of an office to whom subsection 30P(2) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 14 (which defines a national system employer).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employer.

30P  Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a law enforcement officer of a referring State if the State’s referral law so provides for the purposes of that law.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a holder of an office of a State if the State’s referral law provides, for the purposes of that law, that the holder of the office is taken to be the employer of a law enforcement officer of the State.

             (3)  This section does not limit the operation of section 15 (which deals with references to employee and employer with their ordinary meanings).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meanings of employee and employer.

30Q  Extended meaning of outworker entity

             (1)  An outworker entity includes a person, other than in the person’s capacity as a national system employer, so far as:

                     (a)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                     (b)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                     (c)  one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                             (ii)  the work is to be performed in a State that is a referring State because of this Division;

                            (iii)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that State;

                            (iv)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a State that is a referring State because of this Division, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of the definition of outworker entity in section 12.

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of outworker entity.

30R  General protections

             (1)  Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections) applies to action taken in a State that is a referring State because of this Division.

             (2)  This section applies despite section 337 (which limits the application of Part 3‑1), and does not limit the operation of sections 338 and 339 (which set out the application of that Part).

Note:          Section 30S may limit the extent to which this section extends the application of Part 3‑1.

30S  Division only has effect if supported by reference

                   A provision of this Division has effect in relation to a State that is a referring State because of this Division only to the extent that the State’s referral law refers to the Parliament of the Commonwealth the matters mentioned in subsection 30L(1) that result in the Parliament of the Commonwealth having sufficient legislative power for the provision so to have effect.


 

Division 3Geographical application of this Act

31  Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia

             (1)  A provision of this Act prescribed by the regulations does not apply to a person or entity in Australia prescribed by the regulations as a person to whom, or an entity to which, the provision does not apply.

Note 1:       In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island, the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands and the coastal sea (see section 15B and paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

Note 2:       The regulations may prescribe the person or entity by reference to a class (see subsection 13(3) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003).

             (2)  Before the Governor‑General makes regulations for the purposes of subsection (1) prescribing either or both of the following:

                     (a)  a provision of this Act that is not to apply to a person or entity;

                     (b)  a person to whom, or an entity to which, a provision of this Act is not to apply;

the Minister must be satisfied that the provision should not apply to the person or entity in Australia because there is not a sufficient connection between the person or entity and Australia.

32  Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia

                   If the regulations prescribe modifications of this Act for its application in relation to all or part of any one or more of the following areas:

                     (a)  all the waters of the sea on the landward side of the outer limits of the territorial sea of Australia, including:

                              (i)  such waters within the limits of a State or Territory; and

                             (ii)  the airspace over, and the seabed and sub‑soil beneath, such waters;

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island;

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands;

then this Act has effect as so modified in relation to any such area or part.

Note:          This Act would, in the absence of any such regulations, apply in relation to these areas in the same way as it applies in relation to the rest of Australia.

33  Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

Extension to Australian ships etc.

             (1)  Without limiting subsection (3), this Act extends to or in relation to:

                     (a)  any Australian ship in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf; and

                     (b)  any fixed platform in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf; and

                     (c)  any ship, in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf, that:

                              (i)  supplies, services or otherwise operates in connection with a fixed platform in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf; and

                             (ii)  operates to and from an Australian port; and

                     (d)  any ship, in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf, that:

                              (i)  is operated or chartered by an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  uses Australia as a base.

             (2)  For the purposes of extending this Act in accordance with paragraph (1)(d):

                     (a)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employer is taken to include a reference to an Australian employer; and

                     (b)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employee is taken to include a reference to an employee of an Australian employer.

Extensions prescribed by regulations

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), if the regulations prescribe further extensions of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, to or in relation to the exclusive economic zone or to the waters above the continental shelf, then this Act extends accordingly.

Modifications relating to extended application

             (4)  Despite subsections (1) and (3), if the regulations prescribe modifications of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, for its operation under subsection (1) or (3) in relation to one or both of the following:

                     (a)  all or part of the exclusive economic zone;

                     (b)  all or part of the continental shelf;

then, so far as this Act would, apart from this subsection, extend to the zone or part, or to the continental shelf or part, it has effect as so modified.

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (4), the regulations may prescribe different modifications in relation to different parts of the exclusive economic zone or continental shelf.

34  Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

Extension to Australian ships etc.

             (1)  Without limiting subsection (3), this Act extends to or in relation to:

                     (a)  any Australian ship outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf; and

                     (b)  any ship, outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, that:

                              (i)  is operated or chartered by an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  uses Australia as a base.

             (2)  For the purposes of extending this Act in accordance with paragraph (1)(b):

                     (a)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employer is taken to include a reference to an Australian employer; and

                     (b)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employee is taken to include a reference to an employee of an Australian employer.

Extensions prescribed by regulations

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), if the regulations prescribe further extensions of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, in relation to all or part of the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, then this Act, or the specified provisions, extend accordingly to:

                     (a)  any Australian employer; and

                     (b)  any Australian‑based employee.

          (3A)  For the purposes of extending this Act in accordance with subsection (3):

                     (a)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employer is taken to include a reference to:

                              (i)  an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  an employer of an Australian‑based employee; and

                     (b)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employee is taken to include a reference to:

                              (i)  an employee of an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  an Australian‑based employee.

Modified application in the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

             (4)  Despite subsections (1) and (3), if the regulations prescribe modifications of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, for their operation under subsection (1) or (3) in relation to all or part of the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, then this Act, or the specified provisions, have effect as so modified in relation to the area or part.

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (4), the regulations may prescribe different modifications in relation to different parts of the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf.

35  Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee

             (1)  An Australian employer is an employer that:

                     (a)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of the Commonwealth (within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution); or

                     (b)  is a financial corporation formed within the limits of the Commonwealth (within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution); or

                     (c)  is the Commonwealth; or

                     (d)  is a Commonwealth authority; or

                     (e)  is a body corporate incorporated in a Territory; or

                      (f)  carries on in Australia, in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature), and whose central management and control is in Australia; or

                     (g)  is prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  An Australian‑based employee is an employee:

                     (a)  whose primary place of work is in Australia; or

                     (b)  who is employed by an Australian employer (whether the employee is located in Australia or elsewhere); or

                     (c)  who is prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  However, paragraph (2)(b) does not apply to an employee who is engaged outside Australia and the external Territories to perform duties outside Australia and the external Territories.

35A  Regulations excluding application of Act

             (1)  Regulations made for the purposes of section 32 or subsection 33(4) or 34(4) may exclude the application of the whole of this Act in relation to all or a part of an area referred to in section 32 or subsection 33(4) or 34(4) (as the case may be).

             (2)  If subsection (1) applies, this Act has effect as if it did not apply in relation to that area or that part of that area.

36  Geographical application of offences

                   Division 14 (Standard geographical jurisdiction) of the Criminal Code does not apply in relation to an offence against this Act.

Note:          The extended geographical application that this Division gives to this Act will apply to the offences in this Act.


 

Division 4Miscellaneous

37  Act binds Crown

             (1)  This Act binds the Crown in each of its capacities.

             (2)  However, this Act does not make the Crown liable to be prosecuted for an offence.

38  Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power

             (1)  Unless the contrary intention appears, if a provision of this Act:

                     (a)  would, apart from this section, have an application (an invalid application) in relation to:

                              (i)  one or more particular persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases; or

                             (ii)  one or more classes (however defined or determined) of persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases;

                            because of which the provision exceeds the Commonwealth’s legislative power; and

                     (b)  also has at least one application (a valid application) in relation to:

                              (i)  one or more particular persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases; or

                             (ii)  one or more classes (however defined or determined) of persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases;

                            that, if it were the provision’s only application, would be within the Commonwealth’s legislative power;

it is the Parliament’s intention that the provision is not to have the invalid application, but is to have every valid application.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), the provision is not to have a particular valid application if:

                     (a)  apart from this section, it is clear, taking into account the provision’s context and the purpose or object underlying this Act, that the provision was intended to have that valid application only if every invalid application, or a particular invalid application, of the provision had also been within the Commonwealth’s legislative power; or

                     (b)  the provision’s operation in relation to that valid application would be different in a substantial respect from what would have been its operation in relation to that valid application if every invalid application of the provision had been within the Commonwealth’s legislative power.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the cases where a contrary intention may be taken to appear for the purposes of subsection (1).

             (4)  This section applies to a provision of this Act, whether enacted before, at or after the commencement of this section.

39  Acquisition of property

                   This Act, or any instrument made under this Act, does not apply to the extent that the operation of this Act or the instrument would result in an acquisition of property (within the meaning of paragraph 51(xxxi) of the Constitution) from a person otherwise than on just terms (within the meaning of that paragraph).

40  Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws

Generally, public sector employment laws prevail

             (1)  A public sector employment law prevails over a fair work instrument that deals with public sector employment, to the extent of any inconsistency.

When fair work instruments or their terms prevail

             (2)  However, a fair work instrument, or a term of a fair work instrument, that deals with public sector employment prevails over a public sector employment law, to the extent of any inconsistency, if:

                     (a)  the instrument or term is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of that particular law; or

                     (b)  the instrument or term (other than an FWA order or a term of an FWA order) is included in a class of instruments or terms that are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of that particular law.

Meaning of public sector employment law

             (3)  A public sector employment law is a law of the Commonwealth (other than this Act) or a Territory, or a term of an instrument made under such a law, that deals with public sector employment.

Laws that fair work instruments never prevail over

             (4)  Subsection (2) does not apply to any provisions of the following that are public sector employment laws:

                     (a)  the Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988;

                     (b)  the Superannuation Act 1976;

                     (c)  the Superannuation Act 1990;

                     (d)  the Superannuation Act 2005;

                     (e)  the Superannuation (Productivity Benefit) Act 1988;

                      (f)  an instrument made under a law referred to in any of the above paragraphs.

Relationship with section 29

             (5)  This section prevails over section 29, to the extent of any inconsistency.

40A  Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901

             (1)  The Acts Interpretation Act 1901, as in force on 25 June 2009, applies to this Act.

             (2)  Amendments of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 made after that day do not apply to this Act.


 

Chapter 2Terms and conditions of employment

Part 2‑1Core provisions for this Chapter

Division 1Introduction

41  Guide to this Part

This Part has the core provisions for this Chapter, which deals with terms and conditions of employment of national system employees. The main terms and conditions come from the National Employment Standards, modern awards, enterprise agreements and workplace determinations.

The National Employment Standards (Part 2‑2) are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

A modern award (see Part 2‑3), an enterprise agreement (see Part 2‑4) or a workplace determination (see Part 2‑5) provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom the award, agreement or determination applies. Only one of those instruments can apply to an employee at a particular time.

Division 2 has the provisions to enforce the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements. It also sets out when a modern award or enterprise agreement applies to a person and the significance of that for this Act.

                   Note:             In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279). For the rules about workplace determinations, see Part 2‑5.

Division 3 deals with the interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

42  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee means a national system employee, and employer means a national system employer.


 

Division 2Core provisions for this Chapter

Subdivision ATerms and conditions of employment provided under this Act

43  Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act

Main terms and conditions

             (1)  The main terms and conditions of employment of an employee that are provided under this Act are those set out in:

                     (a)  the National Employment Standards (see Part 2‑2); and

                     (b)  a modern award (see Part 2‑3), an enterprise agreement (see Part 2‑4) or a workplace determination (see Part 2‑5) that applies to the employee.

Note 1:       The situations in which a workplace determination, rather than a modern award or enterprise agreement, provides an employee’s terms and conditions of employment are limited. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279). See Part 2‑5 generally for the rules on workplace determinations.

Note 2:       Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements and workplace determinations if there is a transfer of business from an employee’s employer to another employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (2)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment include:

                     (a)  those terms and conditions arising from:

                              (i)  a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6); or

                             (ii)  an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  those terms and conditions provided by Part 2‑9.

Note:          Part 2‑9 deals with miscellaneous terms and conditions of employment, such as payment of wages.

Subdivision BTerms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards

44