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Trade Practices Act 1974

  • - C2010C00426
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Act No. 44 of 2010
An Act relating to certain Trade Practices
Administered by: Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy; Infrastructure and Transport; Innovation, Industry, Science and Research; Treasury
Registered 01 Jul 2010
Start Date 01 Jul 2010
End Date 13 Jul 2010
Table of contents.
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Collapse Volume 1Volume 1
Collapse Part I—PreliminaryPart I—Preliminary
1 Short title [see Note 1]
2 Object of this Act
2A Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities
2B Application of Act to States and Territories
2BA Application of Part IV to local government bodies
2C Activities that are not business
3 Repeal
4 Interpretation
4A Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate
4B Consumers
4C Acquisition, supply and re‑supply
4D Exclusionary provisions
4E Market
4F References to purpose or reason
4G Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition
4H Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings
4J Joint ventures
4K Loss or damage to include injury
4KA Personal injury
4KB References to the Australian Consumer Law etc.
4KC Contraventions of the Australian Consumer Law
4L Severability
4M Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence
4N Extended application of Part IIIA
5 Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia
6 Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations
6AA Application of the Criminal Code
Expand Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer CommissionPart II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
Expand Part IIA—The National Competition CouncilPart IIA—The National Competition Council
Expand Part III—The Australian Competition TribunalPart III—The Australian Competition Tribunal
Expand Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)
Expand Part IIIA—Access to servicesPart IIIA—Access to services
Expand Part IV—Restrictive trade practicesPart IV—Restrictive trade practices
Expand Part IVA—Unconscionable conductPart IVA—Unconscionable conduct
Expand Part IVB—Industry codesPart IVB—Industry codes
Expand Part V—Consumer protectionPart V—Consumer protection
Expand Part VA—Liability of manufacturers and importers for defective goodsPart VA—Liability of manufacturers and importers for defective goods
Expand Part VC—OffencesPart VC—Offences
Expand Part VI—Enforcement and remediesPart VI—Enforcement and remedies
Expand Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conductPart VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct
Expand Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injuryPart VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury
Expand Part VIC—Infringement noticesPart VIC—Infringement notices
Expand Part VID—Substantiation noticesPart VID—Substantiation notices
Expand Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practicesPart VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices
Expand Part VIIA—Prices surveillancePart VIIA—Prices surveillance
Expand Part VIII—Resale price maintenancePart VIII—Resale price maintenance
Expand Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of CommissionPart IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission
Expand Volume 2Volume 2
Volume 3

Trade Practices Act 1974

Act No. 51 of 1974 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 1 July 2010
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 44 of 2010

Volume 1 includes:       Table of Contents
                                    Sections 1 – 119

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be
affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Volume 2 includes:       Table of Contents
                                   
Sections 10.01 – 178
                                    Schedules 1 and 2

Volume 3 includes:       Note 1
                                    Table of Acts
                                    Act Notes
                                    Table of Amendments
                                    Table A

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney‑General’s Department,
Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

Part I—Preliminary                                                                                                                1

1............ Short title [see Note 1]....................................................................... 1

2............ Object of this Act............................................................................... 1

2A......... Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities 1

2B......... Application of Act to States and Territories...................................... 2

2BA...... Application of Part IV to local government bodies............................ 2

2C......... Activities that are not business.......................................................... 2

3............ Repeal................................................................................................. 4

4............ Interpretation...................................................................................... 4

4A......... Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate............................. 15

4B......... Consumers........................................................................................ 17

4C......... Acquisition, supply and re‑supply.................................................. 19

4D......... Exclusionary provisions................................................................... 20

4E.......... Market.............................................................................................. 21

4F.......... References to purpose or reason...................................................... 21

4G......... Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition              22

4H......... Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings             22

4J.......... Joint ventures................................................................................... 22

4K......... Loss or damage to include injury...................................................... 23

4KA...... Personal injury.................................................................................. 23

4KB...... References to the Australian Consumer Law etc.............................. 23

4KC...... Contraventions of the Australian Consumer Law............................ 24

4L.......... Severability....................................................................................... 24

4M........ Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence 24

4N......... Extended application of Part IIIA.................................................... 25

5............ Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia........ 25

6............ Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations  26

6AA...... Application of the Criminal Code.................................................... 33

Part II—The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission           34

6A......... Establishment of Commission.......................................................... 34

7............ Constitution of Commission............................................................ 34

8............ Terms and conditions of appointment............................................. 35

8A......... Associate members........................................................................... 35

8AB...... State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members........ 36

9............ Remuneration.................................................................................... 36

10.......... Deputy Chairpersons....................................................................... 37

11.......... Acting Chairperson........................................................................... 37

12.......... Leave of absence............................................................................... 38

13.......... Termination of appointment of members of the Commission......... 38

14.......... Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission 39

15.......... Resignation....................................................................................... 39

16.......... Arrangement of business.................................................................. 39

17.......... Disclosure of interests by members................................................ 40

18.......... Meetings of Commission.................................................................. 40

19.......... Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions.................. 42

25.......... Delegation by Commission............................................................... 42

26.......... Delegation by Commission in relation to unconscionable conduct and consumer protection 43

27.......... Staff of Commission......................................................................... 43

27A....... Consultants....................................................................................... 44

28.......... Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research            44

29.......... Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament       45

Part IIA—The National Competition Council                                                       47

29A....... Establishment of Council.................................................................. 47

29B....... Functions and powers of Council..................................................... 47

29BA.... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council... 48

29BB..... How duty is imposed....................................................................... 48

29BC..... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty......................... 49

29C....... Membership of Council.................................................................... 49

29D....... Terms and conditions of office......................................................... 50

29E........ Acting Council President.................................................................. 50

29F........ Remuneration of Councillors............................................................ 50

29G....... Leave of absence............................................................................... 51

29H....... Termination of appointment of Councillors..................................... 51

29I......... Resignation of Councillors................................................................ 51

29J........ Arrangement of Council business..................................................... 51

29K....... Disclosure of interests by Councillors............................................. 52

29L........ Council meetings............................................................................... 53

29M...... Staff to help Council......................................................................... 53

29N....... Consultants....................................................................................... 53

29O....... Annual report................................................................................... 54

Part III—The Australian Competition Tribunal                                                  55

29P........ Definition.......................................................................................... 55

30.......... Constitution of Tribunal................................................................... 55

31.......... Qualifications of members of Tribunal............................................. 55

31A....... Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc.              56

32.......... Terms and conditions of appointment............................................. 56

33.......... Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal.................... 56

34.......... Acting appointments........................................................................ 56

35.......... Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal............................. 57

36.......... Resignation....................................................................................... 58

37.......... Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters................................ 58

38.......... Validity of determinations................................................................ 59

39.......... President may give directions........................................................... 59

40.......... Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal.............................. 59

41.......... Presidential member to preside......................................................... 60

42.......... Decision of questions....................................................................... 60

43.......... Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available..................................... 60

43A....... Counsel assisting Tribunal................................................................ 61

43B....... Consultants....................................................................................... 61

44.......... Staff of Tribunal............................................................................... 61

44A....... Acting appointments........................................................................ 62

Part IIIAA—The Australian Energy Regulator (AER)                                   63

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            63

44AB.... Definitions........................................................................................ 63

44AC.... This Part binds the Crown............................................................... 63

44AD.... Extra‑territorial operation................................................................. 63

Division 2—Establishment of the AER                                                             65

44AE..... Establishment of the AER................................................................ 65

44AF..... AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth 65

44AG.... Constitution of the AER.................................................................. 65

Division 3—Functions and powers of the AER                                            66

44AH.... Commonwealth functions................................................................. 66

44AI...... Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER....... 66

44AJ..... How duty is imposed....................................................................... 66

44AK.... When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty......................... 67

44AL..... Powers of the AER........................................................................... 68

Division 4—Administrative provisions relating to the AER                 69

Subdivision A—Appointment etc. of members                                                     69

44AM... Appointment of Commonwealth AER member............................... 69

44AN.... Membership of AER and Commission............................................ 69

44AO.... Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member.................... 70

44AP..... Appointment of State/Territory AER members.............................. 70

44AQ.... Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member...................... 71

44AR.... AER Chair........................................................................................ 71

44AS..... Acting AER Chair............................................................................. 72

44AT.... Remuneration of AER members....................................................... 72

44AU.... Additional remuneration of AER Chair............................................ 73

44AV.... Leave of absence............................................................................... 73

44AW... Other terms and conditions.............................................................. 73

44AX.... Outside employment........................................................................ 73

44AY.... Disclosure of interests...................................................................... 74

44AZ.... Resignation....................................................................................... 74

44AAB. Termination of appointment............................................................ 74

Subdivision B—Staff etc. to assist the AER                                                         75

44AAC. Staff etc. to assist the AER.............................................................. 75

Subdivision C—Meetings of the AER etc.                                                             75

44AAD. Meetings........................................................................................... 75

44AAE.. Resolutions without meetings.......................................................... 76

44AAEAArbitration........................................................................................ 76

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                               77

44AAF.. Confidentiality.................................................................................. 77

44AAG. Federal Court may make certain orders............................................ 78

44AAGAFederal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs 79

44AAH. Delegation by the AER..................................................................... 80

44AAI... Fees................................................................................................... 81

44AAJ.. Annual report................................................................................... 81

44AAK. Regulations may deal with transitional matters................................ 81

Part IIIA—Access to services                                                                                       83

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                            83

44AA.... Objects of Part.................................................................................. 83

44B....... Definitions........................................................................................ 83

44C....... How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures............... 86

44D....... Meaning of designated Minister....................................................... 87

44DA.... The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines               88

44E........ This Part binds the Crown............................................................... 88

Division 2—Declared services                                                                              89

Subdivision A—Recommendation by the Council                                               89

44F........ Person may request recommendation............................................... 89

44G....... Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service.......... 90

44GA.... Target time limits on Council recommendation................................ 91

44GB.... Council may invite public submissions on the application.............. 92

44GC.... Council must publish its recommendation....................................... 93

Subdivision B—Declaration by the designated Minister                                   94

44H....... Designated Minister may declare a service....................................... 94

44HA.... Designated Minister must publish his or her decision..................... 96

44I......... Duration and effect of declaration.................................................... 97

44J........ Revocation of declaration................................................................. 97

44JA..... Target time limits on designated Minister’s revocation decision..... 98

44K....... Review of declaration....................................................................... 99

44L........ Review of decision not to revoke a declaration.............................. 100

Division 2A—Effective access regimes                                                          101

Subdivision A—Recommendation by Council                                                    101

44M...... Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime       101

Subdivision B—Decision by Commonwealth Minister                                     102

44N....... Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime................... 102

Subdivision C—Extensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision              102

44NA.... Recommendation by Council.......................................................... 102

44NB.... Decision by the Commonwealth Minister..................................... 103

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                               104

44NC.... Target time limits—Council........................................................... 104

44ND.... Target time limits—Commonwealth Minister............................... 105

44NE..... Council may invite public submissions.......................................... 106

44NF..... Publication—Council...................................................................... 107

44NG.... Publication—Commonwealth Minister.......................................... 108

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                     108

44O....... Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime.. 108

Subdivision F—State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement     109

44P........ State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement      109

Division 2B—Competitive tender processes for government owned facilities                110

44PA..... Approval of competitive tender process........................................ 110

44PB..... Report on conduct of tender process............................................. 111

44PC..... Revocation of approval decision.................................................... 111

44PD..... Target time limits for Commission decisions................................. 113

44PE..... Commission may invite public submissions.................................. 114

44PF..... Commission must publish its decisions......................................... 115

44PG..... Review of Commission’s initial decision........................................ 116

44PH..... Review of decision to revoke an approval...................................... 117

Division 2C—Register of decisions and declarations                             118

44Q....... Register of decisions and declarations............................................ 118

Division 3—Access to declared services                                                      119

Subdivision A—Scope of Division                                                                        119

44R....... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division........................ 119

Subdivision B—Notification of access disputes                                                 119

44S........ Notification of access disputes....................................................... 119

44T....... Withdrawal of notifications............................................................ 119

Subdivision C—Arbitration of access disputes                                                 120

44U....... Parties to the arbitration................................................................. 120

44V....... Determination by Commission....................................................... 120

44W...... Restrictions on access determinations............................................ 121

44X....... Matters that the Commission must take into account................... 123

44XA.... Target time limits for Commission’s final determination............... 123

44Y....... Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases................. 124

Subdivision D—Procedure in arbitrations                                                         125

44Z....... Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration................. 125

44ZA.... Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration................. 125

44ZB..... Reconstitution of Commission....................................................... 125

44ZC..... Determination of questions............................................................ 126

44ZD.... Hearing to be in private.................................................................. 126

44ZE..... Right to representation................................................................... 126

44ZF..... Procedure of Commission............................................................... 126

44ZG.... Particular powers of Commission.................................................. 127

44ZH.... Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation............................... 128

44ZI...... Failing to attend as a witness.......................................................... 128

44ZJ...... Failing to answer questions etc....................................................... 128

44ZK.... Intimidation etc............................................................................... 129

44ZL..... Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential... 129

44ZM... Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration 130

44ZN.... Parties to pay costs of an arbitration............................................. 130

44ZNA. Joint arbitration hearings................................................................ 130

Subdivision DA—Arbitration reports                                                                 132

44ZNB.. Arbitration reports......................................................................... 132

Subdivision E—Effect of determinations                                                             134

44ZO.... Operation of final determinations................................................... 134

44ZOA. Effect and duration of interim determinations................................ 135

Subdivision F—Review of final determinations                                                 136

44ZP..... Review by Tribunal........................................................................ 136

44ZQ.... Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review....... 136

44ZR..... Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal..... 137

44ZS..... Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal           137

44ZT..... Transmission of documents............................................................ 138

Subdivision G—Variation and revocation of determinations                          138

44ZU.... Variation of final determinations.................................................... 138

44ZUA. Variation and revocation of interim determinations........................ 139

Division 4—Registered contracts for access to declared services 140

44ZV..... Constitutional limits on operation of this Division........................ 140

44ZW.... Registration of contract.................................................................. 140

44ZX.... Review of decision not to register contract.................................... 141

44ZY..... Effect of registration of contract..................................................... 141

Division 5—Hindering access to declared services                                142

44ZZ..... Prohibition on hindering access to declared services...................... 142

Division 6—Access undertakings and access codes for services    143

Subdivision A—Giving of access undertakings and access codes                 143

44ZZA.. Access undertakings by providers.................................................. 143

44ZZAAAccess codes prepared by industry bodies.................................... 144

44ZZAB....................... Commission may rely on industry body consultations  146

Subdivision B—Effect of access undertakings and access codes                   147

44ZZBA........ When access undertakings and access codes come into operation  147

Subdivision C—Extensions of access undertakings and access codes         148

44ZZBB............................. Extensions of access undertakings and access codes  148

Subdivision D—Procedural provisions                                                               149

44ZZBC........................................ Target time limits for Commission decisions  149

44ZZBD........................................ Commission may invite public submissions  150

44ZZBE Commission must publish its decisions......................................... 151

Subdivision E—Review of decisions                                                                     152

44ZZBF Review of decisions........................................................................ 152

Subdivision F—Register of access undertakings and access codes              153

44ZZC.. Register of access undertakings and access codes........................... 153

Division 6A—Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes             154

44ZZCA Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes 154

Division 6B—Overlap among determinations, registered contracts and access undertakings               155

44ZZCB................................. Deferring access disputes or access undertakings  155

44ZZCC................... Overlap between determinations and access undertakings  156

44ZZCD............ Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings  157

Division 7—Enforcement and remedies                                                         158

44ZZD.. Enforcement of determinations....................................................... 158

44ZZE.. Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access............................. 158

44ZZF.. Consent injunctions........................................................................ 159

44ZZG.. Interim injunctions.......................................................................... 160

44ZZH.. Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction....................... 160

44ZZI... Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction...................... 160

44ZZJ... Enforcement of access undertakings............................................... 160

44ZZK.. Discharge or variation of injunction or other order......................... 161

Division 8—Miscellaneous                                                                                    162

44ZZL.. Register of determinations.............................................................. 162

44ZZM. Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws........................................................................................................ 162

44ZZMAHow duty is imposed.................................................................... 162

44ZZMBWhen a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty...................... 163

44ZZN.. Compensation for acquisition of property..................................... 164

44ZZNAOperation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part................ 164

44ZZO.. Conduct by directors, servants or agents....................................... 164

44ZZOATarget time limits for Tribunal decisions....................................... 166

44ZZP.. Regulations about review by the Tribunal...................................... 167

44ZZQ.. Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers................... 167

44ZZR.. Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law............................................................ 167

Part IV—Restrictive trade practices                                                                       169

Division 1—Cartel conduct                                                                                   169

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                                 169

44ZZRA.................................................................................. Simplified outline  169

44ZZRB............................................................................................ Definitions  169

44ZZRC.................................................................... Extended meaning of party  171

44ZZRD.................................................................................. Cartel provisions  171

44ZZRE Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act................ 176

Subdivision B—Offences etc.                                                                                176

44ZZRF Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision...................... 176

44ZZRG........................................................ Giving effect to a cartel provision  177

44ZZRH.................................................................................. Determining guilt  178

44ZZRI. Court may make related civil orders............................................... 178

Subdivision C—Civil penalty provisions                                                             179

44ZZRJ Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision...................... 179

44ZZRK........................................................ Giving effect to a cartel provision  179

Subdivision D—Exceptions                                                                                    179

44ZZRL Conduct notified............................................................................. 179

44ZZRMCartel provision subject to grant of authorisation......................... 180

44ZZRN Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate        180

44ZZRO................................................................ Joint ventures—prosecution  181

44ZZRP Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings..................................... 184

44ZZRQ.......................................................... Covenants affecting competition  186

44ZZRR...................................................................... Resale price maintenance  186

44ZZRS Exclusive dealing............................................................................. 186

44ZZRT......................................................... Dual listed company arrangement  187

44ZZRU............................................................. Acquisition of shares or assets  188

44ZZRV Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding 188

Division 2—Other provisions                                                                              190

45.......... Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition         190

45B....... Covenants affecting competition.................................................... 193

45C....... Covenants in relation to prices....................................................... 196

45D....... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage            198

45DA.... Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition            199

45DB.... Boycotts affecting trade or commerce............................................ 200

45DC.... Involvement and liability of employee organisations..................... 200

45DD.... Situations in which boycotts permitted......................................... 202

45E........ Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services........................................................................................................ 205

45EA..... Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect........... 209

45EB..... Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part            209

46.......... Misuse of market power................................................................ 209

46A....... Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market       213

46B....... No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws                215

47.......... Exclusive dealing............................................................................. 216

48.......... Resale price maintenance................................................................ 222

49.......... Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition........... 222

50.......... Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition          223

50A....... Acquisitions that occur outside Australia...................................... 225

51.......... Exceptions...................................................................................... 228

51AAA. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws......................... 232

Part IVA—Unconscionable conduct                                                                         233

51AAB. Part does not apply to financial services........................................ 233

51AA.... Unconscionable conduct within the meaning of the unwritten law of the States and Territories            233

51AB.... Unconscionable conduct................................................................. 233

51AC.... Unconscionable conduct in business transactions.......................... 234

51ACAAConcurrent operation of State and Territory laws......................... 238

Part IVB—Industry codes                                                                                              239

51ACA. Definitions...................................................................................... 239

51AD.... Contravention of industry codes.................................................... 239

51AE..... Regulations relating to industry codes............................................ 240

51AEA.. Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws......................... 240

Part V—Consumer protection                                                                                      241

Division 1—Unfair practices                                                                                 241

51AF..... Part does not apply to financial services........................................ 241

51A....... Interpretation.................................................................................. 241

52.......... Misleading or deceptive conduct.................................................... 242

53.......... False or misleading representations................................................ 242

53A....... False representations and other misleading or offensive conduct in relation to land               243

53B....... Misleading conduct in relation to employment.............................. 244

53C....... Single price to be stated in certain circumstances........................... 244

54.......... Offering gifts and prizes................................................................. 246

55.......... Misleading conduct to which Industrial Property Convention applies.. 246

55A....... Certain misleading conduct in relation to services.......................... 246

56.......... Bait advertising............................................................................... 246

57.......... Referral selling................................................................................ 247

58.......... Accepting payment without intending or being able to supply as ordered             247

59.......... Misleading representations about certain business activities......... 248

60.......... Harassment and coercion................................................................ 248

63A....... Unsolicited credit and debit cards................................................... 248

64.......... Assertion of right to payment for unsolicited goods or services or for making entry in directory         249

65.......... Liability of recipient of unsolicited goods...................................... 252

65A....... Application of provisions of Division to prescribed information providers           253

Division 1AAA—Pyramid selling                                                                       256

65AAA. Overview........................................................................................ 256

65AAB. Definitions...................................................................................... 256

65AAC. Pyramid selling schemes—participation........................................ 257

65AAD. What is a pyramid selling scheme?................................................. 257

65AAE.. Marketing schemes—are they pyramid selling schemes?.............. 258

Division 1AA—Country of origin representations                                   259

Subdivision A—General                                                                                         259

65AA.... Overview........................................................................................ 259

65AB.... General test for country of origin representations......................... 259

65AC.... Test for representations that goods are product of/produce of a country               259

65AD.... Test for representations made by means of prescribed logo.......... 260

65AE..... Substantial transformation of goods............................................... 260

65AF..... Method of working out costs of production or manufacture......... 261

Subdivision B—Cost of production or manufacture of goods                          261

65AG.... Definitions...................................................................................... 261

65AH.... Cost of producing or manufacturing goods..................................... 261

65AJ..... Expenditure on materials................................................................ 262

65AK.... Expenditure on labour..................................................................... 262

65AL..... Expenditure on overheads............................................................... 263

65AM... Regulations may prescribe rules for determining the local percentage costs of production or manufacture           263

Subdivision C—Evidentiary matters                                                                    264

65AN.... Proceedings relating to false, misleading or deceptive conduct or representations  264

Division 1A—Product safety and product information                            265

65B....... Warning notice to public................................................................. 265

65C....... Product safety standards and unsafe goods.................................... 265

65D....... Product information standards....................................................... 267

65E........ Power of Minister to declare product safety or information standards  269

65F........ Compulsory product recall............................................................. 269

65G....... Compliance with product recall order............................................ 272

65H....... Loss or damage caused by contravention of product recall order... 273

65J........ Opportunity for conference to be afforded before certain powers exercised          273

65K....... Recommendation after conclusion of conference............................ 275

65L........ Exception in case of danger to public............................................. 275

65M...... Conference after goods banned....................................................... 276

65N....... Recommendation after conclusion of conference............................ 276

65P........ Minister to have regard to recommendation of Commission.......... 277

65Q....... Power to obtain information, documents and evidence.................. 277

65R....... Notification of voluntary recall...................................................... 281

65S........ Copies of certain notices to be given to suppliers or published in certain newspapers          281

65T....... Certain action not to affect insurance contracts............................. 282

Division 2—Conditions and warranties in consumer transactions   283

66.......... Interpretation.................................................................................. 283

66A....... Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods....... 283

67.......... Conflict of laws.............................................................................. 284

68.......... Application of provisions not to be excluded or modified............. 284

68A....... Limitation of liability for breach of certain conditions or warranties 284

68B....... Limitation of liability in relation to supply of recreational services 286

69.......... Implied undertakings as to title, encumbrances and quiet possession 287

70.......... Supply by description.................................................................... 288

71.......... Implied undertakings as to quality or fitness................................. 288

72.......... Supply by sample.......................................................................... 289

73.......... Liability for loss or damage from breach of certain contracts......... 290

73A....... Continuing credit contract.............................................................. 296

73B....... Loan contract.................................................................................. 297

74.......... Warranties in relation to the supply of services............................. 298

Division 2A—Actions against manufacturers and importers of goods 299

74A....... Interpretation.................................................................................. 299

74B....... Actions in respect of unsuitable goods........................................... 301

74C....... Actions in respect of false descriptions......................................... 302

74D....... Actions in respect of goods of unmerchantable quality................. 303

74E........ Actions in respect of non‑correspondence with samples etc......... 304

74F........ Actions in respect of failure to provide facilities for repairs or parts 305

74G....... Actions in respect of non‑compliance with express warranty....... 307

74H....... Right of seller to recover against manufacturer or importer........... 308

74J........ Time for commencing actions......................................................... 309

74K....... Application of Division not to be excluded or modified................ 310

74L........ Limitation in certain circumstances of liability of manufacturer to seller                311

74M...... The effect of Part VIB on this Division......................................... 311

Division 3—Miscellaneous                                                                                    312

75.......... Saving of other laws and remedies.................................................. 312

75A....... Rescission of contracts................................................................... 312

Part VA—Liability of manufacturers and importers for defective goods 314

75AA.... Interpretation.................................................................................. 314

75AB.... Certain interpretation provisions (importers and others taken to be manufacturers etc.) apply to this Part         315

75AC.... Meaning of goods having defect..................................................... 315

75AD.... Liability for defective goods causing injuries—loss by injured individual               315

75AE..... Liability for defective goods causing injuries—loss by person other than injured individual 316

75AF..... Liability for defective goods—loss relating to other goods............ 317

75AG.... Liability for defective goods—loss relating to buildings etc........... 317

75AH.... Survival of liability actions............................................................. 318

75AI...... No liability action where workers’ compensation or law giving effect to an international agreement applies        318

75AJ..... Unidentified manufacturer.............................................................. 318

75AK.... Defences......................................................................................... 318

75AL..... Commonwealth liability for goods that are defective only because of compliance with Commonwealth mandatory standard.......................................................................................... 319

75AM... Liability joint and several............................................................... 320

75AN.... Contributory acts or omissions to reduce compensation............... 320

75AO.... Time for commencing actions......................................................... 320

75AP..... Application of provisions not to be excluded or modified............. 321

75AQ.... Representative actions by the Commission................................... 321

75AR.... Saving of other laws and remedies.................................................. 321

75AS..... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................................... 322

Part VC—Offences                                                                                                            323

Division 1—Application of Part                                                                           323

75AZA. Part does not apply to financial services........................................ 323

75AZAAConcurrent operation of State and Territory laws......................... 323

Division 2—Offences relating to unfair practices                                      324

75AZB.. Interpretation.................................................................................. 324

75AZC.. False or misleading representations................................................ 324

75AZD. False representations and other misleading or offensive conduct in relation to land               325

75AZE.. Misleading conduct in relation to employment.............................. 327

75AZF.. Single price to be stated in certain circumstances........................... 328

75AZG. Offering gifts and prizes................................................................. 330

75AZH. Misleading conduct to which Industrial Property Convention applies.. 330

75AZI... Certain misleading conduct in relation to services.......................... 331

75AZJ... Bait advertising............................................................................... 331

75AZK. Referral selling................................................................................ 333

75AZL.. Accepting payment without intending or being able to supply as ordered             333

75AZM Misleading representations about certain business activities......... 334

75AZN. Harassment and coercion................................................................ 335

75AZO. Pyramid selling............................................................................... 336

75AZP.. Unsolicited credit and debit cards................................................... 336

75AZQ. Assertion of right to payment for unsolicited goods or services or for making an entry in a directory  338

75AZR.. Application of provisions of Division to prescribed information providers           340

Division 3—Offences relating to product safety and product information            342

75AZS.. Product safety standards and unsafe goods.................................... 342

75AZT.. Product information standards....................................................... 343

75AZU. Compliance with product recall notice........................................... 344

Part VI—Enforcement and remedies                                                                       346

75B....... Interpretation.................................................................................. 346

76.......... Pecuniary penalties—restrictive trade practices etc....................... 346

76A....... Defence to proceedings under section 76 relating to a contravention of section 95AZN        349

76B....... What happens if substantially the same conduct is a contravention of Part IV or section 95AZN and an offence?........................................................................................................ 350

76C....... Defence to proceedings relating to exclusionary provisions........... 351

76E........ Pecuniary penalties—consumer protection etc.............................. 352

76F........ Pecuniary penalties under section 76E and offences...................... 355

77.......... Civil action for recovery of pecuniary penalties............................ 356

77A....... Indemnification of officers.............................................................. 356

77B....... Certain indemnities not authorised and certain documents void.... 356

77C....... Application of section 77A to a person other than a body corporate 357

78.......... Criminal proceedings not to be brought for contraventions of Part IV or V            357

79.......... Offences against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG or Part VC etc...... 357

79A....... Enforcement and recovery of certain fines..................................... 360

79B....... Preference must be given to compensation for victims.................. 362

80.......... Injunctions...................................................................................... 362

80AB.... Stay of injunctions.......................................................................... 365

80AC.... Injunctions to prevent mergers if clearance or authorisation granted on the basis of false or misleading information........................................................................................................ 366

81.......... Divestiture where merger contravenes section 50 or 50A.............. 367

81A....... Divestiture where merger done under clearance or authorisation granted on false etc. information        369

82.......... Actions for damages....................................................................... 371

83.......... Finding in proceedings to be evidence............................................ 373

84.......... Conduct by directors, employees or agents................................... 373

85.......... Defences......................................................................................... 375

86.......... Jurisdiction of courts...................................................................... 377

86AA.... Limit on jurisdiction of Federal Magistrates Court........................ 379

86A....... Transfer of matters......................................................................... 379

86B....... Transfer of certain proceedings to Family Court........................... 381

86C....... Non‑punitive orders....................................................................... 383

86D....... Punitive orders—adverse publicity................................................ 384

86DA.... Commission may issue a public warning notice............................. 385

86E........ Order disqualifying a person from managing corporations............. 386

86F........ Privilege against exposure to penalty—disqualification from managing corporations             388

87.......... Other orders.................................................................................... 388

87AAA. Orders to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑party consumers etc.                394

87AAB. Kinds of orders that may be made to redress loss or damage suffered by non‑party consumers etc.     397

87A....... Power of Court to prohibit payment or transfer of moneys or other property      398

87AA.... Special provision relating to Court’s exercise of powers under this Part in relation to boycott conduct               400

87AB.... Limit on liability for misleading or deceptive conduct................... 401

87AC.... Declarations.................................................................................... 402

87B....... Enforcement of undertakings.......................................................... 403

87C....... Enforcement of undertakings—Secretary to the Department........ 403

87CA.... Intervention by Commission.......................................................... 404

87CAA. The effect of Part VIB on this Part................................................ 404

Part VIA—Proportionate liability for misleading and deceptive conduct 405

87CB..... Application of Part......................................................................... 405

87CC..... Certain concurrent wrongdoers not to have benefit of apportionment 405

87CD.... Proportionate liability for apportionable claims............................ 406

87CE..... Defendant to notify plaintiff of concurrent wrongdoer of whom defendant aware 407

87CF..... Contribution not recoverable from defendant................................. 407

87CG.... Subsequent actions......................................................................... 408

87CH.... Joining non‑party concurrent wrongdoer in the action................... 408

87CI...... Application of Part......................................................................... 408

Part VIB—Claims for damages or compensation for death or personal injury       409

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        409

87D....... Definitions...................................................................................... 409

87E........ Proceedings to which this Part applies........................................... 410

Division 2—Limitation periods                                                                           412

87F........ Basic rule........................................................................................ 412

87G....... Date of discoverability................................................................... 413

87H....... Long‑stop period............................................................................ 414

87J........ The effect of minority or incapacity.............................................. 415

87K....... The effect of close relationships..................................................... 415

Division 3—Limits on personal injury damages for non‑economic loss                416

87L........ Limits on damages for non‑economic loss...................................... 416

87M...... Maximum amount of damages for non‑economic loss.................... 416

87N....... Index numbers................................................................................. 417

87P........ Most extreme cases........................................................................ 417

87Q....... Cases of 33% or more (but not 100%) of a most extreme case...... 417

87R....... Cases of 15% or more (but less than 33%) of a most extreme case 418

87S........ Cases of less than 15% of a most extreme case.............................. 419

87T....... Referring to earlier decisions on non‑economic loss....................... 419

Division 4—Limits on personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity      420

87U....... Personal injury damages for loss of earning capacity..................... 420

87V....... Average weekly earnings................................................................ 420

Division 5—Limits on personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services              422

87W...... Personal injury damages for gratuitous attendant care services for plaintiff           422

87X....... Personal injury damages for loss of plaintiff’s capacity to provide gratuitous attendant care services  423

Division 6—Other limits on personal injury damages                            425

87Y....... Damages for future economic loss—discount rate......................... 425

87Z....... Damages for loss of superannuation entitlements.......................... 425

87ZA.... Interest on damages........................................................................ 426

87ZB..... Exemplary and aggravated damages................................................ 427

Division 7—Structured settlements                                                                 428

87ZC..... Court may make orders under section 87 for structured settlements 428

Part VIC—Infringement notices                                                                                 429

87ZD.... Purpose and effect of this Part....................................................... 429

87ZE..... Issue of an infringement notice....................................................... 429

87ZF..... Matters to be included in an infringement notice........................... 430

87ZG.... Amount of penalty......................................................................... 430

87ZH.... Effect of compliance with an infringement notice.......................... 431

87ZI...... Effect of failure to comply with an infringement notice................. 432

87ZJ...... Infringement notice compliance period for infringement notice..... 432

87ZK.... Withdrawal of an infringement notice............................................. 433

Part VID—Substantiation notices                                                                             435

87ZL..... Commission may require claims to be substantiated etc................ 435

87ZM... Extending periods for complying with substantiation notices....... 436

87ZN.... Compliance with substantiation notices......................................... 437

87ZO.... False or misleading information etc................................................ 437

Part VII—Authorisations, notifications and clearances in respect of restrictive trade practices 438

Division 1—Authorisations (other than section 50 merger authorisations)        438

87ZP..... Definitions...................................................................................... 438

88.......... Power of Commission to grant authorisations............................... 438

89.......... Procedure for applications and the keeping of a register................ 445

90.......... Determination of applications for authorisations........................... 448

90A....... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before determining application for authorisation    454

90B....... Commission may rely on consultations undertaken by the AEMC 457

91.......... Grant and variation of authorisations............................................. 458

91A....... Minor variations of authorizations................................................. 460

91B....... Revocation of an authorization....................................................... 462

91C....... Revocation of an authorization and substitution of a replacement 463

Division 2—Notifications                                                                                        466

Subdivision A—Exclusive dealing                                                                        466

93.......... Notification of exclusive dealing..................................................... 466

Subdivision B—Collective bargaining                                                                471

93AA.... Definitions...................................................................................... 471

93AB.... Notification of collective bargaining............................................... 471

93AC.... Commission’s objection notice....................................................... 476

93AD.... When collective bargaining notice comes into force and ceases to be in force         477

93AE..... Withdrawal of collective bargaining notice..................................... 479

93AEA.. Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) may be given      480

93AF..... Only 1 collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) may be given         480

Subdivision C—Conferences                                                                                481

93A....... Commission to afford opportunity for conference before giving notice  481

Subdivision D—Register of notifications                                                           483

95.......... Register of notifications.................................................................. 483

Division 3—Merger clearances and authorisations                                 487

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                                 487

95AA.... Simplified outline of this Division.................................................. 487

95AB.... Definitions...................................................................................... 488

Subdivision B—Merger clearances                                                                     489

95AC.... Commission may grant clearance for a merger................................ 489

95AD.... Application for clearance................................................................ 489

95AE..... Requirements for valid clearance application................................. 489

95AF..... Commission to notify if clearance application is invalid................ 490

95AG.... Application to be published on the internet................................... 490

95AH.... Merger clearance register................................................................ 490

95AI...... Confidentiality claims etc............................................................... 491

95AJ..... Commission may seek additional information from applicant....... 492

95AK.... Commission may seek further information and consult others...... 492

95AL..... Applicant may withdraw application............................................ 493

95AM... Commission to make determination on application....................... 493

95AN.... When clearance must not be granted............................................... 494

95AO.... Time limits for determining application......................................... 494

95AP..... Clearance subject to conditions...................................................... 494

95AQ.... When clearance is in force............................................................... 495

95AR.... Minor variations of clearances........................................................ 496

95AS..... Revocation of clearance or revocation of clearance and substitution of a new clearance         499

Subdivision C—Merger authorisations                                                              503

95AT.... Tribunal may grant authorisation for a merger............................... 503

95AU.... Application for authorisation......................................................... 504

95AV.... Requirements for valid authorisation application........................... 504

95AW... Tribunal to notify if authorisation application is invalid............... 504

95AX.... Tribunal to notify Commission of authorisation application......... 505

95AY.... Application to be published on the internet................................... 505

95AZ.... Merger authorisation register.......................................................... 505

95AZA. Confidentiality claims etc............................................................... 506

95AZC.. Tribunal may seek additional information from applicant............. 507

95AZD. Tribunal may seek further information and consult others etc....... 507

95AZE.. Applicant may withdraw application............................................ 508

95AZEATribunal must require Commission to give report.......................... 508

95AZF.. Commission to assist Tribunal....................................................... 508

95AZFACommission may make enquiries................................................... 509

95AZG. Tribunal to make determination on application.............................. 509

95AZH. When authorisation must not be granted........................................ 510

95AZI... Time limits for determining application......................................... 510

95AZJ... Authorisation subject to conditions............................................... 511

95AZK. When authorisation is in force........................................................ 511

95AZL.. Minor variations of authorisations................................................. 511

95AZM Revocation of authorisation or revocation of authorisation and substitution of a new authorisation     515

Subdivision D—Miscellaneous                                                                             520

95AZN. Providing false or misleading information....................................... 520

Part VIIA—Prices surveillance                                                                                   521

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                          521

95A....... Interpretation.................................................................................. 521

95B....... Exempt supplies............................................................................. 524

95C....... Application of Part......................................................................... 525

95D....... Crown to be bound......................................................................... 526

95E........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 526

95F........ Simplified overview of this Part..................................................... 526

Division 2—Commission’s functions under this Part                              528

95G....... Commission’s functions under this Part........................................ 528

Division 3—Price inquiries                                                                                    530

Subdivision A—Holding of inquiries                                                                   530

95H....... Price inquiries................................................................................. 530

95J........ Content of inquiry notices.............................................................. 531

95K....... Period for completing inquiry......................................................... 532

95L........ Notice of holding of inquiry........................................................... 532

95M...... Notice of extension of period for completing inquiry.................... 533

95N....... Price restrictions............................................................................. 533

Subdivision B—Reports on inquiries                                                                  536

95P........ Copies of report to be made available............................................ 536

95Q....... Notification of proposed prices after receipt of report.................. 536

Subdivision C—Procedure at inquiries                                                              537

95R....... Public inquiries etc.......................................................................... 537

95S........ Taking of evidence on oath or affirmation...................................... 538

95T....... Failure of witness to attend............................................................ 539

95U....... Refusal to be sworn or to answer question.................................... 539

95V....... Protection of witnesses.................................................................. 540

95W...... Allowances to witnesses................................................................ 540

Division 4—Price notifications                                                                            541

95X....... Declarations by Minister or Commission...................................... 541

95Y....... Declarations in relation to State or Territory authorities............... 541

95Z....... Price restrictions............................................................................. 543

95ZA.... Later notices modifying a locality notice........................................ 545

95ZB..... Applicable period in relation to a locality notice........................... 546

95ZC..... Register of price notifications......................................................... 547

95ZD.... Delegation by Commission............................................................. 548

Division 5—Price monitoring                                                                               549

95ZE..... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of an industry...... 549

95ZF..... Directions to monitor prices, costs and profits of a business........ 549

95ZG.... Exceptions to price monitoring....................................................... 550

Division 6—Other provisions                                                                              551

95ZH.... Ministerial directions...................................................................... 551

95ZI...... Inquiries by an unincorporated body or a group of 2 or more individuals              551

95ZJ...... Withdrawal of notices..................................................................... 552

95ZK.... Power to obtain information or documents.................................... 552

95ZL..... Inspection of documents etc........................................................... 555

95ZM... Retention of documents.................................................................. 555

95ZN.... Confidential information................................................................. 556

95ZO.... Immunity........................................................................................ 557

95ZP..... Secrecy: members or staff members of the Commission etc.......... 557

95ZQ.... Secrecy: persons involved in inquiries by bodies other than the Commission        559

Part VIII—Resale price maintenance                                                                     561

96.......... Acts constituting engaging in resale price maintenance.................. 561

96A....... Resale price maintenance in relation to services............................. 563

97.......... Recommended prices...................................................................... 563

98.......... Withholding the supply of goods................................................... 564

99.......... Statements as to the minimum price of goods................................ 565

100........ Evidentiary provisions................................................................... 565

Part IX—Review by Tribunal of Determinations of Commission           567

Division 1—Applications for review (other than for merger clearances)             567

101........ Applications for review.................................................................. 567

101A..... Application for review of notice under subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2)             568

102........ Functions and powers of Tribunal................................................. 568

Division 2—Procedure and Evidence                                                              573

102A..... Definition........................................................................................ 573

103........ Procedure generally......................................................................... 573

104........ Regulations as to certain matters.................................................... 573

105........ Power to take evidence on oath...................................................... 574

106........ Hearings to be in public except in special circumstances............... 574

107........ Evidence in form of written statement........................................... 575

108........ Taking of evidence by single member............................................. 575

109........ Participants in proceedings before Tribunal................................... 575

110........ Representation................................................................................ 575

Division 3—Review of Commission’s determinations on merger clearances   577

111........ Applications for review.................................................................. 577

112........ Tribunal to notify Commission...................................................... 578

113........ Commission to give material to Tribunal........................................ 578

114........ Tribunal may consult etc. to clarify information............................ 578

115........ Commission to assist Tribunal....................................................... 579

116........ Tribunal only to consider material before the Commission............ 579

117........ Tribunal to make decision on review.............................................. 579

118........ Time limits for making review decision.......................................... 579

119........ Tribunal’s decision taken to be Commission’s............................... 580


An Act relating to certain Trade Practices

Part IPreliminary

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Trade Practices Act 1974.

2  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection.

2A  Application of Act to Commonwealth and Commonwealth authorities

             (1)  Subject to this section and sections 44AC, 44E and 95D, this Act binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth in so far as the Crown in right of the Commonwealth carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  Subject to the succeeding provisions of this section, this Act applies as if:

                     (a)  the Commonwealth, in so far as it carries on a business otherwise than by an authority of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  each authority of the Commonwealth (whether or not acting as an agent of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth) in so far as it carries on a business;

were a corporation.

             (3)  Nothing in this Act makes the Crown in right of the Commonwealth liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

          (3A)  The protection in subsection (3) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth.

             (4)  Part IV does not apply in relation to the business carried on by the Commonwealth in developing, and disposing of interests in, land in the Australian Capital Territory.

2B  Application of Act to States and Territories

             (1)  The following provisions of this Act bind the Crown in right of each of the States, of the Northern Territory and of the Australian Capital Territory, so far as the Crown carries on a business, either directly or by an authority of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                     (b)  Part XIB;

                     (c)  the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to the above provisions.

             (2)  Nothing in this Act renders the Crown in right of a State or Territory liable to a pecuniary penalty or to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of a State or Territory.

2BA  Application of Part IV to local government bodies

             (1)  Part IV applies in relation to a local government body only to the extent that it carries on a business, either directly or by an incorporated company in which it has a controlling interest.

             (2)  In this section:

local government body means a body established by or under a law of a State or Territory for the purposes of local government, other than a body established solely or primarily for the purposes of providing a particular service, such as the supply of electricity or water.

2C  Activities that are not business

             (1)  For the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA, the following do not amount to carrying on a business:

                     (a)  imposing or collecting:

                              (i)  taxes; or

                             (ii)  levies; or

                            (iii)  fees for licences;

                     (b)  granting, refusing to grant, revoking, suspending or varying licences (whether or not they are subject to conditions);

                     (c)  a transaction involving:

                              (i)  only persons who are all acting for the Crown in the same right (and none of whom is an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory); or

                             (ii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of the Commonwealth; or

                            (iii)  only persons who are all acting for the same authority of a State or Territory; or

                            (iv)  only the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                             (v)  only the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more non‑commercial authorities of that State or Territory; or

                            (vi)  only non‑commercial authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                           (vii)  only non‑commercial authorities of the same State or Territory; or

                           (viii)  only persons who are all acting for the same local government body (within the meaning of section 2BA) or for the same incorporated company in which such a body has a controlling interest;

                     (d)  the acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation, unless the acquisition occurs because:

                              (i)  the body chooses to acquire the products; or

                             (ii)  the body has not exercised a discretion that it has under the legislation that would allow it not to acquire the products.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not limit the things that do not amount to carrying on a business for the purposes of sections 2A, 2B and 2BA.

             (3)  In this section:

acquisition of primary products by a government body under legislation includes vesting of ownership of primary products in a government body by legislation.

government body means the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory, an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.

licence means a licence that allows the licensee to supply goods or services.

primary products means:

                     (a)  agricultural or horticultural produce; or

                     (b)  crops, whether on or attached to the land or not; or

                     (c)  animals (whether dead or alive); or

                     (d)  the bodily produce (including natural increase) of animals.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, an authority of the
Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory is non‑commercial if:

                     (a)  it is constituted by only one person; and

                     (b)  it is neither a trading corporation nor a financial corporation.

3  Repeal

                   The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1971 and the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1972 are repealed.

4  Interpretation

             (1)  In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

acquire includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—acquire by way of purchase, exchange or taking on lease, on hire or on hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—accept.

AEMC or Australian Energy Market Commission means the body established by section 5 of the Australian Energy Market Commission Establishment Act 2004 of South Australia.

AER or Australian Energy Regulator means the body established by section 44AE.

AER Chair means the Chair of the AER.

AER member means a member of the AER.

arrive at, in relation to an understanding, includes reach or enter into.

Australian Consumer Law means Schedule 2.

authorisation means:

                     (a)  an authorisation under Division 1 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission; or

                     (b)  an authorisation under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Tribunal.

authority, in relation to a State or Territory (including an external Territory), means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the State or the Territory by or under a law of the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the State or the Territory, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

authority of the Commonwealth means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a purpose of the Commonwealth by or under a law of the Commonwealth or a law of a Territory; or

                     (b)  an incorporated company in which the Commonwealth, or a body corporate referred to in paragraph (a), has a controlling interest.

banker includes, but is not limited to, a body corporate that is an ADI (authorised deposit‑taking institution) for the purposes of the Banking Act 1959.

business includes a business not carried on for profit.

cartel provision has the meaning given by section 44ZZRD.

Chairperson means the Chairperson of the Commission.

clearance means a clearance under Division 3 of Part VII granted by the Commission or by the Tribunal on a review of a determination of the Commission.

commencing date means 1 October 1974.

Commission means the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission established by section 6A, and includes a member of the Commission or a Division of the Commission performing functions of the Commission.

competition includes competition from imported goods or from services rendered by persons not resident or not carrying on business in Australia.

Competition Principles Agreement means the Competition Principles Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

Conduct Code Agreement means the Conduct Code Agreement made on 11 April 1995 between the Commonwealth, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, being that agreement as in force from time to time.

consumer contract has the meaning given by the Australian Consumer Law.

corporation means a body corporate that:

                     (a)  is a foreign corporation;

                     (b)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of Australia or is a financial corporation so formed;

                     (c)  is incorporated in a Territory; or

                     (d)  is the holding company of a body corporate of a kind referred to in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).

Council means the National Competition Council established by section 29A.

Councillor means a member of the Council, including the Council President.

Council President means the Council President referred to in subsection 29C(1).

covenant means a covenant (including a promise not under seal) annexed to or running with an estate or interest in land (whether at law or in equity and whether or not for the benefit of other land), and proposed covenant has a corresponding meaning.

debenture includes debenture stock, bonds, notes and any other document evidencing or acknowledging indebtedness of a body corporate, whether constituting a charge on property of the body corporate or not.

Deputy Chairperson means a Deputy Chairperson of the Commission.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of the Tribunal, and includes a person appointed to act as a Deputy President of the Tribunal.

Deputy Registrar means a Deputy Registrar of the Tribunal.

designated Commonwealth energy law means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (b)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (c)  the Offshore Western Australian Pipelines (Commonwealth) Law and Regulations (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004).

document includes:

                     (a)  a book, plan, paper, parchment or other material on which there is writing or printing, or on which there are marks, symbols or perforations having a meaning for persons qualified to interpret them; and

                     (b)  a disc, tape, paper or other device from which sounds or messages are capable of being reproduced.

dual listed company arrangement has the same meaning as in section 125‑60 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

enforcement proceeding means:

                     (a)  a proceeding for an offence against Part VC; or

                     (b)  a proceeding instituted under Part VI (other than section 87AAA).

Family Court Judge means a Judge of the Family Court (including the Chief Judge, the Deputy Chief Judge, a Judge Administrator or a Senior Judge).

financial corporation means a financial corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that carries on as its sole or principal business the business of banking (other than State banking not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned) or insurance (other than State insurance not extending beyond the limits of the State concerned).

financial product has the same meaning as in Division 2 of Part 2 of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001.

financial service has the same meaning as in Division 2 of Part 2 of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001.

foreign corporation means a foreign corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution and includes a body corporate that is incorporated in an external Territory.

fully‑participating jurisdiction means a State or Territory that:

                     (a)  is a participating jurisdiction as defined in section 150A; and

                     (b)  is not named in a notice in operation under section 150K.

give effect to, in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, includes do an act or thing in pursuance of or in accordance with or enforce or purport to enforce.

goods includes:

                     (a)  ships, aircraft and other vehicles;

                     (b)  animals, including fish;

                     (c)  minerals, trees and crops, whether on, under or attached to land or not; and

                     (d)  gas and electricity.

infringement notice means an infringement notice issued under section 87ZE.

infringement notice compliance period has the meaning given by section 87ZJ.

infringement notice provision means:

                     (a)  a provision of Part IVA; or

                     (b)  a provision of Division 1 or 1AAA of Part V (other than section 52, paragraph 53A(1)(c), section 54, subsection 56(1) or section 58 or 64); or

                     (c)  subsection 65C(1) or (3) or 65D(1) or section 65G; or

                     (d)  section 87ZN or 87ZO.

member of the Commission includes the Chairperson and a person appointed to act as a member of the Commission but does not include an associate member of the Commission.

member of the Tribunal includes the President and a person appointed to act as a member of the Tribunal.

New Zealand Commerce Commission means the Commission established by section 8 of the Commerce Act 1986 of New Zealand.

New Zealand Crown corporation means a body corporate that is an instrument of the Crown in respect of the Government of New Zealand.

non‑party consumer means:

                     (a)  in relation to conduct referred to in subparagraph 87AAA(1)(a)(i)—a person who is not, or has not been, a party to an enforcement proceeding in relation to the conduct; and

                     (b)  in relation to a term of a consumer contract referred to in subparagraph 87AAA(1)(a)(ii)—a person who is not, or has not been, a party to an enforcement proceeding in relation to the term.

organisation of employees means an organisation that exists or is carried on for the purpose, or for purposes that include the purpose, of furthering the interests of its members in relation to their employment.

personal injury has (except in section 68B) a meaning affected by section 4KA.

practice of exclusive dealing means the practice of exclusive dealing referred to in subsection 47(2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8) or (9).

practice of resale price maintenance means the practice of resale price maintenance referred to in Part VIII.

President means the President of the Tribunal and includes a person appointed to act as President of the Tribunal.

presidential member or presidential member of the Tribunal means the President or a Deputy President.

price includes a charge of any description.

provision, in relation to an understanding, means any matter forming part of the understanding.

provision, of the Australian Consumer Law, has the meaning given by section 4KB.

Registrar means the Registrar of the Tribunal.

rely on, in relation to a term of a consumer contract, includes the meaning given by the Australian Consumer Law.

require, in relation to the giving of a covenant, means require or demand the giving of a covenant, whether by way of making a contract containing the covenant or otherwise, and whether or not a covenant is given in pursuance of the requirement or demand.

send includes deliver, and sent and sender have corresponding meanings.

services includes any rights (including rights in relation to, and interests in, real or personal property), benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred in trade or commerce, and without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes the rights, benefits, privileges or facilities that are, or are to be, provided, granted or conferred under:

                     (a)  a contract for or in relation to:

                              (i)  the performance of work (including work of a professional nature), whether with or without the supply of goods;

                             (ii)  the provision of, or the use or enjoyment of facilities for, amusement, entertainment, recreation or instruction; or

                            (iii)  the conferring of rights, benefits or privileges for which remuneration is payable in the form of a royalty, tribute, levy or similar exaction;

                     (b)  a contract of insurance;

                     (c)  a contract between a banker and a customer of the banker entered into in the course of the carrying on by the banker of the business of banking; or

                     (d)  any contract for or in relation to the lending of moneys;

but does not include rights or benefits being the supply of goods or the performance of work under a contract of service.

share includes stock.

South Australian Electricity Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 4 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

South Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

State/Territory AER member means an AER member referred to in section 44AP.

State/Territory energy law means any of the following laws:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that applies as a law of a State or Territory;

                     (b)  a law of a State or Territory that applies a law mentioned in paragraph (a) as a law of its own jurisdiction;

                     (c)  any other provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this paragraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

substantiation notice means a notice under section 87ZL.

substantiation notice compliance period has the meaning given by subsection 87ZN(2).

supply, when used as a verb, includes:

                     (a)  in relation to goods—supply (including re‑supply) by way of sale, exchange, lease, hire or hire‑purchase; and

                     (b)  in relation to services—provide, grant or confer;

and, when used as a noun, has a corresponding meaning, and supplied and supplier have corresponding meanings.

Territory means:

                     (a)  an internal Territory; or

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island; or

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

the Court or the Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

the Family Court means the Family Court of Australia.

trade or commerce means trade or commerce within Australia or between Australia and places outside Australia.

trading corporation means a trading corporation within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution.

Tribunal means the Australian Competition Tribunal, and includes a member of that Tribunal or a Division of that Tribunal performing functions of that Tribunal.

unfair, in relation to a term of a consumer contract, has the meaning given by the Australian Consumer Law.

uniform energy law means:

                     (a)  the South Australian Electricity Legislation; or

                     (b)  the South Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (c)  the Western Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (d)  provisions of a law of a State or Territory that:

                              (i)  relate to energy; and

                             (ii)  are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this subparagraph;

                            being those provisions as in force from time to time.

unsolicited goods means goods sent to a person without any request made by him or her or on his or her behalf.

unsolicited services means services supplied to a person without any request made by him or her or on his or her behalf.

Western Australian Gas Legislation means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time; and

                     (b)  any regulations, as in force from time to time, made under Part 3 of that Act.

The reference in paragraph (a) to the National Gas Access (Western Australia) Law (within the meaning of the National Gas Access (WA) Act 2009 of Western Australia) as in force from time to time includes a reference to any Rules or other instruments, as in force from time to time, made or having effect under that Law.

             (2)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to engaging in conduct shall be read as a reference to doing or refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (b)  a reference to conduct, when that expression is used as a noun otherwise than as mentioned in paragraph (a), shall be read as a reference to the doing of or the refusing to do any act, including the making of, or the giving effect to a provision of, a contract or arrangement, the arriving at, or the giving effect to a provision of, an understanding or the requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant;

                     (c)  a reference to refusing to do an act includes a reference to:

                              (i)  refraining (otherwise than inadvertently) from doing that act; or

                             (ii)  making it known that that act will not be done; and

                     (d)  a reference to a person offering to do an act, or to do an act on a particular condition, includes a reference to the person making it known that the person will accept applications, offers or proposals for the person to do that act or to do that act on that condition, as the case may be.

             (3)  Where a provision of this Act is expressed to render a provision of a contract, or to render a covenant, unenforceable if the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have a particular effect, that provision of this Act applies in relation to the provision of the contract or the covenant at any time when the provision of the contract or the covenant has or is likely to have that effect notwithstanding that:

                     (a)  at an earlier time the provision of the contract or the covenant did not have that effect or was not regarded as likely to have that effect; or

                     (b)  the provision of the contract or the covenant will not or may not have that effect at a later time.

             (4)  In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of shares in the capital of a body corporate shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such shares; and

                     (b)  a reference to the acquisition of assets of a person shall be construed as a reference to an acquisition, whether alone or jointly with another person, of any legal or equitable interest in such assets but does not include a reference to an acquisition by way of charge only or an acquisition in the ordinary course of business.

4A  Subsidiary, holding and related bodies corporate

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall, subject to subsection (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another body corporate if:

                     (a)  that other body corporate:

                              (i)  controls the composition of the board of directors of the first‑mentioned body corporate;

                             (ii)  is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one‑half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first‑mentioned body corporate; or

                            (iii)  holds more than one‑half of the allotted share capital of the first‑mentioned body corporate (excluding any part of that allotted share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or

                     (b)  the first‑mentioned body corporate is a subsidiary of any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary (including any body corporate that is that other body corporate’s subsidiary by another application or other applications of this paragraph).

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the composition of a body corporate’s board of directors shall be deemed to be controlled by another body corporate if that other body corporate, by the exercise of some power exercisable by it without the consent or concurrence of any other person, can appoint or remove all or a majority of the directors, and for the purposes of this provision that other body corporate shall be deemed to have power to make such an appointment if:

                     (a)  a person cannot be appointed as a director without the exercise in his or her favour by that other body corporate of such a power; or

                     (b)  a person’s appointment as a director follows necessarily from his or her being a director or other officer of that other body corporate.

             (3)  In determining whether a body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate:

                     (a)  any shares held or power exercisable by that other body corporate in a fiduciary capacity shall be treated as not held or exercisable by it;

                     (b)  subject to paragraphs (c) and (d), any shares held or power exercisable:

                              (i) by any person as a nominee for that other body corporate (except where that other body corporate is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity); or

                             (ii)  by, or by a nominee for, a subsidiary of that other body corporate, not being a subsidiary that is concerned only in a fiduciary capacity;

                            shall be treated as held or exercisable by that other body corporate;

                     (c)  any shares held or power exercisable by any person by virtue of the provisions of any debentures of the first‑mentioned body corporate, or of a trust deed for securing any allotment of such debentures, shall be disregarded; and

                     (d)  any shares held or power exercisable by, or by a nominee for, that other body corporate or its subsidiary (not being held or exercisable as mentioned in paragraph (c)) shall be treated as not held or exercisable by that other body corporate if the ordinary business of that other body corporate or its subsidiary, as the case may be, includes the lending of money and the shares are held or the power is exercisable by way of security only for the purposes of a transaction entered into in the ordinary course of that business.

             (4)  A reference in this Act to the holding company of a body corporate shall be read as a reference to a body corporate of which that other body corporate is a subsidiary.

             (5)  Where a body corporate:

                     (a) is the holding company of another body corporate;

                     (b)  is a subsidiary of another body corporate; or

                     (c)  is a subsidiary of the holding company of another body corporate;

that first‑mentioned body corporate and that other body corporate shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be related to each other.

          (5A)  For the purposes of Parts IV, VI and VII:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is a party to a dual listed company arrangement is taken to be related to the other body corporate that is a party to the arrangement; and

                     (b)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to the other party to the arrangement; and

                     (c)  a body corporate that is related to one of the parties to the arrangement is taken to be related to each body corporate that is related to the other party to the arrangement.

             (6)  In proceedings under this Act, whether in the Court or before the Tribunal or the Commission, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that bodies corporate are not, or were not at a particular time, related to each other.

4B  Consumers

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular goods as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the goods did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the goods were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption or the goods consisted of a commercial road vehicle;

                            and the person did not acquire the goods, or hold himself or herself out as acquiring the goods, for the purpose of
re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them, in trade or commerce, in the course of a process of production or manufacture or of repairing or treating other goods or fixtures on land; and

                     (b)  a person shall be taken to have acquired particular services as a consumer if, and only if:

                              (i)  the price of the services did not exceed the prescribed amount; or

                             (ii)  where that price exceeded the prescribed amount—the services were of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1):

                     (a)  the prescribed amount is $40,000 or, if a greater amount is prescribed for the purposes of this paragraph, that greater amount;

                     (b)  subject to paragraph (c), the price of goods or services purchased by a person shall be taken to have been the amount paid or payable by the person for the goods or services;

                     (c)  where a person purchased goods or services together with other property or services, or with both other property and services, and a specified price was not allocated to the goods or services in the contract under which they were purchased, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased from the supplier the goods or services without the other property or services;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier except together with the other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier without other property or services—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, goods or services of the kind acquired were not available for purchase from any supplier except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time;

                     (d)  where a person acquired goods or services otherwise than by way of purchase, the price of the goods or services shall be taken to have been:

                              (i)  the price at which, at the time of the acquisition, the person could have purchased the goods or services from the supplier;

                             (ii)  if, at the time of the acquisition, the goods or services were not available for purchase from the supplier or were so available only together with other property or services but, at that time, goods or services of the kind acquired were available for purchase from another supplier—the lowest price at which the person could, at that time, reasonably have purchased goods or services of that kind from another supplier; or

                            (iii)  if goods or services of the kind acquired were not available, at the time of the acquisition, for purchase from any supplier or were not so available except together with other property or services—the value of the goods or services at that time; and

                     (e)  without limiting by implication the meaning of the expression services in subsection 4(1), the obtaining of credit by a person in connection with the acquisition of goods or services by him or her shall be deemed to be the acquisition by him or her of a service and any amount by which the amount paid or payable by him or her for the goods or services is increased by reason of his or her so obtaining credit shall be deemed to be paid or payable by him or her for that service.

             (3)  Where it is alleged in any proceeding under this Act or in any other proceeding in respect of a matter arising under this Act that a person was a consumer in relation to particular goods or services, it shall be presumed, unless the contrary is established, that the person was a consumer in relation to those goods or services.

             (4)  In this section, commercial road vehicle means a vehicle or trailer acquired for use principally in the transport of goods on public roads.

4C  Acquisition, supply and re‑supply

                   In this Act, unless the contrary intention appears:

                     (a)  a reference to the acquisition of goods includes a reference to the acquisition of property in, or rights in relation to, goods in pursuance of a supply of the goods;

                     (b)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods or services includes a reference to agreeing to supply or acquire goods or services;

                     (c)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods together with other property or services, or both;

                     (d)  a reference to the supply or acquisition of services includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of services together with property or other services, or both;

                     (e)  a reference to the re‑supply of goods acquired from a person includes a reference to:

                              (i)  a supply of the goods to another person in an altered form or condition; and

                             (ii)  a supply to another person of goods in which the first‑mentioned goods have been incorporated;

                      (f)  a reference to the re‑supply of services (the original services) acquired from a person (the original supplier) includes a reference to:

                              (i)  a supply of the original services to another person in an altered form or condition; and

                             (ii)  a supply to another person of other services that are substantially similar to the original services, and could not have been supplied if the original services had not been acquired by the person who acquired them from the original supplier.

4D  Exclusionary provisions

             (1)  A provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, shall be taken to be an exclusionary provision for the purposes of this Act if:

                     (a)  the contract or arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, or the proposed contract or arrangement is to be made, or the proposed understanding is to be arrived at, between persons any 2 or more of whom are competitive with each other; and

                     (b)  the provision has the purpose of preventing, restricting or limiting:

                              (i)  the supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  the supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, particular persons or classes of persons in particular circumstances or on particular conditions;

                            by all or any of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding or of the proposed parties to the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding or, if a party or proposed party is a body corporate, by a body corporate that is related to the body corporate.

             (2)  A person shall be deemed to be competitive with another person for the purposes of subsection (1) if, and only if, the
first‑mentioned person or a body corporate that is related to that person is, or is likely to be, or, but for the provision of any contract, arrangement or understanding or of any proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, would be, or would be likely to be, in competition with the other person, or with a body corporate that is related to the other person, in relation to the supply or acquisition of all or any of the goods or services to which the relevant provision of the contract, arrangement or understanding or of the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding relates.

4E  Market

                   For the purposes of this Act, unless the contrary intention appears, market means a market in Australia and, when used in relation to any goods or services, includes a market for those goods or services and other goods or services that are substitutable for, or otherwise competitive with, the first‑mentioned goods or services.

4F  References to purpose or reason

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act:

                     (a)  a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or a covenant or a proposed covenant, shall be deemed to have had, or to have, a particular purpose if:

                              (i)  the provision was included in the contract, arrangement or understanding or is to be included in the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or the covenant was required to be given or the proposed covenant is to be required to be given, as the case may be, for that purpose or for purposes that included or include that purpose; and

                             (ii)  that purpose was or is a substantial purpose; and

                     (b)  a person shall be deemed to have engaged or to engage in conduct for a particular purpose or a particular reason if:

                              (i)  the person engaged or engages in the conduct for purposes that included or include that purpose or for reasons that included or include that reason, as the case may be; and

                             (ii)  that purpose or reason was or is a substantial purpose or reason.

             (2)  This section does not apply for the purposes of subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1), 45DB(1), 45E(2) and 45E(3).

4G  Lessening of competition to include preventing or hindering competition

                   For the purposes of this Act, references to the lessening of competition shall be read as including references to preventing or hindering competition.

4H  Application of Act in relation to leases and licences of land and buildings

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to a contract shall be construed as including a reference to a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building and shall be so construed notwithstanding the express references in this Act to such leases or licences;

                     (b)  a reference to making or entering into a contract, in relation to such a lease or licence, shall be read as a reference to granting or taking the lease or licence; and

                     (c)  a reference to a party to a contract, in relation to such a lease or licence, shall be read as including a reference to any person bound by, or entitled to the benefit of, any provision contained in the lease or licence.

4J  Joint ventures

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to a joint venture is a reference to an activity in trade or commerce:

                              (i)  carried on jointly by two or more persons, whether or not in partnership; or

                             (ii)  carried on by a body corporate formed by two or more persons for the purpose of enabling those persons to carry on that activity jointly by means of their joint control, or by means of their ownership of shares in the capital, of that body corporate; and

                     (b)  a reference to a contract or arrangement made or understanding arrived at, or to a proposed contract or arrangement to be made or proposed understanding to be arrived at, for the purposes of a joint venture shall, in relation to a joint venture by way of an activity carried on by a body corporate as mentioned in subparagraph (a)(ii), be read as including a reference to the memorandum and articles of association, rules or other document that constitute or constitutes, or are or is to constitute, that body corporate.

4K  Loss or damage to include injury

                   In this Act:

                     (a)  a reference to loss or damage, other than a reference to the amount of any loss or damage, includes a reference to injury; and

                     (b)  a reference to the amount of any loss or damage includes a reference to damages in respect of an injury.

4KA  Personal injury

                   In this Act (except in section 68B):

personal injury includes:

                     (a)  pre‑natal injury; or

                     (b)  impairment of a person’s physical or mental condition; or

                     (c)  disease;

but does not include an impairment of a person’s mental condition unless the impairment consists of a recognised psychiatric illness.

4KB  References to the Australian Consumer Law etc.

             (1)  A reference in this Act (other than the provisions referred to in subsection (2)) to the Australian Consumer Law is a reference to the Australian Consumer Law as applied under Division 1 of Part XI.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to the following provisions:

                     (a)  the definitions of Australian Consumer Law and provision in subsection 4(1);

                     (b)  this section;

                     (c)  Part XI;

                     (d)  Schedule 2.

             (3)  A reference in this Act (other than in Part XI and Schedule 2) to one or more provisions of the Australian Consumer Law is a reference to that provision or those provisions as applied under Division 1 of Part XI.

4KC  Contraventions of the Australian Consumer Law

                   Conduct is not taken, for the purposes of this Act, to contravene the Australian Consumer Law merely because of subsection 2(1) of the Australian Consumer Law.

4L  Severability

                   If the making of a contract after the commencement of this section contravenes this Act by reason of the inclusion of a particular provision in the contract, then, subject to any order made under section 87, 87AAA or 87A, nothing in this Act affects the validity or enforceability of the contract otherwise than in relation to that provision in so far as that provision is severable.

4M  Saving of law relating to restraint of trade and breaches of confidence

                   This Act does not affect the operation of:

                     (a)  the law relating to restraint of trade in so far as that law is capable of operating concurrently with this Act; or

                     (b)  the law relating to breaches of confidence;

but nothing in the law referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) affects the interpretation of this Act.

4N  Extended application of Part IIIA

             (1)  Part IIIA, and the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to Part IIIA, extend to services provided by means of facilities that are, or will be, wholly or partly within:

                     (a)  an external Territory; or

                     (b)  the offshore area in respect of a State, of the Northern Territory, or of an external Territory, as specified in section 7 of the Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006.

             (3)  Nothing in subsection (1) affects the operation of section 15B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 in respect of the application of Part IIIA, and of the other provisions of this Act so far as they relate to Part IIIA, in any part of:

                     (a)  the coastal sea of Australia; or

                     (b)  the coastal sea of an external Territory;

that is on the landward side of each of the offshore areas referred to in that subsection.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section:

service includes proposed service covered by Division 2A of Part IIIA.

5  Extended application of this Act to conduct outside Australia

             (1)  Each of the following provisions:

                     (a)  Part IV;

                     (b)  Part IVA;

                     (c)  Part V (other than Division 1AA);

                     (e)  Part VC;

                    (ea)  the Australian Consumer Law;

                      (f)  the remaining provisions of this Act (to the extent to which they relate to any of the provisions covered by paragraph (a), (b), (c), (e) or (ea));

extends to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by:

                     (g)  bodies corporate incorporated or carrying on business within Australia; or

                     (h)  Australian citizens; or

                      (i)  persons ordinarily resident within Australia.

          (1A)  In addition to the extended operation that section 46A has by virtue of subsection (1), that section extends to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by:

                     (a)  New Zealand and New Zealand Crown corporations; or

                     (b)  bodies corporate carrying on business within New Zealand; or

                     (c)  persons ordinarily resident within New Zealand.

             (2)  In addition to the extended operation that sections 47 and 48 have by virtue of subsection (1), those sections extend to the engaging in conduct outside Australia by any persons in relation to the supply by those persons of goods or services to persons within Australia.

             (3)  Where a claim under section 82 is made in a proceeding, a person is not entitled to rely at a hearing in respect of that proceeding on conduct to which a provision of this Act extends by virtue of subsection (1) or (2) of this section except with the consent in writing of the Minister.

             (4)  A person other than the Minister, the Commission or the Director of Public Prosecutions is not entitled to make an application to the Court for an order under subsection 87(1) or (1A) in a proceeding in respect of conduct to which a provision of this Act extends by virtue of subsection (1) or (2) of this section except with the consent in writing of the Minister.

             (5)  The Minister shall give a consent under subsection (3) or (4) in respect of a proceeding unless, in the opinion of the Minister:

                     (a)  the law of the country in which the conduct concerned was engaged in required or specifically authorised the engaging in of the conduct; and

                     (b)  it is not in the national interest that the consent be given.

6  Extended application of this Act to persons who are not corporations

             (1)  Without prejudice to its effect apart from this section, this Act also has effect as provided by this section.

             (2)  This Act, other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X, has, by force of this subsection, the effect it would have if:

                     (a) any references in this Act other than in section 45DB, 55 or 75AZH to trade or commerce were, by express provision, confined to trade or commerce:

                              (i)  between Australia and places outside Australia; or

                             (ii)  among the States; or

                            (iii)  within a Territory, between a State and a Territory or between two Territories; or

                            (iv)  by way of the supply of goods or services to the Commonwealth or an authority or instrumentality of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ, 44ZZRK, 45, 45B, 45D to 45EB (other than section 45DB), 46, 46A, 53B and 60, subsections 64(3) and (4), Division 1AAA of Part V, sections 75A, 75AZE, 75AZN, 75AZO, subsections 75AZQ(4) to (7) (inclusive) and Part VIII were, by express provision, confined in their operation to engaging in conduct to the extent to which the conduct takes place in the course of or in relation to:

                              (i)  trade or commerce between Australia and places outside Australia; or

                             (ii)  trade or commerce among the States; or

                            (iii)  trade or commerce within a Territory, between a State and a Territory or between two Territories; or

                            (iv)  the supply of goods or services to the Commonwealth or an authority or instrumentality of the Commonwealth; and

                     (c)  any reference in Division 2 of Part V to a contract for the supply of goods or services and any reference in Division 2A of that Part or in Part VA to the supply of goods, were, by express provision, confined to a contract made, or the supply of goods, as the case may be:

                              (i)  in the course of, or in relation to, trade or commerce between Australia and places outside Australia; or

                             (ii)  in the course of, or in relation to, trade or commerce among the States; or

                            (iii)  in the course of, or in relation to, trade or commerce within a Territory, between a State and a Territory or between two Territories; and

                    (ca)  any reference in Part 2 of the Australian Consumer Law to a contract were, by express provision, confined to a contract made:

                              (i)  in the course of, or in relation to, trade or commerce between Australia and places outside Australia; or

                             (ii)  in the course of, or in relation to, trade or commerce among the States; or

                            (iii)  in the course of, or in relation to, trade or commerce within a Territory, between a State and a Territory or between two Territories; and

                     (d)  in subsection 45(1) and subparagraph 87(3)(a)(i) the words “in so far as it confers rights or benefits or imposes duties or obligations on a corporation” were omitted; and

                     (e)  in subsection 45B(1) and subparagraph 87(3)(a)(ii) the words “in so far as it confers rights or benefits or imposes duties or obligations on a corporation or on a person associated with a corporation” were omitted; and

                    (ea)  subsections 45D(3), 45D(4) and 45DA(3) were repealed, the words “In the circumstances specified in subsections (3) and (4)” were omitted from subsection 45D(1) and the words “In the circumstances specified in subsection (3)” were omitted from subsection 45DA(1); and

                    (eb)  the second sentence in subsection 45E(1) were omitted; and

                     (g)  subsection 96(2) were omitted; and

                     (h)  subject to paragraphs (d), (e), (ea), (eb) and (g), a reference in this Act to a corporation, except a reference in section 4, 48, 49, 50, 50A, 77A, 81, 151AE or 151AJ, included a reference to a person not being a corporation.

          (2A)  So far as subsection (2) relates to Part IV, that subsection has effect in relation to a participating Territory as if the words “within a Territory,” were omitted from subparagraphs (2)(a)(iii) and (2)(b)(iii). For this purpose, participating Territory means a Territory that is a participating Territory within the meaning of Part XIA but is not named in a notice in operation under section 150K.

          (2C)  In addition to the effect that this Act (other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X) has as provided by another subsection of this section, this Act (other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X) has, by force of this subsection, the effect it would have if:

                     (a)  the reference in paragraph 44ZZRD(2)(c) to goods or services supplied, or likely to be supplied, were, by express provision, confined to goods or services supplied, or likely to be supplied, to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (b)  the reference in paragraph 44ZZRD(2)(d) to goods or services acquired, or likely to be acquired, were, by express provision, confined to goods or services acquired, or likely to be acquired, from corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (c)  the reference in paragraph 44ZZRD(2)(e) to goods or services re‑supplied, or likely to be re‑supplied, were, by express provision, confined to goods or services re‑supplied, or likely to be re‑supplied, to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (d)  the reference in paragraph 44ZZRD(2)(f) to goods or services likely to be re‑supplied were, by express provision, confined to goods or services likely to be re‑supplied to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (e)  the following paragraphs were added at the end of subsection 44ZZRD(2):

              “; or (g)  goods or services re‑supplied, or likely to be re‑supplied, by corporations or classes of corporations to whom those goods or services were supplied by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (h)  goods or services likely to be re‑supplied by corporations or classes of corporations to whom those goods or services are likely to be supplied by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding.”; and

                      (f)  the reference in subparagraph 44ZZRD(3)(a)(i) to the production, or likely production, of goods were, by express provision, confined to the production, or likely production, of goods for supply to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (g)  the reference in subparagraph 44ZZRD(3)(a)(ii) to the supply of services were, by express provision, confined to the supply of services to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (h)  each reference in subparagraphs 44ZZRD(3)(a)(iii), (b)(i) and (ii) to persons or classes of persons were, by express provision, confined to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                      (i)  the reference in subparagraph 44ZZRD(3)(b)(iii) to the geographical areas in which goods or services are supplied, or likely to be supplied, were, by express provision, confined to the geographical areas in which goods or services are supplied, or likely to be supplied, to corporations or classes of corporations; and

                      (j)  the reference in subparagraph 44ZZRD(3)(b)(iv) to the geographical areas in which goods or services are acquired, or likely to be acquired, were, by express provision, confined to the geographical areas in which goods or services are acquired, or likely to be acquired, from corporations or classes of corporations; and

                     (k)  the reference in paragraph 44ZZRD(3)(c) to the supply or acquisition of goods or services were, by express provision, confined to supply of goods or services to, or the acquisition of goods or services from, corporations or classes of corporations; and

                      (l)  the reference in paragraph 44ZZRD(4)(e) to paragraph (2)(e) or (f) included a reference to paragraph (2)(g) or (h); and

                    (m)  section 44ZZRD also provided that it is immaterial whether the identities of the corporations referred to in subsection (2) or (3) of that section can be ascertained; and

                     (n)  each reference in the following provisions of this Act:

                              (i)  Division 1 of Part IV (other than section 44ZZRD);

                             (ii)  any other provision (other than section 4, 44ZZRD, 151AE or 151AJ or this subsection or subsection (5A)) to the extent to which it relates to Division 1 of Part IV;

                            to a corporation included a reference to a person not being a corporation.

For the purposes of this subsection, likely and production have the same meaning as in Division 1 of Part IV.

          (2D)  In addition to the effect that this Act (other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X) has as provided by another subsection of this section, this Act (other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X) has, by force of this subsection, the effect it would have if:

                     (a)  sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK were, by express provision, confined in their operation to engaging in conduct to the extent to which the conduct involves the use of, or relates to, a postal, telegraphic, telephonic or other like service within the meaning of paragraph 51(v) of the Constitution; and

                     (b)  each reference in the following provisions of this Act:

                              (i)  Division 1 of Part IV;

                             (ii)  any other provision (other than section 4, 151AE or 151AJ or this subsection or subsection (5A)) to the extent to which it relates to Division 1 of Part IV;

                            to a corporation included a reference to a person not being a corporation.

           (2E)  In addition to the effect that this Act (other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X) has as provided by another subsection of this section, this Act (other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X) has, by force of this subsection, the effect it would have if:

                     (a)  sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK were, by express provision, confined in their operation to engaging in conduct to the extent to which the conduct takes place in, or relates to:

                              (i)  a Territory; or

                             (ii)  a Commonwealth place (within the meaning of the Commonwealth Places (Application of Laws) Act 1970); and

                     (b)  each reference in the following provisions of this Act:

                              (i)  Division 1 of Part IV;

                             (ii)  any other provision (other than section 4, 151AE or 151AJ or this subsection or subsection (5A)) to the extent to which it relates to Division 1 of Part IV;

                            to a corporation included a reference to a person not being a corporation.

             (3)  In addition to the effect that this Act, other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X, has as provided by another subsection of this section, the provisions of Part IVA, of Divisions 1, 1AAA, 1AA and 1A of Part V and of Divisions 2 and 3 of Part VC have, by force of this subsection, the effect they would have if:

                     (a)  those provisions (other than sections 55 and 75AZH) were, by express provision, confined in their operation to engaging in conduct to the extent to which the conduct involves the use of postal, telegraphic or telephonic services or takes place in a radio or television broadcast; and

                     (b)  a reference in those provisions to a corporation included a reference to a person not being a corporation.

          (3A)  In addition to the effect that this Act, other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X, has as provided by subsection (2), the provisions of Part 2 of the Australian Consumer Law have, by force of this subsection, the effect they would have if:

                     (a)  those provisions were, by express provision, confined in their operation to contracts for or relating to:

                              (i)  the use of postal, telegraphic or telephonic services; or

                             (ii)  radio or television broadcasts; and

                     (b)  a reference in the provisions of Part XI to a corporation included a reference to a person not being a corporation.

             (4)  In addition to the effect that this Act, other than Parts IIIA, VIIA and X, has as provided by another subsection of this section, the provisions of Part IVA and of Division 1 (other than sections 53A and 55) and Divisions 1AAA and 1AA of Part V and of Division 2 of Part VC (other than sections 75AZD, 75AZH and 75AZO) also have, by force of this subsection, the effect they would have if:

                     (a)  those provisions were, by express provision, confined in their operation to engaging in conduct in a Territory; and

                     (b)  a reference in those provisions to a thing done by a corporation in trade or commerce included a reference to a thing done in the course of the promotional activities of a professional person.

             (5)  In the application of section 73 in relation to a supplier who is a natural person, that section has effect as if there were substituted for paragraph 73(6)(a) the following paragraph:

                    “(a)  the supplier had died or is an undischarged bankrupt or a person whose affairs are being dealt with under Part X of the Bankruptcy Act 1966; or”.

          (5A)  Despite anything in section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG, if a body corporate other than a corporation is convicted of an offence against that section (as that section applies because of this section), the offence is taken to be punishable on conviction as if the body corporate were a corporation.

          (5B)  Despite anything in section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG, if a person other than a body corporate is convicted of an offence against that section (as that section applies because of this section), the offence is taken to be punishable on conviction by a term of imprisonment not exceeding 10 years or a fine not exceeding 2,000 penalty units, or both.

             (6)  Despite anything in Part VC, if a person other than a corporation is convicted of an offence against a provision of that Part, being a provision that applies in relation to the person as provided by this section, the offence is taken to be punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding 2,000 penalty units.

6AA  Application of the Criminal Code

             (1)  Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code applies to all offences against this Act.

Note:          Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), Part 2.5 of the Criminal Code does not apply to an offence against Part IIIA, VC or XIC, Division 7 of Part XIB, or section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG.


 

Part IIThe Australian Competition and Consumer Commission

  

6A  Establishment of Commission

             (1)  The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission is established by this section.

             (2)  The Commission:

                     (a)  is a body corporate, with perpetual succession;

                     (b)  shall have an official seal;

                     (c)  may acquire, hold and dispose of real and personal property; and

                     (d)  may sue or be sued in its corporate name.

7  Constitution of Commission

             (1)  The Commission shall consist of a Chairperson and such number of other members as are from time to time appointed in accordance with this Act.

             (2)  The members of the Commission shall be appointed by the Governor‑General and shall be so appointed as full‑time members.

Note:          A member of the Commission who is also appointed as an AER member remains a full‑time member of the Commission: see section 44AN.

             (3)  Before the Governor‑General appoints a person as a member of the Commission or as Chairperson, the Minister must:

                     (a)  be satisfied that the person qualifies for the appointment because of the person’s knowledge of, or experience in, industry, commerce, economics, law, public administration or consumer protection; and

                     (b)  consider whether the person has knowledge of, or experience in, small business matters; and

                     (c)  if there is at least one fully‑participating jurisdiction—be satisfied that a majority of such jurisdictions support the appointment.

             (4)  At least one of the members of the Commission must be a person who has knowledge of, or experience in, consumer protection.

8  Terms and conditions of appointment

             (1)  Subject to this Part, a member of the Commission holds office for such period, not exceeding 5 years, as is specified in the instrument of his or her appointment and on such terms and conditions as the Governor‑General determines, but is eligible for re‑appointment.

8A  Associate members

             (1)  The Minister may appoint persons to be associate members of the Commission.

          (1A)  If there is at least one fully‑participating jurisdiction, the Minister must not appoint a person as an associate member unless the Minister is satisfied that a majority of such jurisdictions support the appointment.

             (2)  An associate member of the Commission shall be appointed for such period not exceeding 5 years as is specified in the instrument of his or her appointment, but is eligible for re‑appointment.

             (3)  Subject to this Part, an associate member of the Commission holds office on such terms and conditions as the Minister determines.

             (4)  The Chairperson may, by writing signed by him or her, direct that, for the purposes of the exercise of the powers of the Commission under this Act in relation to a specified matter, not being an exercise of those powers by a Division of the Commission, a specified associate member of the Commission or specified associate members of the Commission shall be deemed to be a member or members of the Commission and, in that case, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference in this Act to a member of the Commission shall, for the purposes only of the exercise of the powers of the Commission in relation to that matter, be construed as including a reference to that associate member of the Commission or each of those associate members of the Commission, as the case may be.

             (5)  Associate members of the Commission shall be deemed to be members of the Commission for the purposes of section 19.

             (6)  For the purpose of the determination by the Commission of an application for an authorization or a clearance, or the making by the Commission of any decision for the purposes of subsection 93(3) or (3A) or 93AC(1) or (2), the Chairperson shall consider:

                     (a)  whether he or she should give a direction under subsection (4) of this section; or

                     (b)  in the case of a matter in relation to which the Chairperson proposes to give a direction under subsection 19(1), whether he or she should direct that the Division concerned is to include an associate member of the Commission or associate members of the Commission.

             (7)  Nothing in subsection (4) or (5) deems an associate member of the Commission to be a member of the Commission for any purpose related to the preparation of a report by the Commission under section 171.

8AB  State/Territory AER members taken to be associate members

             (1)  A State/Territory AER member is taken to be an associate member of the Commission during the period for which he or she is an AER member.

Note:          A State/Territory AER member who is taken to be an associate member of the Commission can still be appointed as an associate member under section 8A.

             (2)  However, a State/Territory AER member who is taken to be an associate member under subsection (1), is not taken to be an associate member for the purposes of sections 8A, 9, 14, 15 and 17.

             (3)  As an associate member, the State/Territory AER member holds office on such terms and conditions as are specified in the instrument of his or her appointment under section 44AP.

9  Remuneration

             (1)  A member of the Commission shall be paid such remuneration as is determined by the Remuneration Tribunal, but, until that remuneration is so determined, he or she shall be paid such remuneration as is prescribed.

             (2)  Subject to the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973, a member of the Commission shall be paid such allowances as are prescribed.

             (3)  In this section, member of the Commission includes an associate member of the Commission.

10  Deputy Chairpersons

             (1)  The Governor‑General may appoint a person who is, or is to be, a member of the Commission to be a Deputy Chairperson of the Commission.

          (1A)  If there is at least one fully‑participating jurisdiction, the Governor‑General must not appoint a person as a Deputy Chairperson unless the Governor‑General is satisfied that a majority of such jurisdictions support the appointment.

          (1B)  Before the Governor‑General appoints a person as a Deputy Chairperson, the Minister must be satisfied that, immediately after the appointment, there will be at least one Deputy Chairperson who has knowledge of, or experience in, small business matters.

             (2)  A person appointed under this section holds office as Deputy Chairperson until the expiration of his or her period of appointment as a member of the Commission or until he or she sooner ceases to be a member of the Commission.

             (3)  Where a member of the Commission appointed as Deputy Chairperson is, upon ceasing to be a Deputy Chairperson by virtue of the expiration of the period of his or her appointment as a member, re‑appointed as a member, he or she is eligible for re‑appointment as Deputy Chairperson.

             (4)  A Deputy Chairperson may resign his or her office of Deputy Chairperson by writing signed by him or her and delivered to the Governor‑General.

             (5)  Not more than 2 persons may hold office as Deputy Chairperson at any one time.

11  Acting Chairperson

             (1)  Where there is, or is expected to be, a vacancy in the office of Chairperson, the Governor‑General may appoint a person to act as Chairperson until the filling of the vacancy.

          (1A)  A person appointed under subsection (1) to act during a vacancy shall not continue so to act for more than 12 months.

             (2)  Where the Chairperson is absent from duty or from Australia:

                     (a)  if there are 2 Deputy Chairpersons available to act as Chairperson, the Minister may appoint 1 of them to act as Chairperson during the absence of the Chairperson; or

                     (b)  if there is only 1 Deputy Chairperson available to act as Chairperson, that Deputy Chairperson is to act as Chairperson during the absence of the Chairperson; or

                     (c)  if there are no Deputy Chairpersons or none of the Deputy Chairpersons are available to act as Chairperson, the Minister may appoint a member of the Commission to act as Chairperson during the absence of the Chairperson, but any such appointment ceases to have effect if a person is appointed as a Deputy Chairperson or a Deputy Chairperson becomes available to act as Chairperson.

             (3)  A person acting as Chairperson shall act in that capacity on such terms and conditions as the Governor‑General determines and has all the powers and duties, and shall perform all the functions, conferred on the Chairperson by this Act.

12  Leave of absence

             (1)  A member of the Commission has such recreation leave entitlements as are determined by the Remuneration Tribunal.

             (2)  The Minister may grant a member of the Commission leave of absence, other than recreation leave, on such terms and conditions as to remuneration or otherwise as the Minister determines.

13  Termination of appointment of members of the Commission

             (1)  The Governor‑General may terminate the appointment of a member of the Commission for misbehaviour or physical or mental incapacity.

             (2)  If a member of the Commission:

                     (a)  becomes bankrupt, applies to take the benefit of any law for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors, compounds with his or her creditors or makes an assignment of his or her remuneration for their benefit;

                     (b)  fails to comply with his or her obligations under section 17;

                     (c)  without the consent of the Minister engages in any paid employment outside the duties of his or her office; or

                     (d)  is absent from duty, except on leave of absence, for 14 consecutive days or for 28 days in any 12 months;

the Governor‑General shall terminate the appointment of that member of the Commission.

14  Termination of appointment of associate members of the Commission

             (1)  The Minister may terminate the appointment of an associate member of the Commission for misbehaviour or physical or mental incapacity.

             (2)  If an associate member of the Commission:

                     (a)  becomes bankrupt, applies to take the benefit of any law for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors, compounds with his or her creditors or makes an assignment of his or her remuneration for their benefit; or

                     (b)  fails to comply with his or her obligations under section 17;

the Minister shall terminate the appointment of that associate member of the Commission.

15  Resignation

             (1)  A member of the Commission may resign his or her office by writing signed by him or her and delivered to the Governor‑General.

             (2)  An associate member of the Commission may resign his or her office by writing signed by him or her and delivered to the Minister.

16  Arrangement of business

                   The Chairperson may give directions as to the arrangement of the business of the Commission.

17   Disclosure of interests by members

             (1)  Where a member of the Commission other than the Chairperson is taking part, or is to take part, in the determination of a matter before the Commission and the member has or acquires any pecuniary interest that could conflict with the proper performance of his or her functions in relation to the determination of the matter:

                     (a)  the member shall disclose the interest to the Chairperson; and

                     (b)  the member shall not take part, or continue to take part, in the determination of the matter if:

                              (i)  the Chairperson gives a direction under paragraph (2)(a) in relation to the matter; or

                             (ii)  all of the persons concerned in the matter do not consent to the member taking part in the determination of the matter.

             (2)  Where the Chairperson becomes aware that a member of the Commission is taking part, or is to take part, in the determination of a matter and that the member has in relation to the determination of the matter such an interest:

                     (a)  if the Chairperson considers that the member should not take part, or should not continue to take part, in the determination of the matter—the Chairperson shall give a direction to the member accordingly; or

                     (b)  in any other case—the Chairperson shall cause the interest of the member to be disclosed to the persons concerned in the matter.

             (3)  The Chairperson shall give written notice to the Minister of all pecuniary interests that the Chairperson has or acquires in any business carried on in Australia or in any body corporate carrying on any such business.

             (4)  In this section, member of the Commission includes an associate member of the Commission.

18  Meetings of Commission

             (1)  Subject to this section, the Chairperson shall convene such meetings of the Commission as he or she thinks necessary for the efficient performance of the functions of the Commission.

             (2)  Meetings of the Commission shall be held at such places as the Chairperson determines.

             (3)  The Chairperson shall preside at all meetings of the Commission at which he or she is present.

             (4)  In the absence of the Chairperson from a meeting of the Commission:

                     (a)  if there are 2 Deputy Chairpersons available to preside at the meeting—the Chairperson may nominate 1 of them to preside at the meeting; or

                     (b)  if there is only 1 Deputy Chairperson available to preside at the meeting—that Deputy Chairperson is to preside at the meeting.

             (5)  Subject to this Act and the regulations, the member presiding at a meeting of the Commission may give directions regarding the procedure to be followed at or in connexion with the meeting.

             (6)  At a meeting of the Commission:

                     (a)  three members (including the Chairperson or a Deputy Chairperson) form a quorum;

                     (b)  all questions shall be decided by a majority of votes of the members present and voting; and

                     (c)  the member presiding has a deliberative vote and, in the event of an equality of votes, also has a casting vote.

             (7)  If the Commission so determines, a member or members may participate in, and form part of a quorum at, a meeting of the Commission or a Division of the Commission by means of any of the following methods of communication:

                     (a)  telephone;

                     (b)  closed circuit television;

                     (c)  another method of communication determined by the Commission.

             (8)  A determination made by the Commission under subsection (7) may be made in respect of a particular meeting or meetings of the Commission or a Division of the Commission or in respect of all meetings of the Commission or a Division of the Commission.

19  Chairperson may direct Commission to sit in Divisions

             (1)  The Chairperson may, by writing signed by him or her, direct that the powers of the Commission under this Act in relation to a matter shall be exercised by a Division of the Commission constituted by the Chairperson and such other members (not being less than two in number) as are specified in the direction.

             (2)  Where the Chairperson has given a direction under subsection (1), he or she may, by writing signed by him or her, at any time before the Division of the Commission specified in the direction has made a determination in relation to the matter, revoke the direction or amend the direction in relation to the membership of the Division or in any other respect, and where the membership of a Division of the Commission is changed, the Division as constituted after the change may complete the determination of the matter.

             (3)  For the purposes of the determination of a matter specified in a direction given under subsection (1), the Commission shall be deemed to consist of the Division of the Commission specified in the direction.

             (4)  The Chairperson is not required to attend a meeting of a Division of the Commission if he or she does not think fit to do so.

             (5)  At a meeting of a Division of the Commission at which neither the Chairperson nor a Deputy Chairperson is presiding, a member of the Commission nominated for the purpose by the Chairperson shall preside.

             (6)  Notwithstanding section 18, at a meeting of a Division of the Commission, two members form a quorum.

             (7)  A Division of the Commission may exercise powers of the Commission under this Act notwithstanding that another Division of the Commission is exercising powers of the Commission at the same time.

25  Delegation by Commission

             (1)  The Commission may, by resolution, delegate to a member of the Commission, either generally or otherwise as provided by the instrument of delegation, any of its powers under this Act (other than Part VIIA or section 152ELA), Procedural Rules under Part XIC, the Telecommunications Act 1997, the Telecommunications (Consumer Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999, the Water Act 2007, Rules of Conduct under Part 20 of the Telecommunications Act 1997 or the Australian Postal Corporation Act 1989, other than this power of delegation and its powers to grant, revoke or vary an authorization or a clearance.

Note:          Section 95ZD allows the Commission to delegate certain powers under Part VIIA to a member of the Commission.

             (2)  A power so delegated may be exercised or performed by the delegate in accordance with the instrument of delegation.

             (3)  A delegation under this section is revocable at will and does not prevent the exercise of a power by the Commission.

26  Delegation by Commission in relation to unconscionable conduct and consumer protection

             (1)  The Commission may, by resolution, delegate any of its functions and powers under or in relation to Parts IVA, V, VC and VI and any of its powers under Part XII that relate to those Parts, to a staff member of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission within the meaning of section 5 of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001.

             (2)  The Commission must not delegate a function or power under subsection (1) unless the Chairperson of the Australian Securities and Investments Commission has agreed to the delegation in writing.

27  Staff of Commission

             (1)  The staff necessary to assist the Commission shall be persons engaged under the Public Service Act 1999.

             (2)  For the purposes of the Public Service Act 1999:

                     (a)  the Chairperson of the Commission and the APS employees assisting the Chairperson together constitute a Statutory Agency; and

                     (b)  the Chairperson is the Head of that Statutory Agency.

27A  Consultants

             (1)  On behalf of the Commonwealth, the Commission may engage persons to give advice to, and perform services for, the Commission.

             (2)  The terms and conditions of engagement are as determined by the Commission.

28  Functions of Commission in relation to dissemination of information, law reform and research

             (1)  In addition to any other functions conferred on the Commission, the Commission has the following functions:

                     (a)  to make available to persons engaged in trade or commerce and other interested persons general information for their guidance with respect to the carrying out of the functions, or the exercise of the powers, of the Commission under this Act;

                     (b)  to examine critically, and report to the Minister on, the laws in force in Australia relating to the protection of consumers in respect of matters referred to the Commission by the Minister, being matters with respect to which the Parliament has power to make laws;

                     (c)  to conduct research in relation to matters affecting the interests of consumers, being matters with respect to which the Parliament has power to make laws;

                    (ca)  to conduct research and undertake studies on matters that are referred to the Commission by the Council and that relate to the Commission’s other functions;

                     (d)  to make available to the public general information in relation to matters affecting the interests of consumers, being matters with respect to which the Parliament has power to make laws;

                     (e)  to make known for the guidance of consumers the rights and obligations of persons under provisions of laws in force in Australia that are designed to protect the interests of consumers.

             (2)  Where a matter of a kind mentioned in paragraph (1)(b) is referred by the Minister to the Commission for examination and report:

                     (a)  the Commission shall cause to be published in the Gazette and in such newspapers and other journals as the Commission considers appropriate a notice:

                              (i)  stating that the reference has been made and specifying the matter to which the reference relates; and

                             (ii)  inviting interested persons to furnish to the Commission their views on that matter and specifying the time and manner within which those views are to be furnished;

                     (b)  the Commission shall not furnish its report to the Minister until a reasonable opportunity has been given to interested persons to furnish to the Commission their views on the matter to which the reference relates; and

                     (c)  the Commission shall include in its report to the Minister any recommendations that it considers desirable with respect to the reform of the law relating to the matter to which the reference relates, whether those recommendations relate to the amendment of existing laws or the making of new laws.

             (3)  The Minister shall cause a copy of each report furnished to him or her by the Commission in relation to a matter referred to the Commission under paragraph (1)(b) to be laid before each House of the Parliament as soon as practicable after the report is received by him or her.

29  Commission to comply with directions of Minister and requirements of the Parliament

             (1)  The Minister may give the Commission directions connected with the performance of its functions or the exercise of its powers under this Act.

          (1A)  The Minister must not give directions under subsection (1) relating to:

                     (a)  Part IIIA, IV,VII, VIIA, X, XIB or XIC; or

                     (b)  section 65J, 65K, 65M or 65N in relation to individual cases.

          (1B)  The Commission must comply with a direction.

             (2)  Any direction given to the Commission under subsection (1) shall be in writing and the Minister shall cause a copy of the direction to be published in the Gazette as soon as practicable after the direction is given.

             (3)  If either House of the Parliament or a Committee of either House, or of both Houses, of the Parliament requires the Commission to furnish to that House or Committee any information concerning the performance of the functions of the Commission under this Act, the Commission shall comply with the requirement.


 

Part IIAThe National Competition Council

  

29A  Establishment of Council

                   The National Competition Council is established by this section.

29B  Functions and powers of Council

             (1)  The Council’s functions include:

                     (a)  carrying out research into matters referred to the Council by the Minister; and

                     (b)  providing advice on matters referred to the Council by the Minister.

             (2)  The Council may:

                     (a)  perform any function conferred on it by a law of the Commonwealth, or of a State or Territory; and

                     (b)  exercise any power:

                              (i)  conferred by that law to facilitate the performance of that function; or

                             (ii)  necessary or convenient to permit the performance of that function.

          (2A)  The Council must not, under subsection (2):

                     (a)  perform a function conferred on it by a law of a State or Territory; or

                     (b)  exercise a power that is so conferred;

unless the conferral of the function or power is in accordance with the Competition Principles Agreement.

          (2B)  Subsection (2) does not apply to a State/Territory energy law.

Note:          Section 29BA provides that a State/Territory energy law may confer functions or powers, or impose duties, on the Council.

             (3)  In performing its functions, the Council may co‑operate with a department, body or authority of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory.

29BA  Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on Council

             (1)  A State/Territory energy law may confer functions or powers, or impose duties, on the Council for the purposes of that law.

Note:          Section 29BC sets out when such a law imposes a duty on the Council.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not authorise the conferral of a function or power, or the imposition of a duty, by a State/Territory energy law to the extent to which:

                     (a)  the conferral or imposition, or the authorisation, would contravene any constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the Council; or

                     (b)  the authorisation would otherwise exceed the legislative power of the Commonwealth.

             (3)  The Council cannot perform a duty or function, or exercise a power, under a State/Territory energy law unless the conferral of the function or power, or the imposition of the duty, is in accordance with an agreement between the Commonwealth and the State or Territory concerned.

29BB  How duty is imposed

Application

             (1)  This section applies if a State/Territory energy law purports to impose a duty on the Council.

Note:          Section 29BC sets out when such a law imposes a duty on the Council.

State or Territory legislative power sufficient to support duty

             (2)  The duty is taken not to be imposed by this Part (or any other law of the Commonwealth) to the extent to which:

                     (a)  imposing the duty is within the legislative powers of the State or Territory concerned; and

                     (b)  imposing the duty by the law of the State or Territory is consistent with the constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the Council.

Note:          If this subsection applies, the duty will be taken to be imposed by force of the law of the State or Territory (the Commonwealth having consented under section 29BA to the imposition of the duty by that law).

Commonwealth legislative power sufficient to support duty but State or Territory legislative powers are not

             (3)  If, to ensure the validity of the purported imposition of the duty, it is necessary that the duty be imposed by a law of the Commonwealth (rather than by the law of the State or Territory), the duty is taken to be imposed by this Part to the extent necessary to ensure that validity.

             (4)  If, because of subsection (3), this Part is taken to impose the duty, it is the intention of the Parliament to rely on all powers available to it under the Constitution to support the imposition of the duty by this Part.

             (5)  The duty is taken to be imposed by this Part in accordance with subsection (3) only to the extent to which imposing the duty:

                     (a)  is within the legislative powers of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  is consistent with the constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the Council.

             (6)  Subsections (1) to (5) do not limit section 29BA.

29BC  When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty

                   For the purposes of sections 29BA and 29BB, a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty on the Council if:

                     (a)  the law confers a function or power on the Council; and

                     (b)  the circumstances in which the function or power is conferred give rise to an obligation on the Council to perform the function or to exercise the power.

29C  Membership of Council

             (1)  The Council consists of the Council President and up to 4 other Councillors.

             (2)  Each Councillor is to be appointed by the Governor‑General, for a term of up to 5 years.

             (3)  The Governor‑General must not appoint a person as a Councillor or Council President unless the Governor‑General is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the person qualifies for the appointment because of the person’s knowledge of, or experience in, industry, commerce, economics, law, consumer protection or public administration; and

                     (b)  a majority of the States and Territories that are parties to the Competition Principles Agreement support the appointment.

29D  Terms and conditions of office

             (1)  A Councillor may be appointed to hold office on either a full‑time or a part‑time basis.

             (2)  A Councillor holds office on such terms and conditions (if any) in respect of matters not provided for by this Act as the Governor‑General determines.

29E  Acting Council President

             (1)  The Minister may appoint a Councillor to act as the Council President:

                     (a)  if there is a vacancy in the office of Council President, whether or not an appointment has previously been made to the office; or

                     (b)  during any period, or during all periods, when the Council President is absent from duty or absent from Australia or is, for any reason, unable to perform the duties of the office.

             (2)  Anything done by or in relation to a person purporting to act under this section is not invalid merely because:

                     (a)  the occasion for appointment had not arisen;

                     (b)  there was a defect or irregularity in the appointment;

                     (c)  the appointment had ceased to have effect;

                     (d)  the occasion to act had not arisen or had ceased.

29F  Remuneration of Councillors

             (1)  A Councillor is to be paid the remuneration that is determined by the Remuneration Tribunal. If no determination of the Remuneration Tribunal is in operation, the Councillor is to be paid the remuneration that is prescribed.

             (2)  A Councillor is to be paid such allowances as are prescribed.

             (3)  This section has effect subject to the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973.

29G  Leave of absence

             (1)  A full‑time Councillor has such recreation leave entitlements as are determined by the Remuneration Tribunal.

             (2)  The Minister may grant a full‑time Councillor leave of absence, other than recreation leave, on such terms and conditions as the Minister determines. The terms and conditions may include terms and conditions relating to remuneration.

29H  Termination of appointment of Councillors

             (1)  The Governor‑General may terminate the appointment of a Councillor for misbehaviour or for physical or mental incapacity.

             (2)  The Governor‑General must terminate the appointment of a Councillor who:

                     (a)  becomes bankrupt, applies to take the benefit of any law for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors, compounds with his or her creditors or makes an assignment of his or her remuneration for their benefit;

                     (b)  fails to comply with his or her obligations under section 29K;

                     (c)  in the case of a full‑time Councillor—engages in any paid employment outside the duties of the Councillor’s office without the consent of the Minister;

                     (d)  in the case of a full‑time Councillor—is absent from duty, except on leave of absence, for 14 consecutive days or for 28 days in any 12 months.

29I  Resignation of Councillors

                   A Councillor may resign by giving the Governor‑General a signed resignation notice.

29J  Arrangement of Council business

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), the Council President may give directions about the arrangement of the Council’s business.

             (2)  The Council must not carry out any work (other than work relating to a function under Part IIIA or VIIA) except in accordance with a program agreed to by:

                     (a)  a majority of the parties to the Competition Principles Agreement; or

                     (b)  if the parties to the Agreement are evenly divided on the question of agreeing to a program—the Commonwealth.

29K  Disclosure of interests by Councillors

             (1)  If a Councillor (except the Council President) is taking part, or is to take part, in the Council’s consideration of a matter and the Councillor has or acquires any pecuniary interest that could conflict with the proper performance of his or her functions relating to the matter:

                     (a)  the Councillor must disclose the interest to the Council President; and

                     (b)  the Councillor must not take part, or continue to take part, in the consideration of the matter if:

                              (i)  all of the persons concerned in the matter do not consent to the Councillor taking part in the consideration of the matter; or

                             (ii)  the Council President gives a direction to the member under paragraph (2)(b).

             (2)  If the Council President becomes aware that a Councillor is taking part, or is to take part, in the Council’s consideration of a matter and that the Councillor has such an interest relating to the matter:

                     (a)  the Council President must cause the Councillor’s interest to be disclosed to the persons concerned in the matter; or

                     (b)  if the Council President considers that the Councillor should not take part or continue to take part in the consideration of the matter—the Council President must direct the Councillor accordingly.

             (3)  The Council President must give the Minister written notice of all pecuniary interests that the Council President has or acquires in any business carried on in Australia or in any body corporate carrying on such business.

29L  Council meetings

             (1)  The Council President must convene the meetings that the Council President thinks are necessary to perform the Council’s functions efficiently.

             (2)  The meetings must be held in places determined by the Council President.

             (3)  The Council President must preside at any meeting that he or she attends.

             (4)  If the Council President is absent from a meeting, a Councillor chosen by the Councillors at the meeting must preside.

             (5)  The Councillor presiding at a meeting may give directions on the procedure to be followed in relation to the meeting.

             (6)  The quorum for a meeting is 3 Councillors (including the Council President).

             (7)  At a meeting, a question must be decided by a majority of votes of the Councillors present and voting. The Councillor presiding has a deliberative vote, and a casting vote if the deliberative votes are equally divided.

29M  Staff to help Council

             (1)  The staff needed to help the Council are to be persons engaged under the Public Service Act 1999.

             (2)  For the purposes of the Public Service Act 1999:

                     (a)  the Council President and the APS employees assisting the Council President together constitute a Statutory Agency; and

                     (b)  the Council President is the Head of that Statutory Agency.

29N  Consultants

             (1)  On behalf of the Commonwealth, the Council may engage persons to give advice to, and perform services for, the Council.

             (2)  The terms and conditions of engagement are as determined by the Council.

29O  Annual report

             (1)  Within 60 days after the end of each financial year, the Councillors must give a report on the Council’s operations during that year to the Minister for presentation to the Parliament.

             (2)  The report must also include details of the following:

                     (a)  the time taken by the Council to make a recommendation on any application under section 44F, 44M or 44NA (about access regime applications under Part IIIA);

                     (b)  any court or Tribunal decision interpreting:

                              (i)  paragraph (f) of the definition of service in section 44B (which is an exclusion to do with production processes); or

                             (ii)  any of the matters mentioned in subsection 44H(4) (about matters relevant to declaring services under Part IIIA);

                     (c)  any matter the Council considers has impeded the operation of Part IIIA from delivering efficient access outcomes;

                     (d)  any evidence of the benefits arising from determinations of the Commission under section 44V (about arbitration determinations under Part IIIA);

                     (e)  any evidence of the costs of, or the disincentives for, investment in the infrastructure by which declared services (within the meaning of Part IIIA) are provided;

                      (f)  any implications for the operation of Part IIIA in the future.


 

Part IIIThe Australian Competition Tribunal

  

29P  Definition

                   In this Part, unless the contrary intention appears:

proceedings includes:

                     (a)  applications made to the Tribunal under Subdivision C of Division 3 of Part VII; and

                     (b)  applications made to the Tribunal under section 111 (about review of the Commission’s decisions on merger clearances).

30  Constitution of Tribunal

             (1)  The Trade Practices Tribunal that existed immediately before this subsection commenced continues to exist as the Australian Competition Tribunal.

             (2)  The Tribunal so continued in existence shall consist of a President and such number of Deputy Presidents and other members as are appointed in accordance with this section.

             (3)  A member of the Tribunal shall be appointed by the Governor‑General.

31  Qualifications of members of Tribunal

             (1)  A person shall not be appointed as a presidential member of the Tribunal unless he or she is a Judge of a Federal Court, not being the High Court or a court of an external Territory.

             (2)  A person shall not be appointed as a member of the Tribunal other than a presidential member unless he or she appears to the Governor‑General to be qualified for appointment by virtue of his or her knowledge of, or experience in, industry, commerce, economics, law or public administration.

31A  Appointment of Judge as presidential member of Tribunal not to affect tenure etc.

                   The appointment of a Judge of a Federal Court as a presidential member of the Tribunal, or service by a Judge of a Federal Court as a presidential member of the Tribunal, whether the appointment was or is made or the service occurred or occurs before or after the commencement of this section, does not affect, and shall be deemed never to have affected, his or her tenure of office as a Judge of a Federal Court or his or her rank, title, status, precedence, salary, annual or other allowances or other rights or privileges as the holder of his or her office as a Judge of a Federal Court and, for all purposes, his or her service, whether before or after the commencement of this section, as a presidential member of the Tribunal shall be taken to have been, or to be, service as the holder of his or her office as a Judge of a Federal Court.

32  Terms and conditions of appointment

                   Subject to this Part, a member of the Tribunal holds office for such period, not exceeding 7 years, as is specified in the instrument of his or her appointment and on such terms and conditions as the Governor‑General determines, but is eligible for re‑appointment.

33  Remuneration and allowances of members of Tribunal

             (4)  A member of the Tribunal other than a presidential member shall be paid such remuneration as is determined by the Remuneration Tribunal.

             (5)  A member of the Tribunal other than a presidential member shall be paid such allowances as are prescribed.

             (6)  Subsections (4) and (5) have effect subject to the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973.

34  Acting appointments

             (1)  Where:

                     (a)  the President is, or is expected to be, absent from duty; or

                     (b)  there is, or is expected to be, a vacancy in the office of President;

the Minister may appoint a Deputy President or an acting Deputy President to act as President during the absence, or while there is a vacancy in the office of President, as the case may be.

             (2)  Where a presidential member (including the President) of the Tribunal is, or is expected to be, absent from duty, the Governor‑General may appoint a person qualified to be appointed as a presidential member to act as a Deputy President during the absence from duty of the member.

             (3)  Where a member of the Tribunal other than a presidential member is, or is expected to be, absent from duty, the Governor‑General may appoint a person qualified to be appointed as a member of the Tribunal other than a presidential member to act as such a member during the absence from duty of the member.

             (4)  Where a person has been appointed under subsection (2) or (3), the Governor‑General may, by reason of pending proceedings or other special circumstances, direct, before the absent member of the Tribunal resumes duty, that the person so appointed shall continue to act under the appointment after the resumption of duty by the absent member until the Governor‑General terminates the appointment, but a person shall not continue to act as a member of the Tribunal by virtue of this subsection for more than 12 months after the resumption of duty by the absent member.

             (5)  Where a person has been appointed under this section to act as a member of the Tribunal during the absence from duty of a member of the Tribunal, and that member ceases to hold office without having resumed duty, the period of appointment of the person so appointed shall be deemed to continue until it is terminated by the Governor‑General, or until the expiration of 12 months from the date on which the absent member ceases to hold office, whichever first happens.

35  Suspension and removal of members of Tribunal

             (1)  The Governor‑General may suspend a member of the Tribunal from office on the ground of misbehaviour or physical or mental incapacity.

             (2)  The Minister shall cause a statement of the ground of the suspension to be laid before each House of the Parliament within 7 sitting days of the House after the suspension.

             (3)  Where such a statement has been laid before a House of the Parliament, that House may, within 15 sitting days of that House after the day on which the statement has been laid before it, by resolution, declare that the member of the Tribunal should be restored to office and, if each House so passes a resolution, the Governor‑General shall terminate the suspension.

             (4)  If, at the expiration of 15 sitting days of a House of the Parliament after the day on which the statement has been laid before that House, that House has not passed such a resolution, the Governor‑General may remove the member of the Tribunal from office.

             (5)  If a member of the Tribunal becomes bankrupt, applies to take the benefit of any law for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors, compounds with his or her creditors or makes an assignment of his or her remuneration for their benefit, the Governor‑General shall remove him or her from office.

             (6)  A member of the Tribunal shall not be removed from office except as provided by this section.

             (7)  A presidential member of the Tribunal ceases to hold office if he or she no longer holds office as a Judge of a Federal Court, not being the High Court or a court of an external Territory.

36  Resignation

                   A member of the Tribunal may resign his or her office by writing signed by him or her and delivered to the Governor‑General.

37  Constitution of Tribunal for particular matters

                   The Tribunal shall, for the purpose of hearing and determining proceedings, be constituted by a Division of the Tribunal consisting of a presidential member of the Tribunal and two members of the Tribunal who are not presidential members.

38  Validity of determinations

                   The validity of a determination of the Tribunal shall not be affected or called in question by reason of any defect or irregularity in the constitution of the Tribunal.

39  President may give directions

             (1)  The President may give directions as to the arrangement of the business of the Tribunal and the constitution of Divisions of the Tribunal.

             (2)  The President may give directions to the Deputy Presidents in relation to the exercise by the Deputy Presidents of powers with respect to matters of procedure in proceedings before the Tribunal.

Note:          Subsection 103(2) provides that any presidential member may exercise powers with respect to matters of procedure in proceedings before the Tribunal.

40  Disclosure of interests by members of Tribunal

             (1)  Where a member of the Tribunal is, or is to be, a member of a Division of the Tribunal in any proceedings and the member has or acquires any pecuniary interest that could conflict with the proper performance of his or her functions in relation to the proceedings:

                     (a)  the member shall disclose the interest to the President; and

                     (b)  the member shall not take part, or continue to take part, in the proceedings if:

                              (i)  the President gives a direction under paragraph (2)(a) in relation to the proceedings; or

                             (ii)  all of the persons concerned in the proceedings do not consent to the member taking part in the proceedings.

             (2)  Where the President becomes aware that a member of the Tribunal is, or is to be, a member of a Division of the Tribunal in any proceedings and that the member has in relation to the proceedings such an interest:

                     (a)  if the President considers that the member should not take part, or should not continue to take part, in the
proceedings—the President shall give a direction to the member accordingly; or

                     (b)  in any other case—the President shall cause the interest of the member to be disclosed to the persons concerned in the proceedings.

41  Presidential member to preside

                   The presidential member who is a member of a Division shall preside at proceedings of that Division.

42  Decision of questions

             (1)  A question of law arising in a matter before a Division of the Tribunal (including the question whether a particular question is one of law) shall be determined in accordance with the opinion of the presidential member presiding.

             (2)  Subject to subsection (1), a question arising in proceedings before a Division of the Tribunal shall be determined in accordance with the opinion of a majority of the members constituting the Division.

43  Member of Tribunal ceasing to be available

             (1)  This section applies where the hearing of any proceedings has been commenced or completed by the Tribunal but, before the matter to which the proceedings relate has been determined, one of the members constituting the Tribunal for the purposes of the proceedings has ceased to be a member of the Tribunal or has ceased to be available for the purposes of the proceedings.

             (2)  Where the President is satisfied that this section applies in relation to proceedings, the President may direct that a specified member of the Tribunal shall take the place of the member referred to in subsection (1) for the purposes of the proceedings.

             (3)  Where this section applies in relation to proceedings that were being dealt with before the Tribunal, the President may, instead of giving a direction under subsection (2), direct that the hearing and determination, or the determination, of the proceedings be completed by the Tribunal constituted by the members other than the member referred to in subsection (1).

             (4)  Where the President has given a direction under subsection (3), he or she may, at any time before the determination of the proceedings, direct that a third member be added to the Tribunal as constituted in accordance with subsection (3).

             (5)  The Tribunal as constituted in accordance with any of the provisions of this section for the purposes of any proceedings may have regard to any record of the proceedings before the Tribunal as previously constituted.

43A  Counsel assisting Tribunal

             (1)  The President may, on behalf of the Commonwealth, appoint a legal practitioner to assist the Tribunal as counsel, either generally or in relation to a particular matter or matters.

             (2)  In this section:

legal practitioner means a legal practitioner (however described) of the High Court or of the Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

43B  Consultants

                   The Registrar may, on behalf of the Commonwealth, engage persons as consultants to, or to perform services for, the Tribunal.

44  Staff of Tribunal

             (1)  There shall be a Registrar of the Tribunal and such Deputy Registrars of the Tribunal as are appointed in accordance with this section.

             (2)  The Registrar and the Deputy Registrars shall be appointed by the Minister and shall have such duties and functions as are provided by this Act and the regulations and such other duties and functions as the President directs.

             (3)  The Registrar and the Deputy Registrars, and the staff necessary to assist them, shall be persons engaged under the Public Service Act 1999.

44A  Acting appointments

             (1)  The Minister may appoint a person who is engaged under the Public Service Act 1999 to act as the Registrar or as a Deputy Registrar during any period, or during all periods, when:

                     (a)  the Registrar or that Deputy Registrar, as the case may be, is absent from duty or from Australia or is, for any other reason, unable to perform the duties and functions of his or her office; or

                     (b)  there is a vacancy in the office of Registrar or in that office of Deputy Registrar, as the case may be.

             (2)  A person acting as the Registrar or as a Deputy Registrar by reason of a vacancy in the office of Registrar or of that Deputy Registrar shall not continue so to act after the expiration of 12 months after the occurrence of the vacancy.

             (3)  A person appointed to act as the Registrar or as a Deputy Registrar has, while acting as the Registrar or as that Deputy Registrar, as the case may be, all the duties and functions of the Registrar or of that Deputy Registrar, and references in this Act to the Registrar or to a Deputy Registrar shall:

                     (a)  if a person is acting as the Registrar—be read as a reference to the person so acting; or

                     (b)  if a person is acting as a Deputy Registrar—be read as including a reference to the person so acting.

             (4)  The Minister may at any time terminate an appointment of a person to act as the Registrar or as a Deputy Registrar.

             (5)  A person who holds an appointment to act as the Registrar or as a Deputy Registrar may resign his or her appointment by writing under his or her hand delivered to the Minister.

             (6)  The validity of an act done by a person appointed to act as the Registrar or as a Deputy Registrar shall not be questioned in any proceeding on a ground arising from the fact that the occasion for the appointment, or for him or her to act under the appointment, had not arisen or that the appointment had ceased to have effect or the occasion for him or her to act under the appointment had passed.


 

Part IIIAAThe Australian Energy Regulator (AER)

Division 1Preliminary

44AB  Definitions

                   In this Part, unless the contrary intention appears:

Australian Energy Market Agreement means the agreement, as amended from time to time:

                     (a)  that relates to energy; and

                     (b)  that is between the Commonwealth, all of the States, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; and

                     (c)  that is first made in 2004; and

                     (d)  that agrees to the establishment of the AER and the AEMC.

Commonwealth AER member means the member referred to in section 44AM.

full‑time AER member means an AER member appointed on a full‑time basis.

part‑time AER member means an AER member appointed on a part‑time basis.

44AC  This Part binds the Crown

                   This Part binds the Crown in each of its capacities.

44AD  Extra‑territorial operation

                   It is the intention of the Parliament that the operation of this Part should, as far as possible, include operation in relation to the following:

                     (a)  things situated in or outside Australia;

                     (b)  acts, transactions and matters done, entered into or occurring in or outside Australia;

                     (c)  things, acts, transactions and matters (wherever situated, done, entered into or occurring) that would, apart from this Act, be governed or otherwise affected by the law of a State, a Territory or a foreign country.


 

Division 2Establishment of the AER

44AE  Establishment of the AER

             (1)  The Australian Energy Regulator (the AER) is established by this section.

             (2)  The AER:

                     (a)  is a body corporate with perpetual succession; and

                     (b)  must have a common seal; and

                     (c)  may acquire, hold and dispose of real and personal property; and

                     (d)  may sue and be sued in its corporate name.

44AF  AER to hold money and property on behalf of the Commonwealth

                   The AER holds any money or property for and on behalf of the Commonwealth.

44AG  Constitution of the AER

                   The AER consists of:

                     (a)  a Commonwealth AER member, appointed in accordance with section 44AM; and

                     (b)  2 State/Territory AER members, appointed in accordance with section 44AP.


 

Division 3Functions and powers of the AER

44AH  Commonwealth functions

                   The AER has any functions:

                     (a)  conferred under a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  prescribed by regulations made under this Act.

Note:          The AER may have functions under the Australian Energy Market Act 2004.

44AI  Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on AER

             (1)  A State/Territory energy law may confer functions or powers, or impose duties, on the AER for the purposes of that law.

Note:          Section 44AK sets out when such a law imposes a duty on the AER.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not authorise the conferral of a function or power, or the imposition of a duty, by a State/Territory energy law to the extent to which:

                     (a)  the conferral or imposition, or the authorisation, would contravene any constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the AER; or

                     (b)  the authorisation would otherwise exceed the legislative power of the Commonwealth.

             (3)  The AER cannot perform a duty or function, or exercise a power, under a State/Territory energy law unless the conferral of the function or power, or the imposition of the duty, is in accordance with the Australian Energy Market Agreement, or any other relevant agreement between the Commonwealth and the State or Territory concerned.

44AJ  How duty is imposed

Application

             (1)  This section applies if a State/Territory energy law purports to impose a duty on the AER.

Note:          Section 44AK sets out when such a law imposes a duty on the AER.

State or Territory legislative power sufficient to support duty

             (2)  The duty is taken not to be imposed by this Part (or any other law of the Commonwealth) to the extent to which:

                     (a)  imposing the duty is within the legislative powers of the State or Territory concerned; and

                     (b)  imposing the duty by the law of the State or Territory is consistent with the constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the AER.

Note:          If this subsection applies, the duty will be taken to be imposed by force of the law of the State or Territory (the Commonwealth having consented under section 44AI to the imposition of the duty by that law).

Commonwealth legislative power sufficient to support duty but State or Territory legislative powers are not

             (3)  If, to ensure the validity of the purported imposition of the duty, it is necessary that the duty be imposed by a law of the Commonwealth (rather than by the law of the State or Territory), the duty is taken to be imposed by this Part to the extent necessary to ensure that validity.

             (4)  If, because of subsection (3), this Part is taken to impose the duty, it is the intention of the Parliament to rely on all powers available to it under the Constitution to support the imposition of the duty by this Part.

             (5)  The duty is taken to be imposed by this Part in accordance with subsection (3) only to the extent to which imposing the duty:

                     (a)  is within the legislative powers of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  is consistent with the constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the AER.

             (6)  Subsections (1) to (5) do not limit section 44AI.

44AK  When a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty

                   For the purposes of sections 44AI and 44AJ, a State/Territory energy law imposes a duty on the AER if:

                     (a)  the law confers a function or power on the AER; and

                     (b)  the circumstances in which the function or power is conferred give rise to an obligation on the AER to perform the function or to exercise the power.

44AL  Powers of the AER

                   The AER has power to do all things necessary or convenient to be done for or in connection with the performance of its functions.

Note:          State and Territory laws may also confer powers on the AER in respect of its functions under those laws: see section 44AI.


 

Division 4Administrative provisions relating to the AER

Subdivision AAppointment etc. of members

44AM  Appointment of Commonwealth AER member

             (1)  A Commonwealth AER member is to be appointed by the Governor‑General by written instrument.

             (2)  The Commonwealth AER member holds office for the period specified in the instrument of appointment. The period must not exceed 5 years.

             (3)  A person is not eligible for appointment as the Commonwealth AER member unless the person is a member of the Commission. If the person ceases to be a member of the Commission, then the person also ceases to be an AER member.

             (4)  A person is not eligible for appointment as the Commonwealth AER member unless the person has been chosen for appointment in accordance with the Australian Energy Market Agreement.

44AN  Membership of AER and Commission

Member taken to be full‑time member of both AER and Commission

             (1)  For the purposes of this Part, the Commonwealth AER member is taken to be a full‑time member of the AER.

             (2)  However, the Commonwealth AER member remains a full‑time member of the Commission.

Paid employment

             (3)  Paragraph 13(2)(c) does not apply to a member of the Commission in respect of any paid employment of that member as an AER member.

             (4)  Sections 44AX and 44AAB do not apply to an AER member in respect of the paid employment of that member as a member of the Commission.

44AO  Acting appointment of Commonwealth AER member

             (1)  The Chairperson may appoint a member of the Commission to act as the Commonwealth AER member:

                     (a)  during a vacancy in the office of Commonwealth AER member, whether or not an appointment has previously been made to the office; or

                     (b)  during any period, or during all periods, when the Commonwealth AER member is absent from duty or from Australia, or is, for any reason, unable to perform the duties of the office.

Note:          See also section 33A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, which contains extra rules about acting appointments.

             (2)  If a person acting as the Commonwealth AER member ceases to be a member of the Commission, then the appointment to act as the Commonwealth AER member also ceases.

             (3)  Anything done by or in relation to a person purporting to act under an appointment is not invalid merely because:

                     (a)  the occasion for the appointment had not arisen; or

                     (b)  there was a defect or irregularity in connection with the appointment; or

                     (c)  the appointment had ceased to have effect; or

                     (d)  the occasion to act had not arisen or had ceased.

44AP  Appointment of State/Territory AER members

             (1)  A State/Territory AER member is to be appointed by the Governor‑General by written instrument, on either a full‑time or part‑time basis.

Note:          A State/Territory AER member is also taken to be an associate member of the Commission: see section 8AB.

             (2)  A State/Territory AER member holds office for the period specified in the instrument of appointment. The period must not exceed 5 years.

             (3)  A person is not eligible for appointment as a State/Territory AER member unless the person, being a person who has knowledge of, or experience in, industry, commerce, economics, law, consumer protection or public administration, has been nominated for appointment in accordance with the Australian Energy Market Agreement.

44AQ  Acting appointment of State/Territory AER member

             (1)  The Minister may appoint a person to act as a State/Territory AER member:

                     (a)  during a vacancy in the office of State/Territory AER member, whether or not an appointment has previously been made to the office; or

                     (b)  during any period, or during all periods, when the State/Territory AER member is absent from duty or from Australia, or is, for any reason, unable to perform the duties of the office.

Note:          See also section 33A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, which contains extra rules about acting appointments.

             (2)  A person is not eligible for appointment to act as a State/Territory AER member unless the person, being a person who has knowledge of, or experience in, industry, commerce, economics, law, consumer protection or public administration, has been nominated for appointment in accordance with the Australian Energy Market Agreement.

44AR  AER Chair

             (1)  One of the AER members is to be appointed by the Governor‑General as the AER Chair, by written instrument. The appointment as AER Chair may be made at the same time as the appointment as AER member, or at a later time.

             (2)  A member is not eligible for appointment as AER Chair unless the person has been nominated for appointment as the Chair in accordance with the Australian Energy Market Agreement.

             (3)  The AER Chair holds office for the period specified in the instrument of appointment. The period must not exceed 5 years.

             (4)  If the AER Chair ceases to be an AER member, then he or she also ceases to be the AER Chair.

Note:          A person may cease to be the AER Chair without ceasing to be an AER member.

44AS  Acting AER Chair

             (1)  The Minister may appoint an AER member to act as the AER Chair:

                     (a)  during a vacancy in the office of the AER Chair, whether or not an appointment has previously been made to the office; or

                     (b)  during any period, or during all periods, when the AER Chair is absent from duty or from Australia, or is, for any reason, unable to perform the duties of the office.

Note:          See also section 33A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, which contains extra rules about acting appointments.

             (2)  If a person acting as the AER Chair ceases to be an AER member, then the appointment to act as the AER Chair also ceases.

             (3)  Anything done by or in relation to a person purporting to act under an appointment is not invalid merely because:

                     (a)  the occasion for the appointment had not arisen; or

                     (b)  there was a defect or irregularity in connection with the appointment; or

                     (c)  the appointment had ceased to have effect; or

                     (d)  the occasion to act had not arisen or had ceased.

44AT  Remuneration of AER members

             (1)  An AER member (other than the Commonwealth AER member) is to be paid the remuneration that is determined by the Remuneration Tribunal. If no determination of that remuneration by the Tribunal is in operation, the member is to be paid the remuneration that is prescribed.

             (2)  An AER member (other than the Commonwealth AER member) is to be paid the allowances that are prescribed.

             (3)  Subsections (1) and (2) have effect subject to the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973.

             (4)  The Commonwealth AER member is not entitled to be paid remuneration or allowances.

Note:          The Commonwealth AER member is paid as a member of the Commission.

44AU  Additional remuneration of AER Chair

             (1)  The AER Chair (whether or not the Commonwealth AER member) is to be paid additional remuneration (if any) determined by the Remuneration Tribunal.

             (2)  The AER Chair (whether or not the Commonwealth AER member) is to be paid additional allowances (if any) that are prescribed.

             (3)  This section has effect subject to the Remuneration Tribunal Act 1973 other than subsection 7(11) of that Act.

44AV  Leave of absence

             (1)  A full‑time AER member has the recreation leave entitlements that are determined by the Remuneration Tribunal.

             (2)  The Minister may grant a full‑time AER member leave of absence, other than recreation leave, on the terms and conditions as to remuneration or otherwise that the Minister determines.

             (3)  The AER Chair may grant leave of absence to any part‑time AER member on the terms and conditions that the AER Chair determines.

44AW  Other terms and conditions

                   An AER member holds office on the terms and conditions (if any) in relation to matters not covered by this Act that are determined by the Governor‑General.

44AX  Outside employment

             (1)  A full‑time AER member must not engage in paid employment outside the duties of the member’s office without the Minister’s consent.

             (2)  A part‑time AER member must not engage in any paid employment that conflicts or could conflict with the proper performance of the member’s duties.

44AY  Disclosure of interests

             (1)  If an AER member has any direct or indirect interest in a matter being considered, or about to be considered, by the AER, being an interest that could conflict with the proper performance of the member’s functions in relation to a matter arising at a meeting of the AER, then the member must as soon as practicable disclose that interest at a meeting of the AER.

             (2)  The disclosure, and any decision made by the AER in relation to the disclosure, must be recorded in the minutes of the meeting.

44AZ  Resignation

             (1)  An AER member may resign his or her appointment by giving the Governor‑General a written resignation.

             (2)  The AER Chair may resign his or her appointment as AER Chair by giving the Governor‑General a written resignation. The resignation does not affect the person’s appointment as an AER member.

44AAB  Termination of appointment

All AER members

             (1)  The Governor‑General may terminate the appointment of an AER member:

                     (a)  for misbehaviour or physical or mental incapacity; or

                     (b)  if the member:

                              (i)  becomes bankrupt; or

                             (ii)  applies to take the benefit of any law for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors; or

                            (iii)  compounds with his or her creditors; or

                            (iv)  makes an assignment of his or her remuneration for the benefit of his or her creditors; or

                     (c)  if the member fails, without reasonable excuse, to comply with section 44AY.

Additional grounds: full‑time AER members

             (2)  The Governor‑General may terminate the appointment of a full‑time AER member if:

                     (a)  the member is absent, except on leave of absence, for 14 consecutive days or for 28 days in any 12 months; or

                     (b)  the member engages, except with the Minister’s consent, in paid employment outside the duties of his or her office.

Additional grounds: part‑time AER members

             (3)  The Governor‑General may terminate the appointment of a part‑time AER member if:

                     (a)  the member is absent, except on leave of absence, from 3 consecutive meetings of the AER; or

                     (b)  the member engages in paid employment that conflicts or could conflict with the proper performance of the duties of his or her office.

Subdivision BStaff etc. to assist the AER

44AAC  Staff etc. to assist the AER

                   The Chairperson must make available:

                     (a)  persons engaged under section 27; and

                     (b)  consultants engaged under section 27A;

to assist the AER to perform its functions.

Subdivision CMeetings of the AER etc.

44AAD  Meetings

             (1)  The AER Chair must convene such meetings of the AER as he or she thinks necessary for the efficient performance of the functions of the AER.

Note:          See also section 33B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, which contains extra rules about meetings by telephone etc.

             (2)  Meetings of the AER must be held at such places as the AER Chair determines.

             (3)  At a meeting of the AER, 2 members constitute a quorum. The quorum must include the AER Chair and must also include the Commonwealth AER member (if the Commonwealth AER member is not also the AER Chair).

             (4)  Questions arising at a meeting must be determined by unanimous vote of the members present and voting.

             (5)  The AER Chair must preside at all meetings of the AER.

             (6)  The AER Chair may give directions regarding the procedure to be followed at or in connection with a meeting.

44AAE  Resolutions without meetings

             (1)  If all 3 AER members sign a document containing a statement that they are in favour of a resolution in terms set out in the document, then a resolution in those terms is taken to have been passed at a duly constituted meeting of the AER held on the day the document was signed, or, if the members sign the document on different days, on the last of those days.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), 2 or more separate documents containing statements in identical terms each of which is signed by one or more members are together taken to constitute one document containing a statement in those terms signed by those members on the respective days on which they signed the separate documents.

             (3)  A member must not sign a document containing a statement in favour of a resolution if the resolution concerns a matter in which the member has any direct or indirect interest, being an interest that could conflict with the proper performance of the member’s functions in relation to any matter.

44AAEA  Arbitration

             (1)  Sections 44AAD and 44AAE do not apply to the AER as constituted for an arbitration under:

                     (a)  the National Electricity (Commonwealth) Law (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (b)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law (as defined by the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (c)  a provision of a State/Territory energy law.

             (2)  The reference in subsection (1) to an arbitration includes a reference to each of the following:

                     (a)  the making, variation or revocation of an access determination (within the meaning of the law concerned);

                     (b)  the performance of a function, or the exercise of a power, in connection with the making, variation or revocation of an access determination (within the meaning of the law concerned).

Subdivision DMiscellaneous

44AAF  Confidentiality

             (1)  The AER must take all reasonable measures to protect from unauthorised use or disclosure information:

                     (a)  given to it in confidence in, or in connection with, the performance of its functions or the exercise of its powers; or

                     (b)  that is obtained by compulsion in the exercise of its powers.

Note:          The Privacy Act 1988 also contains provisions relevant to the use and disclosure of information.

             (2)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the disclosure of information as required or permitted by a law of the Commonwealth, a State or Territory, is taken to be authorised use and disclosure of the information.

Authorised use

             (3)  Disclosing information to one of the following is authorised use and disclosure of the information:

                     (a)  the Commission;

                     (b)  the AEMC;

                     (c)  Australian Energy Market Operator Limited (ACN 072 010 327);

                     (d)  any staff or consultant assisting a body mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) in performing its functions or exercising its powers;

                     (e)  any other person or body prescribed by the regulations for the purpose of this paragraph.

             (4)  A person or body to whom information is disclosed under subsection (3) may use the information for any purpose connected with the performance of the functions, or the exercise of the powers, of the person or body.

             (5)  The AER may impose conditions to be complied with in relation to information disclosed under subsection (3).

             (6)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the use or disclosure of information by a person for the purposes of:

                     (a)  performing the person’s functions, or exercising the person’s powers, as:

                              (i)  an AER member, a person referred to in section 44AAC or a delegate of the AER; or

                             (ii)  a person who is authorised to perform or exercise a function or power of, or on behalf of, the AER; or

                     (b)  the performance of functions, or the exercise of powers, by the person by way of assisting a delegate of the AER;

is taken to be authorised use and disclosure of the information.

             (7)  Regulations made for the purposes of this section may specify uses of information and disclosures of information that are authorised uses and authorised disclosures for the purposes of this section.

             (8)  Nothing in any of the above subsections limits:

                     (a)  anything else in any of those subsections; or

                     (b)  what may otherwise constitute, for the purposes of subsection (1), authorised use or disclosure of information.

44AAG  Federal Court may make certain orders

             (1)  The Federal Court may make an order, on application by the AER on behalf of the Commonwealth, declaring that a person is in breach of:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that is applied as a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a State/Territory energy law.

             (2)  If the order declares the person to be in breach of such a law, the order may include one or more of the following:

                     (a)  an order that the person pay a civil penalty determined in accordance with the law;

                     (b)  an order that the person cease, within a specified period, the act, activity or practice constituting the breach;

                     (c)  an order that the person take such action, or adopt such practice, as the Court requires for remedying the breach or preventing a recurrence of the breach;

                     (d)  an order that the person implement a specified program for compliance with the law;

                     (e)  an order of a kind prescribed by regulations made under this Act.

             (3)  If a person has engaged, is engaging or is proposing to engage in any conduct in breach of:

                     (a)  a uniform energy law that is applied as a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a State/Territory energy law;

the Federal Court may, on application by the AER on behalf of the Commonwealth, grant an injunction:

                     (c)  restraining the person from engaging in the conduct; and

                     (d)  if, in the court’s opinion, it is desirable to do so—requiring the person to do something.

             (4)  The power of the Federal Court under subsection (3) to grant an injunction restraining a person from engaging in conduct of a particular kind may be exercised:

                     (a)  if the court is satisfied that the person has engaged in conduct of that kind—whether or not it appears to the court that the person intends to engage again, or to continue to engage, in conduct of that kind; or

                     (b)  if it appears to the court that, if an injunction is not granted, it is likely that the person will engage in conduct of that kind—whether or not the person has previously engaged in conduct of that kind and whether or not there is an imminent danger of substantial damage to any person if the person engages in conduct of that kind.

44AAGA  Federal Court may order disconnection if an event specified in the National Electricity Rules occurs

             (1)  If a relevant disconnection event occurs, the Federal Court may make an order, on application by the AER on behalf of the Commonwealth, directing that a Registered participant’s loads be disconnected.

             (2)  In this section:

National Electricity Law means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia as in force from time to time; or

                     (b)  that Law as it applies as a law of another State; or

                     (c)  that Law as it applies as a law of a Territory; or

                     (d)  that Law as it applies as a law of the Commonwealth.

National Electricity Rules means:

                     (a)  the National Electricity Rules, as in force from time to time, made under the National Electricity Law set out in the Schedule to the National Electricity (South Australia) Act 1996 of South Australia; or

                     (b)  those Rules as they apply as a law of another State; or

                     (c)  those Rules as they apply as a law of a Territory; or

                     (d)  those Rules as they apply as a law of the Commonwealth.

Registered participant has the same meaning as in the National Electricity Law.

relevant disconnection event means an event specified in the National Electricity Rules as being an event for which a Registered participant’s loads may be disconnected, where the event does not constitute a breach of the National Electricity Rules.

44AAH  Delegation by the AER

                   The AER may, by resolution, delegate:

                     (a)  all or any of the AER’s functions and powers under this Part or under regulations made under this Act, or under another law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  all or any of the AER’s functions and powers under a State/Territory energy law;

to an AER member or to an SES employee, or acting SES employee, assisting the AER as mentioned in section 44AAC.

Note 1:       Section 17AA of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 contains the definitions of SES employee and acting SES employee.

Note 2:       See also sections 34AA to 34A of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, which contain extra rules about delegations.

44AAI  Fees

             (1)  The AER may charge a fee specified in the regulations for services provided by it in performing any of its functions, or exercising any of its powers, under this Part or under regulations made under this Act, or under another law of the Commonwealth or a State/Territory energy law.

             (2)  The fee must not be such as to amount to taxation.

44AAJ  Annual report

             (1)  The AER must, within 60 days after the end of each year ending on 30 June, give the Minister a report on its operations during that year, for presentation to the Parliament.

Note:          See also section 34C of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, which contains extra rules about annual reports.

             (2)  The Minister must give a copy of the report to the relevant Minister of each of the States, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.

44AAK  Regulations may deal with transitional matters

             (1)  The Governor‑General may make regulations dealing with matters of a transitional nature relating to the transfer of functions and powers from a body to the AER.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1), the regulations may deal with:

                     (a)  the transfer of any relevant investigations being conducted by the body at the time of the transfer of functions and powers to the AER; or

                     (b)  the transfer of any decisions or determinations being made by the body at the time of the transfer of functions and powers to the AER; or

                     (c)  the substitution of the AER as a party to any relevant proceedings that are pending in any court or tribunal at the time of the transfer of functions and powers to the AER; or

                     (d)  the transfer of any relevant information from the body to the AER.

             (3)  In this section:

matters of a transitional nature also includes matters of an application or saving nature.


 

Part IIIAAccess to services

Division 1Preliminary

44AA  Objects of Part

                   The objects of this Part are to:

                     (a)  promote the economically efficient operation of, use of and investment in the infrastructure by which services are provided, thereby promoting effective competition in upstream and downstream markets; and

                     (b)  provide a framework and guiding principles to encourage a consistent approach to access regulation in each industry.

44B  Definitions

                   In this Part, unless the contrary intention appears:

access code means a code referred to in section 44ZZAA.

access code application means:

                     (a)  an access code given to the Commission; or

                     (b)  a request made to the Commission for the withdrawal or variation of an access code; or

                     (c)  an application under subsection 44ZZBB(4) for an extension of the period for which an access code is in operation.

access code decision means:

                     (a)  a decision under section 44ZZAA to accept or reject an access code; or

                     (b)  a decision under section 44ZZAA to consent or refuse to consent to the withdrawal or variation of an access code; or

                     (c)  a decision under section 44ZZBB to extend or refuse to extend the period for which an access code is in operation.

access undertaking means an undertaking under section 44ZZA.

access undertaking application means:

                     (a)  an access undertaking given to the Commission; or

                     (b)  a request made to the Commission for the withdrawal or variation of an access undertaking; or

                     (c)  an application under subsection 44ZZBB(1) for an extension of the period for which an access undertaking is in operation.

access undertaking decision means:

                     (a)  a decision under section 44ZZA to accept or reject an access undertaking; or

                     (b)  a decision under section 44ZZA to consent or refuse to consent to the withdrawal or variation of an access undertaking; or

                     (c)  a decision under section 44ZZBB to extend or refuse to extend the period for which an access undertaking is in operation.

Commonwealth Minister means the Minister.

constitutional trade or commerce means any of the following:

                     (a)  trade or commerce among the States;

                     (b)  trade or commerce between Australia and places outside Australia;

                     (c)  trade or commerce between a State and a Territory, or between 2 Territories.

declaration means a declaration made by the designated Minister under Division 2.

declaration recommendation means a recommendation made by the Council under section 44F.

declared service means a service for which a declaration is in operation.

designated Minister has the meaning given by section 44D.

determination means a determination made by the Commission under Division 3.

director has the same meaning as in the Corporations Act 2001.

entity means a person, partnership or joint venture.

final determination means a determination other than an interim determination.

interim determination means a determination that is expressed to be an interim determination.

modifications includes additions, omissions and substitutions.

National Gas Law means:

                     (a)  the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia as in force from time to time, as that Law applies as a law of South Australia; or

                     (b)  if an Act of another State or of the Australian Capital Territory or the Northern Territory applies the National Gas Law set out in the Schedule to the National Gas (South Australia) Act 2008 of South Australia, as in force from time to time, as a law of that other State or of that Territory—the National Gas Law as so applied; or

                     (c)  the Western Australian Gas Legislation; or

                     (d)  the National Gas (Commonwealth) Law (within the meaning of the Australian Energy Market Act 2004); or

                     (e)  the Offshore Western Australian Pipelines (Commonwealth) Law (within the meaning of the Australian Energy Market Act 2004).

officer has the same meaning as in the Corporations Act 2001.

party means:

                     (a)  in relation to an arbitration of an access dispute—a party to the arbitration, as mentioned in section 44U;

                     (b)  in relation to a determination—a party to the arbitration in which the Commission made the determination.

provider, in relation to a service, means the entity that is the owner or operator of the facility that is used (or is to be used) to provide the service.

responsible Minister means:

                     (a)  the Premier, in the case of a State;

                     (b)  the Chief Minister, in the case of a Territory.

revocation recommendation means a recommendation made by the Council under section 44J.

service means a service provided by means of a facility and includes:

                     (a)  the use of an infrastructure facility such as a road or railway line;

                     (b)  handling or transporting things such as goods or people;

                     (c)  a communications service or similar service;

but does not include:

                     (d)  the supply of goods; or

                     (e)  the use of intellectual property; or

                      (f)  the use of a production process;

except to the extent that it is an integral but subsidiary part of the service.

State or Territory access regime law means:

                     (a)  a law of a State or Territory that establishes or regulates an access regime; or

                     (b)  a law of a State or Territory that regulates an industry that is subject to an access regime; or

                     (c)  a State/Territory energy law.

State or Territory body means:

                     (a)  a State or Territory;

                     (b)  an authority of a State or Territory.

third party, in relation to a service, means a person who wants access to the service or wants a change to some aspect of the person’s existing access to the service.

44C  How this Part applies to partnerships and joint ventures

             (1)  This section applies if the provider of a service is a partnership or joint venture that consists of 2 or more corporations. Those corporations are referred to in this section as the participants.

             (2)  If this Part requires or permits something to be done by the provider, the thing may be done by one or more of the participants on behalf of the provider.

             (3)  If a provision of this Part refers to the provider bearing any costs, the provision applies as if the provision referred to any of the participants bearing any costs.

             (4)  If a provision of this Part refers to the provider doing something, the provision applies as if the provision referred to one or more of the participants doing that thing on behalf of the provider.

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  a provision of this Part requires the provider to do something, or prohibits the provider from doing something; and

                     (b)  a contravention of the provision is an offence;

the provision applies as if a reference to the provider were a reference to any person responsible for the day‑to‑day management and control of the provider.

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  a provision of this Part requires a provider to do something, or prohibits a provider doing something; and

                     (b)  a contravention of the provision is not an offence;

the provision applies as if the reference to provider were a reference to each participant and to any other person responsible for the day‑to‑day management and control of the provider.

44D  Meaning of designated Minister

             (1)  The Commonwealth Minister is the designated Minister unless subsection (2) or (3) applies.

             (2)  In relation to declaring a service in a case where:

                     (a)  the provider is a State or Territory body; and

                     (b)  the State or Territory concerned is a party to the Competition Principles Agreement;

the responsible Minister of the State or Territory is the designated Minister.

             (3)  In relation to revoking a declaration that was made by the responsible Minister of a State or Territory, the responsible Minister of that State or Territory is the designated Minister.

44DA  The principles in the Competition Principles Agreement have status as guidelines

             (1)  For the avoidance of doubt:

                     (a)  the requirement, under subsection 44G(3), that the Council apply the relevant principles set out in the Competition Principles Agreement in deciding whether an access regime is an effective access regime; and

                     (b)  the requirement, under subsection 44H(5), that the designated Minister apply the relevant principles set out in the Agreement in deciding whether an access regime is an effective access regime; and

                     (c)  the requirement, under subsection 44M(4), that the Council apply the relevant principles set out in the Agreement in deciding whether to recommend to the Commonwealth Minister that he or she should decide that an access regime is, or is not, an effective access regime; and

                     (d)  the requirement, under subsection 44N(2), that the Commonwealth Minister, in making a decision on a recommendation received from the Council, apply the relevant principles set out in the Agreement;

are obligations that the Council and the relevant Ministers must treat each individual relevant principle as having the status of a guideline rather than a binding rule.

             (2)  An effective access regime may contain additional matters that are not inconsistent with Competition Principles Agreement principles.

44E  This Part binds the Crown

             (1)  This Part binds the Crown in right of the Commonwealth, of each of the States, of the Australian Capital Territory and of the Northern Territory.

             (2)  Nothing in this Part makes the Crown liable to be prosecuted for an offence.

             (3)  The protection in subsection (2) does not apply to an authority of the Commonwealth or an authority of a State or Territory.


 

Division 2Declared services

Subdivision ARecommendation by the Council

44F  Person may request recommendation

             (1)  The designated Minister, or any other person, may make a written application to the Council asking the Council to recommend that a particular service be declared.

             (2)  After receiving the application, the Council:

                     (a)  must tell the provider of the service that the Council has received the application, unless the provider is the applicant; and

                     (b)  must, after having regard to the objects of this Part, recommend to the designated Minister:

                              (i)  that the service be declared; or

                             (ii)  that the service not be declared.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to the Council’s recommendation: see section 44GA.

Note 2:       The Council may invite public submissions on the application: see section 44GB.

Note 3:       The Council must publish its recommendation: see section 44GC.

             (3)  If the applicant is a person other than the designated Minister, the Council may recommend that the service not be declared if the Council thinks that the application was not made in good faith. This subsection does not limit the grounds on which the Council may decide to recommend that the service not be declared.

             (4)  In deciding what recommendation to make, the Council must consider whether it would be economical for anyone to develop another facility that could provide part of the service. This subsection does not limit the grounds on which the Council may decide to recommend that the service be declared or not be declared.

             (5)  The applicant may withdraw the application at any time before the Council makes a recommendation relating to it.

44G  Limits on the Council recommending declaration of a service

             (1)  The Council cannot recommend declaration of a service that is the subject of an access undertaking in operation under Division 6.

          (1A)  While a decision of the Commission is in force under subsection 44PA(3) approving a tender process, for the construction and operation of a facility, as a competitive tender process, the Council cannot recommend declaration of any service provided by means of the facility that was specified under paragraph 44PA(2)(a).

             (2)  The Council cannot recommend that a service be declared unless it is satisfied of all of the following matters:

                     (a)  that access (or increased access) to the service would promote a material increase in competition in at least one market (whether or not in Australia), other than the market for the service;

                     (b)  that it would be uneconomical for anyone to develop another facility to provide the service;

                     (c)  that the facility is of national significance, having regard to:

                              (i)  the size of the facility; or

                             (ii)  the importance of the facility to constitutional trade or commerce; or

                            (iii)  the importance of the facility to the national economy;

                     (d)  that access to the service can be provided without undue risk to human health or safety;

                     (e)  that access to the service is not already the subject of an effective access regime;

                      (f)  that access (or increased access) to the service would not be contrary to the public interest.

             (3)  In deciding whether an access regime established by a State or Territory that is a party to the Competition Principles Agreement is an effective access regime, the Council:

                     (a)  must, subject to subsection (5), apply the relevant principles set out in that agreement; and

                    (aa)  must have regard to the objects of this Part; and

                     (b)  must, subject to section 44DA, not consider any other matters.

             (4)  If there is in force a decision of the Commonwealth Minister under section 44N that a regime established by a State or Territory for access to the service is an effective access regime, the Council must follow that decision, unless the Council believes that, since the Commonwealth Minister’s decision was published, there have been substantial modifications of the access regime or of the relevant principles set out in the Competition Principles Agreement.

Note:          The period for which a decision is in force is determined under subsection 44N(3) and paragraph 44P(a).

             (5)  In deciding whether a regime is an effective access regime, the Council must disregard Chapter 5 of a National Gas Law.

             (6)  The Council cannot recommend declaration of a service provided by means of a pipeline (within the meaning of a National Gas Law) if:

                     (a)  a 15‑year no‑coverage determination is in force under the National Gas Law in respect of the pipeline; or

                     (b)  a price regulation exemption is in force under the National Gas Law in respect of the pipeline.

44GA  Target time limits on Council recommendation

             (1)  The Council must use its best endeavours to make a recommendation on an application under section 44F within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 4 months beginning on the day it received the application; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Council is unable to make a recommendation within the standard period, or that period as extended, it must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The Council must give a copy of the notice to:

                     (a)  the applicant; and

                     (b)  if the applicant is not the provider of the service—the provider.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Council may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the Council extends the standard period, it must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that it has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which it must now use its best endeavours to make a recommendation on the application.

44GB  Council may invite public submissions on the application

Invitation

             (1)  The Council may publish, by electronic or other means, a notice inviting public submissions on an application under section 44F if it considers that it is appropriate and practicable to do so.

             (2)  The notice must specify how submissions may be made and the day by which submissions may be made (which must be at least 14 days after the day the notice is published).

Council to consider any submission

             (3)  Subject to subsection (6), the Council must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what recommendation to make on the application.

Council may make submissions publicly available

             (4)  The Council may make any written submission, or a written record (which may be a summary) of any oral submission, publicly available.

Confidentiality

             (5)  A person may, at the time of making a submission, request that the Council:

                     (a)  not make the whole or a part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                     (b)  not publish or make available the whole or a part of the submission under section 44GC;

because of the confidential commercial information contained in the submission.

             (6)  If the Council refuses such a request:

                     (a)  for a written submission—the Council must, if the person who made it so requires, return the whole or the part of it to the person; and

                     (b)  for an oral submission—the person who made it may inform the Council that the person withdraws the whole or the part of it; and

                     (c)  if the Council returns the whole or the part of the submission, or the person withdraws the whole or the part of the submission, the Council must not:

                              (i)  make the whole or the part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                             (ii)  publish or make available the whole or the part of the submission under section 44GC; and

                            (iii)  have regard to the whole or the part of the submission in making its recommendation on the application.

44GC  Council must publish its recommendation

             (1)  The Council must publish, by electronic or other means, a recommendation under section 44F and its reasons for the recommendation.

             (2)  The Council must give a copy of the publication to:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44F; and

                     (b)  if the applicant is not the provider of the service—the provider.

Timing

             (3)  The Council must do the things under subsections (1) and (2) on the day the designated Minister publishes his or her decision on the recommendation or as soon as practicable after that day.

Consultation

             (4)  Before publishing under subsection (1), the Council may give any one or more of the following persons:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44F;

                     (b)  if the applicant is not the provider of the service—the provider;

                     (c)  any other person the Council considers appropriate;

a notice in writing:

                     (d)  specifying what the Council is proposing to publish; and

                     (e)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the Council within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the person considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (5)  The Council must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

Subdivision BDeclaration by the designated Minister

44H  Designated Minister may declare a service

             (1)  On receiving a declaration recommendation, the designated Minister must either declare the service or decide not to declare it.

Note:          The designated Minister must publish his or her decision: see section 44HA.

          (1A)  The designated Minister must have regard to the objects of this Part in making his or her decision.

             (2)  In deciding whether to declare the service or not, the designated Minister must consider whether it would be economical for anyone to develop another facility that could provide part of the service. This subsection does not limit the grounds on which the designated Minister may make a decision whether to declare the service or not.

             (3)  The designated Minister cannot declare a service that is the subject of an access undertaking in operation under Division 6.

          (3A)  While a decision of the Commission is in force under subsection 44PA(3) approving a tender process, for the construction and operation of a facility, as a competitive tender process, the designated Minister cannot declare any service provided by means of the facility that was specified under paragraph 44PA(2)(a).

             (4)  The designated Minister cannot declare a service unless he or she is satisfied of all of the following matters:

                     (a)  that access (or increased access) to the service would promote a material increase in competition in at least one market (whether or not in Australia), other than the market for the service;

                     (b)  that it would be uneconomical for anyone to develop another facility to provide the service;

                     (c)  that the facility is of national significance, having regard to:

                              (i)  the size of the facility; or

                             (ii)  the importance of the facility to constitutional trade or commerce; or

                            (iii)  the importance of the facility to the national economy;

                     (d)  that access to the service can be provided without undue risk to human health or safety;

                     (e)  that access to the service is not already the subject of an effective access regime;

                      (f)  that access (or increased access) to the service would not be contrary to the public interest.

             (5)  In deciding whether an access regime established by a State or Territory that is a party to the Competition Principles Agreement is an effective access regime, the designated Minister:

                     (a)  must, subject to subsection (6A), apply the relevant principles set out in that agreement; and

                    (aa)  must have regard to the objects of this Part; and

                     (b)  must, subject to section 44DA, not consider any other matters.

             (6)  If there is in force a decision of the Commonwealth Minister under section 44N that a regime established by a State or Territory for access to the service is an effective access regime, the designated Minister must follow that decision, unless the designated Minister believes that, since the Commonwealth Minister’s decision was published, there have been substantial modifications of the access regime or of the relevant principles set out in the Competition Principles Agreement.

Note:          The period for which a decision is in force is determined under subsection 44N(3) and paragraph 44P(a).

          (6A)  In deciding whether a regime is an effective access regime, the designated Minister must disregard Chapter 5 of a National Gas Law.

          (6B)  The designated Minister cannot declare a service provided by means of a pipeline (within the meaning of a National Gas Law) if:

                     (a)  a 15‑year no‑coverage determination is in force under the National Gas Law in respect of the pipeline; or

                     (b)  a price regulation exemption is in force under the National Gas Law in respect of the pipeline.

             (8)  If the designated Minister declares the service, the declaration must specify the expiry date of the declaration.

             (9)  If the designated Minister does not publish under section 44HA his or her decision on the declaration recommendation within 60 days after receiving the declaration recommendation, the designated Minister is taken, at the end of that 60‑day period, to have decided not to declare the service and to have published that decision not to declare the service.

44HA  Designated Minister must publish his or her decision

             (1)  The designated Minister must publish, by electronic or other means, his or her decision on a declaration recommendation and his or her reasons for the decision.

             (2)  The designated Minister must give a copy of the publication to:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44F; and

                     (b)  if the applicant is not the provider of the service—the provider.

Consultation

             (3)  Before publishing under subsection (1), the designated Minister may give any one or more of the following persons:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44F;

                     (b)  if the applicant is not the provider of the service—the provider;

                     (c)  any other person the designated Minister considers appropriate;

a notice in writing:

                     (d)  specifying what the designated Minister is proposing to publish; and

                     (e)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the designated Minister within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the person considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (4)  The designated Minister must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. He or she may have regard to any other matter he or she considers relevant.

44I  Duration and effect of declaration

             (1)  Subject to this section, a declaration begins to operate at a time specified in the declaration. The time cannot be earlier than 21 days after the declaration is published.

             (2)  If an application for review of a declaration is made within 21 days after the declaration is published, the declaration does not begin to operate until the Tribunal makes its decision on the review.

             (3)  A declaration continues in operation until its expiry date, unless it is earlier revoked.

             (4)  The expiry or revocation of a declaration does not affect:

                     (a)  the arbitration of an access dispute that was notified before the expiry or revocation; or

                     (b)  the operation or enforcement of any determination made in the arbitration of an access dispute that was notified before the expiry or revocation.

44J  Revocation of declaration

             (1)  The Council may recommend to the designated Minister that a declaration be revoked. The Council must have regard to the objects of this Part in making its decision.

             (2)  The Council cannot recommend revocation of a declaration unless it is satisfied that, at the time of the recommendation, subsection 44H(4) would prevent the designated Minister from declaring the service concerned.

             (3)  On receiving a revocation recommendation, the designated Minister must either revoke the declaration or decide not to revoke the declaration.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the designated Minister’s decision: see section 44JA.

          (3A)  The designated Minister must have regard to the objects of this Part in making his or her decision.

             (4)  The designated Minister must publish the decision to revoke or not to revoke.

             (5)  If the designated Minister decides not to revoke, the designated Minister must give reasons for the decision to the provider of the declared service when the designated Minister publishes the decision.

             (6)  The designated Minister cannot revoke a declaration without receiving a revocation recommendation.

44JA  Target time limits on designated Minister’s revocation decision

             (1)  The designated Minister must use his or her best endeavours to make a decision on a recommendation under section 44J within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 60 days beginning on the day he or she received the recommendation; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the designated Minister is unable to make a decision on the recommendation within the standard period, or that period as extended, he or she must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The designated Minister must give a copy of the notice to:

                     (a)  the Council; and

                     (b)  the provider of the service.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The designated Minister may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the designated Minister extends the standard period, he or she must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that he or she has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which he or she must now use his or her best endeavours to make a decision on the recommendation.

44K  Review of declaration

             (1)  If the designated Minister declares a service, the provider may apply in writing to the Tribunal for review of the declaration.

             (2)  If the designated Minister decides not to declare a service, an application in writing for review of the designated Minister’s decision may be made by the person who applied for the declaration recommendation.

             (3)  An application for review must be made within 21 days after publication of the designated Minister’s decision.

             (4)  The review by the Tribunal is a re‑consideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (5)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the designated Minister.

             (6)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Council to give information and other assistance and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

             (7)  If the designated Minister declared the service, the Tribunal may affirm, vary or set aside the declaration.

             (8)  If the designated Minister decided not to declare the service, the Tribunal may either:

                     (a)  affirm the designated Minister’s decision; or

                     (b)  set aside the designated Minister’s decision and declare the service in question.

             (9)  A declaration, or varied declaration, made by the Tribunal is to be taken to be a declaration by the designated Minister for all purposes of this Part (except this section).

44L  Review of decision not to revoke a declaration

             (1)  If the designated Minister decides not to revoke a declaration, the provider may apply in writing to the Tribunal for review of the decision.

             (2)  An application for review must be made within 21 days after publication of the designated Minister’s decision.

             (3)  The review by the Tribunal is a re‑consideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the designated Minister.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Council to give information and other assistance and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

             (6)  The Tribunal may either:

                     (a)  affirm the designated Minister’s decision; or

                     (b)  set aside the designated Minister’s decision and revoke the declaration.


 

Division 2AEffective access regimes

Subdivision ARecommendation by Council

44M  Recommendation for a Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime

             (1)  This section applies if a State or Territory that is a party to the Competition Principles Agreement has established at any time a regime for access to a service or a proposed service.

             (2)  The responsible Minister for the State or Territory may make a written application to the Council asking the Council to recommend that the Commonwealth Minister decide that the regime for access to the service or proposed service is an effective access regime.

             (3)  The Council must recommend to the Commonwealth Minister:

                     (a)  that he or she decide that the access regime is an effective access regime for the service, or proposed service; or

                     (b)  that he or she decide that the access regime is not an effective access regime for the service, or proposed service.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to the Council’s recommendation: see section 44NC.

Note 2:       The Council may invite public submissions on the application: see section 44NE.

Note 3:       The Council must publish its recommendation: see section 44NF.

             (4)  In deciding what recommendation it should make, the Council:

                     (a)  must, subject to subsection (4A), assess whether the access regime is an effective access regime by applying the relevant principles set out in the Competition Principles Agreement; and

                    (aa)  must have regard to the objects of this Part; and

                     (b)  must, subject to section 44DA, not consider any other matters.

          (4A)  In deciding what recommendation it should make, the Council must disregard Chapter 5 of a National Gas Law.

             (5)  When the Council recommends that the Commonwealth Minister make a particular decision, the Council must also recommend the period for which the decision should be in force.

Subdivision BDecision by Commonwealth Minister

44N  Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime

             (1)  On receiving a recommendation under section 44M, the Commonwealth Minister must:

                     (a)  decide that the access regime is an effective access regime for the service or proposed service; or

                     (b)  decide that the access regime is not an effective access regime for the service or proposed service.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to the Commonwealth Minister’s decision: see section 44ND.

Note 2:       The Commonwealth Minister must publish his or her decision: see section 44NG.

             (2)  In making a decision, the Commonwealth Minister:

                     (a)  must, subject to subsection (2A), apply the relevant principles set out in the Competition Principles Agreement; and

                    (aa)  must have regard to the objects of this Part; and

                     (b)  must, subject to section 44DA, not consider any other matters.

          (2A)  In making a decision, the Commonwealth Minister must disregard Chapter 5 of a National Gas Law.

             (3)  The decision must specify the period for which it is in force.

Note:          The period for which the decision is in force may be extended: see section 44NB.

Subdivision CExtensions of Commonwealth Minister’s decision

44NA  Recommendation by Council

             (1)  This section applies if a decision of the Commonwealth Minister is in force under section 44N (including as a result of an extension under section 44NB) that a regime established by a State or Territory for access to a service is an effective access regime.

Application to Council

             (2)  The responsible Minister for the State or Territory may make a written application to the Council asking it to recommend that the Commonwealth Minister decide to extend the period for which the decision is in force.

Note:          The Commonwealth Minister may extend the period for which the decision is in force more than once: see section 44NB. This means there may be multiple applications under this subsection.

             (3)  The responsible Minister for the State or Territory may specify in the application proposed variations to the access regime.

Assessment by Council

             (4)  The Council must assess whether the access regime (including any proposed variations) is an effective access regime. It must do this in accordance with subsection 44M(4).

             (5)  If the Council is satisfied that it is, the Council must, in writing, recommend to the Commonwealth Minister that he or she extend the period for which the decision under section 44N is in force. The Council must also recommend an extension period.

             (6)  If the Council is satisfied that it is not, the Council must, in writing, recommend to the Commonwealth Minister that he or she not extend the period for which the decision under section 44N is in force.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to the Council’s recommendation: see section 44NC.

Note 2:       The Council may invite public submissions on the application: see section 44NE.

Note 3:       The Council must publish its recommendation: see section 44NF.

44NB  Decision by the Commonwealth Minister

             (1)  On receiving a recommendation under section 44NA, the Commonwealth Minister must assess whether the access regime (including any proposed variations) is an effective access regime. He or she must do this in accordance with subsection 44N(2).

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to the Commonwealth Minister’s decision: see section 44ND.

Note 2:       The Commonwealth Minister must publish his or her decision: see section 44NG.

             (2)  If the Commonwealth Minister is satisfied that it is, he or she must, by notice in writing, decide to extend the period for which the decision under section 44N is in force. The notice must specify the extension period.

             (3)  If the Commonwealth Minister is satisfied that it is not, he or she must, by notice in writing, decide not to extend the period for which the decision under section 44N is in force.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Commonwealth Minister may extend the period for which a decision is in force under section 44N more than once.

Subdivision DProcedural provisions

44NC  Target time limits—Council

             (1)  The Council must use its best endeavours to make a recommendation on an application under section 44M or 44NA within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 6 months beginning on the day it received the application; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Council is unable to make a recommendation within the standard period, or that period as extended, it must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The Council must give a copy of the notice to the applicant and the provider of the service.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Council may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the Council extends the standard period, it must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that it has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which it must now use its best endeavours to make a recommendation on the application.

44ND  Target time limits—Commonwealth Minister

             (1)  The Commonwealth Minister must use his or her best endeavours to make a decision on a recommendation under section 44M or 44NA within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 60 days beginning on the day he or she received the recommendation; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Commonwealth Minister is unable to make a decision on the recommendation within the standard period, or that period as extended, he or she must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The Commonwealth Minister must give a copy of the notice to:

                     (a)  the Council; and

                     (b)  the applicant under section 44M or 44NA.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Commonwealth Minister may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the Commonwealth Minister extends the standard period, he or she must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that he or she has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which he or she must now use his or her best endeavours to make a decision on the recommendation.

44NE  Council may invite public submissions

Invitation

             (1)  The Council may publish, by electronic or other means, a notice inviting public submissions on an application under section 44M or 44NA if it considers that it is appropriate and practicable to do so.

             (2)  The notice must specify how submissions may be made and the day by which submissions may be made (which must be at least 14 days after the day the notice is published).

Council to consider any submission

             (3)  Subject to subsection (6), the Council must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what recommendation to make on the application.

Council may make submissions publicly available

             (4)  The Council may make any written submission, or a written record (which may be a summary) of any oral submission, publicly available.

Confidentiality

             (5)  A person may, at the time of making a submission, request that the Council:

                     (a)  not make the whole or a part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                     (b)  not publish or make available the whole or a part of the submission under section 44NF;

because of the confidential commercial information contained in the submission.

             (6)  If the Council refuses such a request:

                     (a)  for a written submission—the Council must, if the person who made it so requires, return the whole or the part of it to the person; and

                     (b)  for an oral submission—the person who made it may inform the Council that the person withdraws the whole or the part of it; and

                     (c)  if the Council returns the whole or the part of the submission, or the person withdraws the whole or the part of the submission, the Council must not:

                              (i)  make the whole or the part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                             (ii)  publish or make available the whole or the part of the submission under section 44NF; and

                            (iii)  have regard to the whole or the part of the submission in making its recommendation on the application.

44NF  Publication—Council

             (1)  The Council must publish, by electronic or other means, a recommendation under section 44M or 44NA and its reasons for the recommendation.

             (2)  The Council must give a copy of the publication to:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44M or 44NA; and

                     (b)  the provider of the service.

Timing

             (3)  The Council must do the things under subsections (1) and (2) on the day the Commonwealth Minister publishes his or her decision on the recommendation or as soon as practicable after that day.

Consultation

             (4)  Before publishing under subsection (1), the Council may give any one or more of the following persons:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44M or 44NA;

                     (b)  the provider of the service;

                     (c)  any other person the Council considers appropriate;

a notice in writing:

                     (d)  specifying what the Council is proposing to publish; and

                     (e)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the Council within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the person considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (5)  The Council must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

44NG  Publication—Commonwealth Minister

             (1)  The Commonwealth Minister must publish, by electronic or other means, his or her decision on a recommendation under section 44M or 44NA and his or her reasons for the decision.

             (2)  The Commonwealth Minister must give a copy of the publication to:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44M or 44NA; and

                     (b)  the provider of the service.

Consultation

             (3)  Before publishing under subsection (1), the Commonwealth Minister may give any one or more of the following persons:

                     (a)  the applicant under section 44M or 44NA;

                     (b)  the provider of the service;

                     (c)  any other person the Minister considers appropriate;

a notice in writing:

                     (d)  specifying what the Minister is proposing to publish; and

                     (e)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the Minister within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the person considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (4)  The Commonwealth Minister must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. He or she may have regard to any other matter he or she considers relevant.

Subdivision EReview of decisions

44O  Review of Ministerial decision on effectiveness of access regime

             (1)  The responsible Minister of the State or Territory:

                     (a)  who applied for a recommendation under section 44M that the Commonwealth Minister decide that the access regime is an effective access regime; or

                     (b)  who applied for a recommendation under section 44NA that the Commonwealth Minister decide to extend the period for which the decision under section 44N is in force;

may apply to the Tribunal for review of the Commonwealth Minister’s decision.

             (2)  An application for review must be made within 21 days after publication of the Commonwealth Minister’s decision.

             (3)  The review by the Tribunal is a reconsideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the Commonwealth Minister.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Council to give information and other assistance, and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

             (6)  The Tribunal may affirm, vary or reverse the Commonwealth Minister’s decision.

             (7)  A decision made by the Tribunal is to be taken to be a decision of the Commonwealth Minister for all purposes of this Part (except this section).

Subdivision FState or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement

44P  State or Territory ceasing to be a party to Competition Principles Agreement

                   If a State or Territory that has established a regime for access to a service or proposed service ceases to be a party to the Competition Principles Agreement:

                     (a)  a decision by the Commonwealth Minister that the regime is an effective access regime ceases to be in force; and

                     (b)  the Council, the Commonwealth Minister and the Tribunal need not take any further action relating to an application for a decision by the Commonwealth Minister that the regime is an effective access regime.


 

Division 2BCompetitive tender processes for government owned facilities

44PA  Approval of competitive tender process

Application to Commission

             (1)  The Commonwealth Minister, or the responsible Minister of a State or Territory, may make a written application to the Commission asking it to approve a tender process, for the construction and operation of a facility that is to be owned by the Commonwealth, State or Territory, as a competitive tender process.

             (2)  The application must:

                     (a)  specify the service or services proposed to be provided by means of the facility; and

                     (b)  be in accordance with the regulations.

Decision of Commission

             (3)  The Commission must, by notice in writing, approve or refuse to approve the tender process as a competitive tender process.

Note 1:       While a decision is in force approving a tender process as a competitive tender process, the designated Minister cannot declare any service provided by means of the facility that was specified under paragraph (2)(a): see subsection 44H(3A).

Note 2:       There are target time limits that apply to the Commission’s decision: see section 44PD.

Note 3:       The Commission may invite public submissions on the application: see section 44PE.

Note 4:       The Commission must publish its decision: see section 44PF.

             (4)  The Commission must not approve a tender process as a competitive tender process unless:

                     (a)  it is satisfied that reasonable terms and conditions of access to any service specified under paragraph (2)(a) will be the result of the process; and

                     (b)  it is satisfied that the tender process meets the requirements prescribed by the regulations.

Period for which decision in force

             (5)  If the Commission approves the tender process as a competitive tender process, it may specify in the notice the period for which the decision is in force.

Note:          Section 44PC provides for revocation of the decision.

             (6)  The Commission may, by writing, extend that period by a specified period. The Commission may do so more than once.

Legislative Instruments Act

             (7)  A notice under subsection (3) is not a legislative instrument for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.

44PB  Report on conduct of tender process

Report

             (1)  If the Commission approves a tender process as a competitive tender process, it must, after a tenderer is chosen, ask the applicant under subsection 44PA(1), by notice in writing, to give the Commission a written report on the conduct of the tender process.

             (2)  The report must be in accordance with the regulations.

Commission may ask for further information

             (3)  After the Commission receives the report, it may ask the applicant under subsection 44PA(1), by notice in writing, to give the Commission further information in relation to the conduct of the tender process.

Legislative Instruments Act

             (4)  A report under subsection (1) is not a legislative instrument for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.

44PC  Revocation of approval decision

Discretionary revocation

             (1)  The Commission may, by writing, revoke a decision to approve a tender process as a competitive tender process if it is satisfied that the assessment of the tenders was not in accordance with that process.

Note 1:       The Commission may invite public submissions on any proposed revocation decision: see section 44PE.

Note 2:       The Commission must publish its decision: see section 44PF.

             (2)  The Commission may, by writing, revoke a decision to approve a tender process as a competitive tender process if it is satisfied that the provider of a service:

                     (a)  specified under paragraph 44PA(2)(a); and

                     (b)  being provided by means of the facility concerned;

is not complying with the terms and conditions of access to the service.

Note 1:       The Commission may invite public submissions on any proposed revocation decision: see section 44PE.

Note 2:       The Commission must publish its decision: see section 44PF.

             (3)  Before making a decision under subsection (2), the Commission must give the applicant under subsection 44PA(1), and the provider of the service, a written notice:

                     (a)  stating that the Commission is proposing to make such a decision and the reasons for it; and

                     (b)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the Commission on the proposal; and

                     (c)  stating that any submission must be made within the period of 40 business days after the notice is given.

             (4)  The Commission must consider any written submission received within that period.

Mandatory revocation

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  the Commission approves a tender process as a competitive tender process; and

                     (b)  the Commission gives the applicant a notice under subsection 44PB(1) or (3); and

                     (c)  the applicant does not comply with the notice within the period of 40 business days beginning on the day on which the notice is given;

the Commission must, by writing, revoke the approval decision at the end of that period. The Commission must give notice of the revocation to the applicant.

Definition

             (6)  In this section:

business day means a day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday, or a public holiday in the Australian Capital Territory.

44PD  Target time limits for Commission decisions

             (1)  The Commission must use its best endeavours to make a decision on an application under subsection 44PA(1) within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 6 months beginning on the day it received the application; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Commission is unable to make a decision within the standard period, or that period as extended, it must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The Commission must give a copy of the notice to the applicant.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Commission may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the Commission extends the standard period, it must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that it has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which it must now use its best endeavours to make a decision on the application.

44PE  Commission may invite public submissions

Invitation

             (1)  The Commission may publish, by electronic or other means, a notice inviting public submissions:

                     (a)  on an application under subsection 44PA(1); or

                     (b)  on any proposed decision under subsection 44PC(1) or (2) to revoke a decision under subsection 44PA(3) to approve a tender process as a competitive tender process;

if it considers that it is appropriate and practicable to do so.

             (2)  The notice must specify how submissions may be made and the day by which submissions may be made (which must be at least 14 days after the day the notice is published).

Commission to consider any submission

             (3)  Subject to subsection (6), the Commission must have regard to any submission so made in making its decision.

Commission may make submissions publicly available

             (4)  The Commission may make any written submission, or a written record (which may be a summary) of any oral submission, publicly available.

Confidentiality

             (5)  A person may, at the time of making a submission, request that the Commission:

                     (a)  not make the whole or a part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                     (b)  not publish or make available the whole or a part of the submission under section 44PF;

because of the confidential commercial information contained in the submission.

             (6)  If the Commission refuses such a request:

                     (a)  for a written submission—the Commission must, if the person who made it so requires, return the whole or the part of it to the person; and

                     (b)  for an oral submission—the person who made it may inform the Commission that the person withdraws the whole or the part of it; and

                     (c)  if the Commission returns the whole or the part of the submission, or the person withdraws the whole or the part of the submission, the Commission must not:

                              (i)  make the whole or the part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                             (ii)  publish or make available the whole or the part of the submission under section 44PF; and

                            (iii)  have regard to the whole or the part of the submission in making its decision.

44PF  Commission must publish its decisions

             (1)  The Commission must publish, by electronic or other means, a decision under subsection 44PA(3) or 44PC(1) or (2) and its reasons for the decision.

             (2)  The Commission must give a copy of the publication to:

                     (a)  for any decision—the applicant under subsection 44PA(1); and

                     (b)  for a decision under subsection 44PC(2)—the provider of the service.

It may also give a copy to any other person the Commission considers appropriate.

Consultation

             (3)  Before publishing under subsection (1), the Commission may give the following persons:

                     (a)  for any decision—the applicant under subsection 44PA(1) or any other person the Commission considers appropriate;

                     (b)  for a decision under subsection 44PC(2)—the provider of the service;

a notice in writing:

                     (c)  specifying what the Commission is proposing to publish; and

                     (d)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the Commission within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the person considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (4)  The Commission must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

44PG  Review of Commission’s initial decision

Application

             (1)  A person whose interests are affected by a decision of the Commission under subsection 44PA(3) may apply in writing to the Tribunal for review of the decision.

             (2)  The person must apply for review within 21 days after the Commission publishes its decision.

Review

             (3)  The review by the Tribunal is a reconsideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the Commission.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Commission to give information and other assistance, and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

Tribunal’s decision

             (6)  If the Commission refused to approve a tender process as a competitive tender process, the Tribunal must, by writing:

                     (a)  affirm the Commission’s decision; or

                     (b)  set aside the Commission’s decision and approve the process as a competitive tender process.

             (7)  A decision of the Tribunal to approve a process as a competitive tender process is taken to be a decision by the Commission for all purposes of this Part (except this section).

             (8)  If the Commission approved a tender process as a competitive tender process, the Tribunal must, by writing, affirm or set aside the Commission’s decision.

Note:          If the Tribunal sets aside a decision of the Commission to approve a tender process as a competitive tender process, the Commission’s decision is no longer in force. This means the designated Minister is no longer prevented by subsection 44H(3A) from declaring a service provided by means of the facility concerned.

44PH  Review of decision to revoke an approval

Application

             (1)  If the Commission makes a decision under subsection 44PC(1) or (2), the following persons may apply in writing to the Tribunal for review of the decision:

                     (a)  for either decision—the applicant under subsection 44PA(1) or any other person whose interests are affected by the decision;

                     (b)  for a decision under subsection 44PC(2)—the provider of the service.

             (2)  The person must apply for review within 21 days after the Commission publishes its decision.

Review

             (3)  The review by the Tribunal is a reconsideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the Commission.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Commission to give information and other assistance, and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

Tribunal’s decision

             (6)  The Tribunal must, by writing, affirm or set aside the Commission’s decision.


 

Division 2CRegister of decisions and declarations

44Q  Register of decisions and declarations

                   The Commission must maintain a public register that includes:

                     (a)  each decision of the Commonwealth Minister that a regime established by a State or Territory for access to a service is an effective access regime for the service or proposed service; and

                    (aa)  each decision of the Commonwealth Minister to extend the period for which a decision under section 44N is in force; and

                     (b)  each declaration (including a declaration that is no longer in force); and

                     (c)  each decision of the Commission under subsection 44PA(3) to approve a tender process as a competitive tender process; and

                     (d)  each decision of the Commission under section 44PC to revoke a decision under subsection 44PA(3).


 

Division 3Access to declared services

Subdivision AScope of Division

44R  Constitutional limits on operation of this Division

                   This Division does not apply in relation to a third party’s access to a service unless:

                     (a)  the provider is a corporation (or a partnership or joint venture consisting wholly of corporations); or

                     (b)  the third party is a corporation; or

                     (c)  the access is (or would be) in the course of, or for the purposes of, constitutional trade or commerce.

Subdivision BNotification of access disputes

44S  Notification of access disputes

             (1)  If a third party is unable to agree with the provider on one or more aspects of access to a declared service, either the provider or the third party may notify the Commission in writing that an access dispute exists, but only to the extent that those aspects of access are not the subject of an access undertaking that is in operation in relation to the service.

Note:          An example of one of the things on which a provider and third party might disagree is whether a previous determination ought to be varied.

             (2)  On receiving the notification, the Commission must give notice in writing of the access dispute to:

                     (a)  the provider, if the third party notified the access dispute;

                     (b)  the third party, if the provider notified the access dispute;

                     (c)  any other person whom the Commission thinks might want to become a party to the arbitration.

44T  Withdrawal of notifications

             (1)  A notification may be withdrawn as follows (and not otherwise):

                     (a)  if the provider notified the dispute:

                              (i)  the provider may withdraw the notification at any time before the Commission makes its final determination;

                             (ii)  the third party may withdraw the provider’s notification at any time after the Commission issues a draft final determination, but before it makes its final determination;

                     (b)  if the third party notified the dispute, the third party may withdraw the notification at any time before the Commission makes its determination.

             (2)  Despite subparagraph (1)(a)(ii), if the provider notified a dispute over variation of a final determination, the third party may not withdraw the provider’s notification.

             (3)  If the notification is withdrawn, it is taken for the purposes of this Part never to have been given.

Subdivision CArbitration of access disputes

44U  Parties to the arbitration

                   The parties to the arbitration of an access dispute are:

                     (a)  the provider;

                     (b)  the third party;

                     (c)  any other person who applies in writing to be made a party and is accepted by the Commission as having a sufficient interest.

44V  Determination by Commission

             (1)  Unless it terminates the arbitration under section 44Y or 44ZZCB, the Commission:

                     (a)  must make a written final determination; and

                     (b)  may make a written interim determination;

on access by the third party to the service.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to the Commission’s final determination: see section 44XA.

Note 2:       The Commission may defer arbitration of the access dispute if it is also considering an access undertaking: see section 44ZZCB.

             (2)  A determination may deal with any matter relating to access by the third party to the service, including matters that were not the basis for notification of the dispute. By way of example, the determination may:

                     (a)  require the provider to provide access to the service by the third party;

                     (b)  require the third party to accept, and pay for, access to the service;

                     (c)  specify the terms and conditions of the third party’s access to the service;

                     (d)  require the provider to extend the facility;

                    (da)  require the provider to permit interconnection to the facility by the third party;

                     (e)  specify the extent to which the determination overrides an earlier determination relating to access to the service by the third party.

             (3)  A determination does not have to require the provider to provide access to the service by the third party.

             (4)  Before making a determination, the Commission must give a draft determination to the parties.

             (5)  When the Commission makes a determination, it must give the parties to the arbitration its reasons for making the determination.

             (6)  A determination is not a legislative instrument for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.

44W  Restrictions on access determinations

             (1)  The Commission must not make a determination that would have any of the following effects:

                     (a)  preventing an existing user obtaining a sufficient amount of the service to be able to meet the user’s reasonably anticipated requirements, measured at the time when the dispute was notified;

                     (b)  preventing a person from obtaining, by the exercise of a pre‑notification right, a sufficient amount of the service to be able to meet the person’s actual requirements;

                     (c)  depriving any person of a protected contractual right;

                     (d)  resulting in the third party becoming the owner (or one of the owners) of any part of the facility, or of extensions of the facility, without the consent of the provider;

                     (e)  requiring the provider to bear some or all of the costs of extending the facility or maintaining extensions of the facility;

                      (f)  requiring the provider to bear some or all of the costs of interconnections to the facility or maintaining interconnections to the facility.

             (2)  Paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) do not apply in relation to the requirements and rights of the third party and the provider when the Commission is making a determination in arbitration of an access dispute relating to an earlier determination of an access dispute between the third party and the provider.

             (3)  A determination is of no effect if it is made in contravention of subsection (1).

             (4)  If the Commission makes a determination that has the effect of depriving a person (the second person) of a pre‑notification right to require the provider to supply the service to the second person, the determination must also require the third party:

                     (a)  to pay to the second person such amount (if any) as the Commission considers is fair compensation for the deprivation; and

                     (b)  to reimburse the provider and the Commonwealth for any compensation that the provider or the Commonwealth agrees, or is required by a court order, to pay to the second party as compensation for the deprivation.

Note:          Without infringing paragraph (1)(b), a determination may deprive a second person of the right to be supplied with an amount of service equal to the difference between the total amount of service the person was entitled to under a pre‑notification right and the amount that the person actually needs to meet his or her actual requirements.

             (5)  In this section:

existing user means a person (including the provider) who was using the service at the time when the dispute was notified.

pre‑notification right means a right under a contract, or under a determination, that was in force at the time when the dispute was notified.

protected contractual right means a right under a contract that was in force at the beginning of 30 March 1995.

44X  Matters that the Commission must take into account

Final determinations

             (1)  The Commission must take the following matters into account in making a final determination:

                    (aa)  the objects of this Part;

                     (a)  the legitimate business interests of the provider, and the provider’s investment in the facility;

                     (b)  the public interest, including the public interest in having competition in markets (whether or not in Australia);

                     (c)  the interests of all persons who have rights to use the service;

                     (d)  the direct costs of providing access to the service;

                     (e)  the value to the provider of extensions whose cost is borne by someone else;

                    (ea)  the value to the provider of interconnections to the facility whose cost is borne by someone else;

                      (f)  the operational and technical requirements necessary for the safe and reliable operation of the facility;

                     (g)  the economically efficient operation of the facility;

                     (h)  the pricing principles specified in section 44ZZCA.

             (2)  The Commission may take into account any other matters that it thinks are relevant.

Interim determinations

             (3)  The Commission may take the following matters into account in making an interim determination:

                     (a)  a matter referred to in subsection (1);

                     (b)  any other matter it considers relevant.

             (4)  In making an interim determination, the Commission does not have a duty to consider whether to take into account a matter referred to in subsection (1).

44XA  Target time limits for Commission’s final determination

             (1)  The Commission must use its best endeavours to make a final determination within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 6 months beginning on the day it received notification of the access dispute; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Commission is unable to make a final determination within the standard period, or that period as extended, it must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The Commission must give a copy of the notice to each party to the arbitration.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Commission may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the Commission extends the standard period, it must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that it has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which it must now use its best endeavours to make a final determination.

44Y  Commission may terminate arbitration in certain cases

             (1)  The Commission may at any time terminate an arbitration (without making a final determination) if it thinks that:

                     (a)  the notification of the dispute was vexatious; or

                     (b)  the subject matter of the dispute is trivial, misconceived or lacking in substance; or

                     (c)  the party who notified the dispute has not engaged in negotiations in good faith; or

                     (d)  access to the service should continue to be governed by an existing contract between the provider and the third party.

             (2)  In addition, if the dispute is about varying an existing determination, the Commission may terminate the arbitration if it thinks there is no sufficient reason why the previous determination should not continue to have effect in its present form.

Subdivision DProcedure in arbitrations

44Z  Constitution of Commission for conduct of arbitration

                   For the purposes of a particular arbitration, the Commission is to be constituted by 2 or more members of the Commission nominated in writing by the Chairperson.

44ZA  Member of the Commission presiding at an arbitration

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), the Chairperson is to preside at an arbitration.

             (2)  If the Chairperson is not a member of the Commission as constituted under section 44Z in relation to a particular arbitration, the Chairperson must nominate a member of the Commission to preside at the arbitration.

44ZB  Reconstitution of Commission

             (1)  This section applies if a member of the Commission who is one of the members who constitute the Commission for the purposes of a particular arbitration:

                     (a)  stops being a member of the Commission; or

                     (b)  for any reason, is not available for the purpose of the arbitration.

             (2)  The Chairperson must either:

                     (a)  direct that the Commission is to be constituted for the purposes of finishing the arbitration by the remaining member or members; or

                     (b)  direct that the Commission is to be constituted for that purpose by the remaining member or members together with one or more other members of the Commission.

             (3)  If a direction under subsection (2) is given, the Commission as constituted in accordance with the direction must continue and finish the arbitration and may, for that purpose, have regard to any record of the proceedings of the arbitration made by the Commission as previously constituted.

44ZC  Determination of questions

                   If the Commission is constituted for an arbitration by 2 or more members of the Commission, any question before the Commission is to be decided:

                     (a)  unless paragraph (b) applies—according to the opinion of the majority of those members; or

                     (b)  if the members are evenly divided on the question—according to the opinion of the member who is presiding.

44ZD  Hearing to be in private

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), an arbitration hearing for an access dispute is to be in private.

             (2)  If the parties agree, an arbitration hearing or part of an arbitration hearing may be conducted in public.

             (3)  The member of the Commission who is presiding at an arbitration hearing that is conducted in private may give written directions as to the persons who may be present.

             (4)  In giving directions under subsection (3), the member presiding must have regard to the wishes of the parties and the need for commercial confidentiality.

44ZE  Right to representation

                   In an arbitration hearing before the Commission under this Part, a party may appear in person or be represented by someone else.

44ZF  Procedure of Commission

             (1)  In an arbitration hearing about an access dispute, the Commission:

                     (a)  is not bound by technicalities, legal forms or rules of evidence; and

                     (b)  must act as speedily as a proper consideration of the dispute allows, having regard to the need to carefully and quickly inquire into and investigate the dispute and all matters affecting the merits, and fair settlement, of the dispute; and

                     (c)  may inform itself of any matter relevant to the dispute in any way it thinks appropriate.

             (2)  The Commission may determine the periods that are reasonably necessary for the fair and adequate presentation of the respective cases of the parties to an access dispute, and may require that the cases be presented within those periods.

             (3)  The Commission may require evidence or argument to be presented in writing, and may decide the matters on which it will hear oral evidence or argument.

             (4)  The Commission may determine that an arbitration hearing is to be conducted by:

                     (a)  telephone; or

                     (b)  closed circuit television; or

                     (c)  any other means of communication.

44ZG  Particular powers of Commission

             (1)  The Commission may do any of the following things for the purpose of arbitrating an access dispute:

                     (a)  give a direction in the course of, or for the purposes of, an arbitration hearing;

                     (b)  hear and determine the arbitration in the absence of a person who has been summoned or served with a notice to appear;

                     (c)  sit at any place;

                     (d)  adjourn to any time and place;

                     (e)  refer any matter to an expert and accept the expert’s report as evidence;

                      (f)  generally give all such directions, and do all such things, as are necessary or expedient for the speedy hearing and determination of the access dispute.

             (2)  A person must not do any act or thing in relation to the arbitration of an access dispute that would be a contempt of court if the Commission were a court of record.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

             (3)  Subsection (1) has effect subject to any other provision of this Part and subject to the regulations.

             (4)  The Commission may give an oral or written order to a person not to divulge or communicate to anyone else specified information that was given to the person in the course of an arbitration unless the person has the Commission’s permission.

             (5)  A person who contravenes an order under subsection (4) is guilty of an offence, punishable on conviction by imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months.

44ZH  Power to take evidence on oath or affirmation

             (1)  The Commission may take evidence on oath or affirmation and for that purpose a member of the Commission may administer an oath or affirmation.

             (2)  The member of the Commission who is presiding may summon a person to appear before the Commission to give evidence and to produce such documents (if any) as are referred to in the summons.

             (3)  The powers in this section may be exercised only for the purposes of arbitrating an access dispute.

44ZI  Failing to attend as a witness

                   A person who is served, as prescribed, with a summons to appear as a witness before the Commission must not, without reasonable excuse:

                     (a)  fail to attend as required by the summons; or

                     (b)  fail to appear and report himself or herself from day to day unless excused, or released from further attendance, by a member of the Commission.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

44ZJ  Failing to answer questions etc.

             (1)  A person appearing as a witness before the Commission must not, without reasonable excuse:

                     (a)  refuse or fail to be sworn or to make an affirmation; or

                     (b)  refuse or fail to answer a question that the person is required to answer by the Commission; or

                     (c)  refuse or fail to produce a document that he or she was required to produce by a summons under this Part served on him or her as prescribed.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 6 months.

             (2)  It is a reasonable excuse for the purposes of subsection (1) for an individual to refuse or fail to answer a question or produce a document on the ground that the answer or the production of the document might tend to incriminate the individual or to expose the individual to a penalty. This subsection does not limit what is a reasonable excuse for the purposes of subsection (1).

44ZK  Intimidation etc.

                   A person must not:

                     (a)  threaten, intimidate or coerce another person; or

                     (b)  cause or procure damage, loss or disadvantage to another person;

because that other person:

                     (c)  proposes to produce, or has produced, documents to the Commission; or

                     (d)  proposes to appear or has appeared as a witness before the Commission.

Penalty:  Imprisonment for 12 months.

44ZL  Party may request Commission to treat material as confidential

             (1)  A party to an arbitration hearing may:

                     (a)  inform the Commission that, in the party’s opinion, a specified part of a document contains confidential commercial information; and

                     (b)  request the Commission not to give a copy of that part to another party.

             (2)  On receiving a request, the Commission must:

                     (a)  inform the other party or parties that the request has been made and of the general nature of the matters to which the relevant part of the document relates; and

                     (b)  ask the other party or parties whether there is any objection to the Commission complying with the request.

             (3)  If there is an objection to the Commission complying with a request, the party objecting may inform the Commission of its objection and of the reasons for it.

             (4)  After considering:

                     (a)  a request; and

                     (b)  any objection; and

                     (c)  any further submissions that any party has made in relation to the request;

the Commission may decide not to give to the other party or parties a copy of so much of the document as contains confidential commercial information that the Commission thinks should not be so given.

44ZM  Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission in an arbitration

                   Sections 18 and 19 do not apply to the Commission, as constituted for an arbitration.

44ZN  Parties to pay costs of an arbitration

                   The regulations may provide for the Commission to:

                     (a)  charge the parties to an arbitration for its costs in conducting the arbitration; and

                     (b)  apportion the charge between the parties.

44ZNA  Joint arbitration hearings

Joint arbitration hearing

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  the Commission is arbitrating 2 or more access disputes at a particular time; and

                     (b)  one or more matters are common to those disputes;

the Chairperson may, by notice in writing, decide that the Commission must hold a joint arbitration hearing in respect of such of those disputes (the nominated disputes) as are specified in the notice.

             (2)  The Chairperson may do so only if he or she considers this would be likely to result in the nominated disputes being resolved in a more efficient and timely manner.

Consulting the parties

             (3)  Before doing so, the Chairperson must give each party to the arbitration of each nominated dispute a notice in writing:

                     (a)  specifying what the Chairperson is proposing to do; and

                     (b)  inviting the party to make a written submission on the proposal to the Chairperson within 14 days after the notice is given.

             (4)  The Chairperson must have regard to any submission so made in deciding whether to do so. He or she may have regard to any other matter he or she considers relevant.

Directions to presiding member

             (5)  The Chairperson may, for the purposes of the conduct of the joint arbitration hearing, give written directions to the member of the Commission presiding at the hearing.

Constitution and procedure of Commission

             (6)  Sections 44Z to 44ZN apply to the joint arbitration hearing in a corresponding way to the way in which they apply to a particular arbitration.

Note:          For example, the Chairperson would be required to nominate in writing 1 or more members of the Commission to constitute the Commission for the purposes of the joint arbitration hearing.

Record of proceedings etc.

             (7)  The Commission as constituted for the purposes of the joint arbitration hearing may have regard to any record of the proceedings of the arbitration of any nominated dispute.

             (8)  The Commission as constituted for the purposes of the arbitration of each nominated dispute may, for the purposes of making a determination in relation to that arbitration:

                     (a)  have regard to any record of the proceedings of the joint arbitration hearing; and

                     (b)  adopt any findings of fact made by the Commission as constituted for the purposes of the joint arbitration hearing.

Legislative Instruments Act

             (9)  The following are not legislative instruments for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003:

                     (a)  a notice made under subsection (1);

                     (b)  a direction given under subsection (5).

Subdivision DAArbitration reports

44ZNB  Arbitration reports

             (1)  The Commission must prepare a written report about a final determination it makes. It must publish, by electronic or other means, the report.

             (2)  The report may include the whole or a part of the determination and the reasons for the determination or the part of the determination.

Report must include certain matters

             (3)  The report must set out the following matters:

                     (a)  the principles the Commission applied in making the determination;

                     (b)  the methodologies the Commission applied in making the determination and the reasons for the choice of the asset valuation methodology;

                     (c)  how the Commission took into account the matters mentioned in subsection 44X(1) in making the determination;

                     (d)  any matter the Commission took into account under subsection 44X(2) in making the determination and the reasons for doing so;

                     (e)  any information provided by the parties to the arbitration that was relevant to those principles or methodologies;

Note:       Confidentiality issues are dealt with in subsections (5) to (7).

                      (f)  any implications the Commission considers the determination has for persons seeking access to the service or to similar services in the future;

                     (g)  if applicable—the reasons for the determination dealing with matters that were already agreed between the parties to the arbitration at the time the access dispute was notified;

                     (h)  if applicable—the reasons for the access dispute being the subject of a joint arbitration hearing under section 44ZNA despite the objection of a party to the arbitration.

Report may include other matters

             (4)  The report may include any other matter that the Commission considers relevant.

Confidentiality

             (5)  The Commission must not include in the report any information the Commission decided not to give to a party to the arbitration under section 44ZL.

             (6)  Before publishing the report, the Commission must give each party to the arbitration a notice in writing:

                     (a)  specifying what the Commission is proposing to publish; and

                     (b)  inviting the party to make a written submission to the Commission within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the party considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (7)  The Commission must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

Legislative Instruments Act

             (8)  A report prepared under subsection (1) is not a legislative instrument for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.

Subdivision EEffect of determinations

44ZO  Operation of final determinations

             (1)  If none of the parties to the arbitration applies to the Tribunal under section 44ZP for a review of the Commission’s final determination, the determination has effect 21 days after the determination is made.

             (2)  If a party to the arbitration applies to the Tribunal under section 44ZP for a review of the Commission’s final determination, the determination is of no effect until the Tribunal makes its determination on the review.

Backdating

             (3)  Any or all of the provisions of a final determination may be expressed to apply from a specified day that is earlier than the day on which it takes effect under subsection (1) or (2).

Example:    The Commission makes a final determination on 1 August. It takes effect under subsection (1) on 22 August, but it is expressed to apply from 1 July.

             (4)  The specified day must not be earlier than the following day:

                     (a)  if the third party and provider commenced negotiations on access to the service after the service became a declared service—the day on which the negotiations commenced;

                     (b)  if the third party and provider commenced negotiations on access to the service before the service became a declared service—the day on which the declaration began to operate.

However, the specified day cannot be a day on which the third party did not have access to the service.

Operation of interim determination

             (5)  If a provision of a final determination is expressed to apply from a day when an interim determination was in effect, the provision of the final determination prevails over the interim determination to the extent set out in the final determination.

Interest

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  a provision of a final determination is covered by subsection (3); and

                     (b)  the provision requires a party to the determination (the first party) to pay money to another party;

the determination may require the first party to pay interest to the other party, at the rate specified in the determination, on the whole or a part of the money, for the whole or a part of the period:

                     (c)  beginning on the day specified under subsection (3); and

                     (d)  ending on the day on which the determination takes effect under subsection (1) or (2).

Guidelines

             (7)  In exercising the power conferred by subsection (3) or (6), the Commission must have regard to any guidelines in force under subsection (8). It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

             (8)  The Commission must, by legislative instrument, determine guidelines for the purposes of subsection (7).

             (9)  The Commission must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the first set of guidelines under subsection (8) is made within 6 months after the commencement of this subsection.

44ZOA  Effect and duration of interim determinations

             (1)  An interim determination takes effect on the day specified in the determination.

             (2)  Unless sooner revoked, an interim determination continues in effect until the earliest of the following:

                     (a)  the notification of the access dispute is withdrawn under section 44T;

                     (b)  a final determination relating to the access dispute takes effect;

Note:       A backdated final determination may prevail over an interim determination: see subsection 44ZO(5).

                     (c)  an interim determination made by the Tribunal (while reviewing a final determination relating to the access dispute) takes effect.

Subdivision FReview of final determinations

44ZP  Review by Tribunal

             (1)  A party to a final determination may apply in writing to the Tribunal for a review of the determination.

             (2)  The application must be made within 21 days after the Commission made the final determination.

             (3)  A review by the Tribunal is a re‑arbitration of the access dispute.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the Commission.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Commission to give information and other assistance and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

             (6)  The Tribunal may either affirm or vary the Commission’s determination.

             (7)  The determination, as affirmed or varied by the Tribunal, is to be taken to be a determination of the Commission for all purposes of this Part (except this section).

             (8)  The decision of the Tribunal takes effect from when it is made.

44ZQ  Provisions that do not apply in relation to a Tribunal review

                   Sections 37, 39 to 43 (inclusive) and 103 to 110 (inclusive) do not apply in relation to a review by the Tribunal of a final determination made by the Commission.

44ZR  Appeals to Federal Court from determinations of the Tribunal

             (1)  A party to an arbitration may appeal to the Federal Court, on a question of law, from the decision of the Tribunal under section 44ZP.

             (2)  An appeal by a person under subsection (1) must be instituted:

                     (a)  not later than the 28th day after the day on which the decision of the Tribunal is made or within such further period as the Federal Court (whether before or after the end of that day) allows; and

                     (b)  in accordance with the Rules of Court made under the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976.

             (3)  The Federal Court must hear and determine the appeal and may make any order that it thinks appropriate.

             (4)  The orders that may be made by the Federal Court on appeal include (but are not limited to):

                     (a)  an order affirming or setting aside the decision of the Tribunal; and

                     (b)  an order remitting the matter to be decided again by the Tribunal in accordance with the directions of the Federal Court.

44ZS  Operation and implementation of a determination that is subject to appeal

             (1)  Subject to this section, the fact that an appeal is instituted in the Federal Court from a decision of the Tribunal does not affect the operation of the decision or prevent action being taken to implement the decision.

             (2)  If an appeal is instituted in the Federal Court from a decision of the Tribunal, the Federal Court or a judge of the Federal Court may make any orders staying or otherwise affecting the operation or implementation of the decision of the Tribunal that the Federal Court or judge thinks appropriate to secure the effectiveness of the hearing and determination of the appeal.

             (3)  If an order is in force under subsection (2) (including an order previously varied under this subsection), the Federal Court or a judge of the Federal Court may make an order varying or revoking the first‑mentioned order.

             (4)  An order in force under subsection (2) (including an order previously varied under subsection (3)):

                     (a)  is subject to any conditions that are specified in the order; and

                     (b)  has effect until:

                              (i)  the end of any period for the operation of the order that is specified in the order; or

                             (ii)  the giving of a decision on the appeal;

                            whichever is earlier.

44ZT  Transmission of documents

                   If an appeal is instituted in the Federal Court:

                     (a)  the Tribunal must send to the Federal Court all documents that were before the Tribunal in connection with the matter to which the appeal relates; and

                     (b)  at the conclusion of the proceedings before the Federal Court in relation to the appeal, the Federal Court must return the documents to the Tribunal.

Subdivision GVariation and revocation of determinations

44ZU  Variation of final determinations

             (1)  The Commission may vary a final determination on the application of any party to the determination. However, it cannot vary the final determination if any other party objects.

Note:          If the parties cannot agree on a variation, a new access dispute can be notified under section 44S.

             (2)  Sections 44W and 44X apply to a variation under this section as if:

                     (a)  an access dispute arising out of the final determination had been notified when the application was made to the Commission for the variation of the determination; and

                     (b)  the variation were the making of a final determination in the terms of the varied determination.

44ZUA  Variation and revocation of interim determinations

             (1)  The Commission may, by writing, vary or revoke an interim determination.

             (2)  The Commission must, by writing, revoke an interim determination if requested to do so by the parties to the determination.


 

Division 4Registered contracts for access to declared services

44ZV  Constitutional limits on operation of this Division

                   This Division does not apply to a contract unless:

                     (a)  the contract provides for access to a declared service; and

                     (b)  the contract was made after the service was declared; and

                     (c)  the parties to the contract are the provider of the service and a third party; and

                     (d)  at least one of the following conditions is met:

                              (i)  the provider is a corporation (or a partnership or joint venture consisting wholly of corporations);

                             (ii)  the third party is a corporation;

                            (iii)  the access is (or would be) in the course of, or for the purposes of, constitutional trade or commerce.

44ZW  Registration of contract

             (1)  On application by all the parties to a contract, the Commission must:

                     (a)  register the contract by entering the following details on a public register:

                              (i)  the names of the parties to the contract;

                             (ii)  the service to which the contract relates;

                            (iii)  the date on which the contract was made; or

                     (b)  decide not to register the contract.

             (2)  In deciding whether to register a contract, the Commission must take into account:

                    (aa)  the objects of this Part; and

                     (a)  the public interest, including the public interest in having competition in markets (whether or not in Australia); and

                     (b)  the interests of all persons who have rights to use the service to which the contract relates.

          (2A)  The Commission must not register a contract if it deals with a matter or matters relating to access to the service that are dealt with in an access undertaking that is in operation.

             (3)  The Commission must publish a decision not to register a contract.

             (4)  If the Commission publishes a decision not to register a contract, it must give the parties to the contract reasons for the decision when it publishes the decision.

44ZX  Review of decision not to register contract

             (1)  If the Commission decides not to register a contract, a party to the contract may apply in writing to the Tribunal for review of the decision.

             (2)  An application for review must be made within 21 days after publication of the Commission’s decision.

             (3)  The review by the Tribunal is a re‑consideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the Commission.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Commission to give information and other assistance and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

             (6)  The Tribunal may either:

                     (a)  affirm the Commission’s decision; or

                     (b)  register the contract.

44ZY  Effect of registration of contract

                   The parties to a contract that has been registered:

                     (a)  may enforce the contract under Division 7 as if the contract were a determination of the Commission under section 44V and they were parties to the determination; and

                     (b)  cannot enforce the contract by any other means.


 

Division 5Hindering access to declared services

44ZZ  Prohibition on hindering access to declared services

             (1)  The provider or a user of a service to which a third party has access under a determination, or a body corporate related to the provider or a user of the service, must not engage in conduct for the purpose of preventing or hindering the third party’s access to the service under the determination.

             (2)  A person may be taken to have engaged in conduct for the purpose referred to in subsection (1) even though, after all the evidence has been considered, the existence of that purpose is ascertainable only by inference from the conduct of the person or from other relevant circumstances. This subsection does not limit the manner in which the purpose of a person may be established for the purposes of subsection (1).

             (3)  In this section, a user of a service includes a person who has a right to use the service.


 

Division 6Access undertakings and access codes for services

Subdivision AGiving of access undertakings and access codes

44ZZA  Access undertakings by providers

             (1)  A person who is, or expects to be, the provider of a service may give a written undertaking to the Commission in connection with the provision of access to the service.

Note:          The following are examples of the kinds of things that might be dealt with in the undertaking:

(a)           terms and conditions of access to the service;

(b)           procedures for determining terms and conditions of access to the service;

(c)           an obligation on the provider not to hinder access to the service;

(d)           an obligation on the provider to implement a particular business structure;

(e)           an obligation on the provider to provide information to the Commission or to another person;

(f)            an obligation on the provider to comply with decisions of the Commission or another person in relation to matters specified in the undertaking;

(g)           an obligation on the provider to seek a variation of the undertaking in specified circumstances.

             (2)  The undertaking must specify the expiry date of the undertaking.

             (3)  The Commission may accept the undertaking, if it thinks it appropriate to do so having regard to the following matters:

                    (aa)  the objects of this Part;

                    (ab)  the pricing principles specified in section 44ZZCA;

                     (a)  the legitimate business interests of the provider;

                     (b)  the public interest, including the public interest in having competition in markets (whether or not in Australia);

                     (c)  the interests of persons who might want access to the service;

                    (da)  whether the undertaking is in accordance with an access code that applies to the service;

                     (e)  any other matters that the Commission thinks are relevant.

Note:          The Commission may defer consideration of the undertaking if it is also arbitrating an access dispute: see section 44ZZCB.

       (3AA)  The Commission must not accept the undertaking if a decision of the Commonwealth Minister is in force under section 44N that a regime established by a State or Territory for access to the service is an effective access regime.

          (3A)  The Commission must not accept the undertaking unless:

                     (a)  the provider, or proposed provider, is a corporation (or a partnership or joint venture consisting wholly of corporations); or

                     (b)  the undertaking provides for access only to third parties that are corporations; or

                     (c)  the undertaking provides for access that is (or would be) in the course of, or for the purposes of, constitutional trade or commerce.

             (6)  If the undertaking provides for disputes about the undertaking to be resolved by the Commission, then the Commission may resolve the disputes in accordance with the undertaking.

          (6A)  If the undertaking provides for the Commission to perform functions or exercise powers in relation to the undertaking, the Commission may perform those functions and exercise those powers. If the Commission decides to do so, it must do so in accordance with the undertaking.

             (7)  The provider may withdraw or vary the undertaking at any time, but only with the consent of the Commission. The Commission may consent to a variation of the undertaking if it thinks it appropriate to do so having regard to the matters in subsection (3).

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to a decision of the Commission under this section: see section 44ZZBC.

Note 2:       The Commission may invite public submissions in relation to its decision: see section 44ZZBD.

Note 3:       The Commission must publish its decision: see section 44ZZBE.

44ZZAA  Access codes prepared by industry bodies

             (1)  An industry body may give a written code to the Commission setting out rules for access to a service.

             (2)  The code must specify the expiry date of the code.

             (3)  The Commission may accept the code, if it thinks it appropriate to do so having regard to the following matters:

                    (aa)  the objects of this Part;

                    (ab)  the pricing principles specified in section 44ZZCA;

                     (a)  the legitimate business interests of providers who might give undertakings in accordance with the code;

                     (b)  the public interest, including the public interest in having competition in markets (whether or not in Australia);

                     (c)  the interests of persons who might want access to the service covered by the code;

                     (e)  any matters specified in regulations made for the purposes of this subsection;

                      (f)  any other matters that the Commission thinks are relevant.

          (3A)  The Commission must not accept the code if a decision of the Commonwealth Minister is in force under section 44N that a regime established by a State or Territory for access to the service is an effective access regime.

             (6)  The industry body may withdraw or vary the code at any time, but only with the consent of the Commission. The Commission may consent to a variation of the code if it thinks it appropriate to do so having regard to the matters in subsection (3).

Note:          The Commission may rely on industry body consultations before giving its consent: see section 44ZZAB.

             (7)  If the industry body that gave the code to the Commission has ceased to exist, a withdrawal or variation under subsection (6) may be made by a body or association prescribed by the regulations as a replacement for the original industry body.

             (8)  In this section:

code means a set of rules (which may be in general terms or detailed terms).

industry body means a body or association (including a body or association established by a law of a State or Territory) prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this section.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to a decision of the Commission under this section: see section 44ZZBC.

Note 2:       The Commission may invite public submissions in relation to its decision: see section 44ZZBD.

Note 3:       The Commission must publish its decision: see section 44ZZBE.

44ZZAB  Commission may rely on industry body consultations

             (1)  Despite subsection 44ZZAA(4), the Commission may accept a code if the industry body has done the following before giving the code to the Commission under subsection 44ZZAA(1):

                     (a)  published the code or a draft of the code and invited people to make submissions to the industry body on the code or draft;

                     (b)  specified the effect of this subsection and subsection (2) when it published the code or draft;

                     (c)  considered any submissions that were received within the time limit specified by the industry body when it published the code or draft.

             (2)  In deciding whether to accept the code, the Commission may consider any submission referred to in paragraph (1)(c).

             (3)  Before consenting to a variation or withdrawal of a code under subsection 44ZZAA(6), the Commission may rely on:

                     (a)  publication of the variation or notice of the withdrawal by the industry body, including specification of the effect of this subsection and subsection (4); and

                     (b)  consideration by the industry body of any submissions that were received within the time limit specified by the industry body when it published the variation or notice.

             (4)  In deciding whether to consent to the variation or withdrawal, the Commission may consider any submission referred to in paragraph (3)(b).

             (5)  In this section:

code has the same meaning as it has in section 44ZZAA.

industry body has the same meaning as it has in section 44ZZAA.

Subdivision BEffect of access undertakings and access codes

44ZZBA  When access undertakings and access codes come into operation

Acceptance of access undertakings or access codes

             (1)  If the Commission accepts an access undertaking or an access code, it comes into operation at:

                     (a)  if, within 21 days after the Commission publishes its decision, no person has applied to the Tribunal for review of the decision—the end of that period; or

                     (b)  if a person applies to the Tribunal within that period for review of the decision and the Tribunal affirms the decision—the time of the Tribunal’s decision.

             (2)  If the Tribunal decides under paragraph 44ZZBF(7)(e) to accept an access undertaking or access code, it comes into operation at the time of the Tribunal’s decision.

             (3)  An access undertaking or access code continues in operation until its expiry date, unless it is earlier withdrawn.

Note:          The period for which an access undertaking or access code is in operation may be extended: see section 44ZZBB.

Withdrawal or variation of access undertakings or access codes

             (4)  If the Commission consents to the withdrawal or variation of an access undertaking or an access code, the withdrawal or variation comes into operation at:

                     (a)  if, within 21 days after the Commission publishes its decision, no person has applied to the Tribunal for review of the decision—the end of that period; or

                     (b)  if a person applies to the Tribunal within that period for review of the decision and the Tribunal affirms the decision—the time of the Tribunal’s decision.

             (5)  If the Tribunal decides under paragraph 44ZZBF(7)(e) to consent to the withdrawal or variation of an access undertaking or access code, the withdrawal or variation comes into operation at the time of the Tribunal’s decision.

Subdivision CExtensions of access undertakings and access codes

44ZZBB  Extensions of access undertakings and access codes

Access undertakings

             (1)  If an access undertaking is in operation under section 44ZZBA (including as a result of an extension under this section), the provider of the service may apply in writing to the Commission for an extension of the period for which it is in operation.

Note:          The Commission may extend the period for which the undertaking is in operation more than once: see subsection (8). This means there may be multiple applications under this subsection.

             (2)  The provider of the service must specify in the application a proposed extension period.

             (3)  The Commission may, by notice in writing, extend the period for which the undertaking is in operation if it thinks it appropriate to do so having regard to the matters mentioned in subsection 44ZZA(3). The notice must specify the extension period.

Access codes

             (4)  If an access code is in operation under section 44ZZBA (including as a result of an extension under this section), the industry body may apply in writing to the Commission for an extension of the period for which it is in operation.

Note:          The Commission may extend the period for which the code is in operation more than once: see subsection (8). This means there may be multiple applications under this subsection.

             (5)  The industry body must specify in the application a proposed extension period.

             (6)  The Commission may, by notice in writing, extend the period for which the code is in operation if it thinks it appropriate to do so having regard to the matters mentioned in subsection 44ZZAA(3). The notice must specify the extension period.

             (7)  If the industry body that gave the code to the Commission has ceased to exist, an application under subsection (4) may be made by a body or association referred to in subsection 44ZZAA(7).

Multiple extensions

             (8)  The Commission may extend the period for which an access undertaking or an access code is in operation more than once.

Note 1:       There are target time limits that apply to a decision of the Commission under this section: see section 44ZZBC.

Note 2:       The Commission may invite public submissions in relation to its decision: see section 44ZZBD.

Note 3:       The Commission must publish its decision: see section 44ZZBE.

Subdivision DProcedural provisions

44ZZBC  Target time limits for Commission decisions

             (1)  The Commission must use its best endeavours to make a decision on an access undertaking application or an access code application within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 6 months beginning on the day it received the application; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Commission is unable to make a decision within the standard period, or that period as extended, it must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

             (3)  The Commission must give a copy of the notice to:

                     (a)  for an access undertaking application—the provider of the service; or

                     (b)  for an access code application—the industry body or its replacement.

Multiple extensions

             (4)  The Commission may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (5)  If the Commission extends the standard period, it must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that it has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which it must now use its best endeavours to make a decision on the access undertaking application or access code application.

44ZZBD  Commission may invite public submissions

Invitation

             (1)  The Commission may publish, by electronic or other means, a notice inviting public submissions on an access undertaking application or an access code application if it considers that it is appropriate and practicable to do so.

             (2)  The notice must specify how submissions may be made and the day by which submissions may be made (which must be at least 14 days after the day the notice is published).

Commission to consider any submission

             (3)  Subject to subsection (6), the Commission must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what decision to make on the application.

Commission may make submissions publicly available

             (4)  The Commission may make any written submission, or a written record (which may be a summary) of any oral submission, publicly available.

Confidentiality

             (5)  A person may, at the time of making a submission, request that the Commission:

                     (a)  not make the whole or a part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                     (b)  not publish or make available the whole or a part of the submission under section 44ZZBE;

because of the confidential commercial information contained in the submission.

             (6)  If the Commission refuses such a request:

                     (a)  for a written submission—the Commission must, if the person who made it so requires, return the whole or the part of it to the person; and

                     (b)  for an oral submission—the person who made it may inform the Commission that the person withdraws the whole or the part of it; and

                     (c)  if the Commission returns the whole or the part of the submission, or the person withdraws the whole or the part of the submission, the Commission must not:

                              (i)  make the whole or the part of the submission available under subsection (4); and

                             (ii)  publish or make available the whole or the part of the submission under section 44ZZBE; and

                            (iii)  have regard to the whole or the part of the submission in making its decision on the application.

44ZZBE  Commission must publish its decisions

             (1)  The Commission must publish, by electronic or other means, an access undertaking decision or an access code decision and its reasons for the decision.

             (2)  The Commission must give a copy of the publication to:

                     (a)  for an access undertaking decision—the provider of the service; or

                     (b)  for an access code decision—the industry body or its replacement.

Consultation

             (3)  Before publishing under subsection (1), the Commission may give any one or more of the following persons:

                     (a)  for an access undertaking decision—the provider of the service;

                     (b)  for an access code decision—the industry body or its replacement;

                     (c)  in any case—any other person the Commission considers appropriate;

a notice in writing:

                     (d)  specifying what the Commission is proposing to publish; and

                     (e)  inviting the person to make a written submission to the Commission within 14 days after the notice is given identifying any information the person considers should not be published because of its confidential commercial nature.

             (4)  The Commission must have regard to any submission so made in deciding what to publish. It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

Subdivision EReview of decisions

44ZZBF  Review of decisions

Application

             (1)  A person whose interests are affected by an access undertaking decision or an access code decision may apply in writing to the Tribunal for review of the decision.

             (2)  The person must apply for review within 21 days after the Commission publishes its decision.

Review

             (3)  The review by the Tribunal is a reconsideration of the matter.

Note:          There are target time limits that apply to the Tribunal’s decision on the review: see section 44ZZOA.

             (4)  For the purposes of the review, the Tribunal has the same powers as the Commission.

             (5)  The member of the Tribunal presiding at the review may require the Commission to give information and other assistance, and to make reports, as specified by the member for the purposes of the review.

Tribunal’s decision

             (6)  If the Commission:

                     (a)  accepted an access undertaking or access code; or

                     (b)  consented to the withdrawal or variation of an access undertaking or access code; or

                     (c)  extended the period for which an access undertaking or access code is in operation;

the Tribunal must, by writing, affirm or set aside the Commission’s decision.

             (7)  If the Commission:

                     (a)  rejected an access undertaking or access code; or

                     (b)  refused to consent to the withdrawal or variation of an access undertaking or access code; or

                     (c)  refused to extend the period for which an access undertaking or access code is in operation;

the Tribunal must, by writing:

                     (d)  affirm the Commission’s decision; or

                     (e)  set aside the Commission’s decision and accept the undertaking or code, consent to the withdrawal or variation of the undertaking or code or extend the period for which the undertaking or code is in operation.

Subdivision FRegister of access undertakings and access codes

44ZZC  Register of access undertakings and access codes

             (1)  The Commission must maintain a public register that includes all access undertakings and access codes that have been accepted by the Commission, including those that are no longer in operation.

             (2)  The register must include all variations of access undertakings and access codes.

             (3)  The register must also include details of all extensions of the period for which an access undertaking or an access code is in operation.


 

Division 6APricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes

44ZZCA  Pricing principles for access disputes and access undertakings or codes

                   The pricing principles relating to the price of access to a service are:

                     (a)  that regulated access prices should:

                              (i)  be set so as to generate expected revenue for a regulated service or services that is at least sufficient to meet the efficient costs of providing access to the regulated service or services; and

                             (ii)  include a return on investment commensurate with the regulatory and commercial risks involved; and

                     (b)  that the access price structures should:

                              (i)  allow multi‑part pricing and price discrimination when it aids efficiency; and

                             (ii)  not allow a vertically integrated access provider to set terms and conditions that discriminate in favour of its downstream operations, except to the extent that the cost of providing access to other operators is higher; and

                     (c)  that access pricing regimes should provide incentives to reduce costs or otherwise improve productivity.

Note:          The Commission must have regard to the principles in making a final determination under Division 3 and in deciding whether or not to accept an access undertaking or access code under Division 6.


 

Division 6BOverlap among determinations, registered contracts and access undertakings

44ZZCB  Deferring access disputes or access undertakings

             (1)  If, at a particular time, the Commission is:

                     (a)  arbitrating an access dispute under Division 3 relating to one or more matters of access to a declared service; and

                     (b)  considering whether to accept an access undertaking relating to the service and to one or more of those matters;

then the Commission may, by notice in writing, decide to:

                     (c)  defer arbitrating the access dispute, in whole or in part, while it considers the access undertaking; or

                     (d)  defer considering whether to accept the access undertaking, in whole or in part, while it arbitrates the access dispute.

Deferral of arbitration of access dispute

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  the Commission defers arbitrating the access dispute; and

                     (b)  the Commission then accepts the access undertaking and it comes into operation;

then the Commission must terminate the arbitration when the undertaking comes into operation, but only to the extent of the matters relating to access to the service that are dealt with in the undertaking.

Note:          The third party’s access to the service is determined under the access undertaking to the extent of the matters it deals with. If the access dispute deals with other matters, the third party’s access to the service in relation to those other matters is determined under any determination the Commission makes.

Deferral of consideration of access undertaking

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  the Commission defers considering whether to accept the access undertaking; and

                     (b)  the Commission then makes a final determination in relation to the arbitration of the access dispute;

then the Commission must resume considering whether to accept the access undertaking.

Publication

             (4)  The Commission must publish, by electronic or other means, any decision it makes under subsection (1) and its reasons for the decision. The Commission must give a copy of the decision (including the reasons for the decision) to each party to the arbitration.

Guidelines

             (5)  In exercising the power conferred by subsection (1), the Commission must have regard to:

                     (a)  the fact that the access undertaking will, if accepted, apply generally to access seekers and a final determination relating to the access dispute will only apply to the parties to the arbitration; and

                     (b)  any guidelines in force under subsection (6).

It may have regard to any other matter it considers relevant.

             (6)  The Commission must, by legislative instrument, determine guidelines for the purposes of subsection (5).

             (7)  The Commission must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the first set of guidelines under subsection (6) is made within 6 months after the commencement of this subsection.

Legislative Instruments Act

             (8)  A notice made under subsection (1) is not a legislative instrument for the purposes of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003.

44ZZCC  Overlap between determinations and access undertakings

                   If, at a particular time:

                     (a)  a final determination is in operation in relation to a declared service; and

                     (b)  an access undertaking is in operation in relation to the service;

the third party’s access to the service at that time is to be determined under the undertaking to the extent that it deals with a matter or matters relating to access to the service that are not dealt with in the determination.

44ZZCD  Overlap between registered contracts and access undertakings

                   If, at a particular time:

                     (a)  a contract is registered under Division 4 in relation to a declared service; and

                     (b)  an access undertaking is in operation in relation to the service;

the third party’s access to the service at that time is to be determined under the undertaking to the extent that it deals with a matter or matters relating to access to the service that are not dealt with in the contract.


 

Division 7Enforcement and remedies

44ZZD  Enforcement of determinations

             (1)  If the Federal Court is satisfied, on the application of a party to a determination, that another party to the determination has engaged, is engaging, or is proposing to engage in conduct that constitutes a contravention of the determination, the Court may make all or any of the following orders:

                     (a)  an order granting an injunction on such terms as the Court thinks appropriate:

                              (i)  restraining the other party from engaging in the conduct; or

                             (ii)  if the conduct involves refusing or failing to do something—requiring the other party to do that thing;

                     (b)  an order directing the other party to compensate the applicant for loss or damage suffered as a result of the contravention;

                     (c)  any other order that the Court thinks appropriate.

             (2)  If the Federal Court has power under subsection (1) to grant an injunction restraining a person from engaging in particular conduct, or requiring a person to do anything, the Court may make any other orders (including granting an injunction) that it thinks appropriate against any other person who was involved in the contravention concerned.

             (3)  A reference in this section to a person involved in the contravention is a reference to a person who has:

                     (a)  aided, abetted, counselled or procured the contravention; or

                     (b)  induced the contravention, whether through threats or promises or otherwise; or

                     (c)  been in any way (directly or indirectly) knowingly concerned in or a party to the contravention; or

                     (d)  conspired with others to effect the contravention.

44ZZE  Enforcement of prohibition on hindering access

             (1)  If the Federal Court is satisfied, on the application of any person, that another person (the obstructor) has engaged, is engaging, or is proposing to engage in conduct constituting a contravention of section 44ZZ, the Court may make all or any of the following orders:

                     (a)  an order granting an injunction on such terms as the Court thinks appropriate:

                              (i)  restraining the obstructor from engaging in the conduct; or

                             (ii)  if the conduct involves refusing or failing to do something—requiring the obstructor to do that thing;

                     (b)  an order directing the obstructor to compensate a person who has suffered loss or damage as a result of the contravention;

                     (c)  any other order that the Court thinks appropriate.

             (2)  If the Federal Court has power under subsection (1) to grant an injunction restraining a person from engaging in particular conduct, or requiring a person to do anything, the Court may make any other orders (including granting an injunction) that it thinks appropriate against any other person who was involved in the contravention concerned.

             (3)  The grounds on which the Court may decide not to make an order under this section include the ground that Divisions 2 and 3 provide a more appropriate way of dealing with the issue of the applicant’s access to the service concerned.

             (4)  A reference in this section to a person involved in the contravention is a reference to a person who has:

                     (a)  aided, abetted, counselled or procured the contravention; or

                     (b)  induced the contravention, whether through threats or promises or otherwise; or

                     (c)  been in any way (directly or indirectly) knowingly concerned in or a party to the contravention; or

                     (d)  conspired with others to effect the contravention.

44ZZF  Consent injunctions

                   On an application for an injunction under section 44ZZD or 44ZZE, the Federal Court may grant an injunction by consent of all of the parties to the proceedings, whether or not the Court is satisfied that the section applies.

44ZZG  Interim injunctions

             (1)  The Federal Court may grant an interim injunction pending determination of an application under section 44ZZD or 44ZZE.

             (2)  If the Commission makes an application under section 44ZZE to the Federal Court for an injunction, the Court must not require the Commission or any other person, as a condition of granting an interim injunction, to give any undertakings as to damages.

44ZZH  Factors relevant to granting a restraining injunction

                   The power of the Federal Court to grant an injunction under section 44ZZD or 44ZZE restraining a person from engaging in conduct may be exercised whether or not:

                     (a)  it appears to the Court that the person intends to engage again, or to continue to engage, in conduct of that kind; or

                     (b)  the person has previously engaged in conduct of that kind; or

                     (c)  there is an imminent danger of substantial damage to any person if the first‑mentioned person engages in conduct of that kind.

44ZZI  Factors relevant to granting a mandatory injunction

                   The power of the Federal Court to grant an injunction under section 44ZZD or 44ZZE requiring a person to do a thing may be exercised whether or not:

                     (a)  it appears to the Court that the person intends to refuse or fail again, or to continue to refuse or fail, to do that thing; or

                     (b)  the person has previously refused or failed to do that thing; or

                     (c)  there is an imminent danger of substantial damage to any person if the first‑mentioned person refuses or fails to do that thing.

44ZZJ  Enforcement of access undertakings

             (1)  If the Commission thinks that the provider of an access undertaking in operation under Division 6 has breached any of its terms, the Commission may apply to the Federal Court for an order under subsection (2).

             (2)  If the Federal Court is satisfied that the provider has breached a term of the undertaking, the Court may make all or any of the following orders:

                     (a)  an order directing the provider to comply with that term of the undertaking;

                     (b)  an order directing the provider to compensate any other person who has suffered loss or damage as a result of the breach;

                     (c)  any other order that the Court thinks appropriate.

44ZZK  Discharge or variation of injunction or other order

                   The Federal Court may discharge or vary an injunction or order granted under this Division.


 

Division 8Miscellaneous

44ZZL  Register of determinations

                   The Commission must maintain a public register that specifies the following information for each determination:

                     (a)  the names of the parties to the determination;

                     (b)  the service to which the determination relates;

                     (c)  the date on which the determination was made.

44ZZM  Commonwealth consent to conferral of functions etc. on the Commission or Tribunal by State or Territory laws

             (1)  A State or Territory access regime law may confer functions or powers, or impose duties, on the Commission or Tribunal.

Note:          Section 44ZZMB sets out when such a law imposes a duty on the Commission or Tribunal.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not authorise the conferral of a function or power, or the imposition of a duty, by a law of a State or Territory to the extent to which:

                     (a)  the conferral or imposition, or the authorisation, would contravene any constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the Commission or Tribunal; or

                     (b)  the authorisation would otherwise exceed the legislative power of the Commonwealth.

             (3)  The Commission or Tribunal cannot perform a duty or function, or exercise a power, under a State or Territory access regime law unless the conferral of the function or power, or the imposition of the duty, is in accordance with an agreement between the Commonwealth and the State or Territory concerned.

44ZZMA  How duty is imposed

Application

             (1)  This section applies if a State or Territory access regime law purports to impose a duty on the Commission or Tribunal.

Note:          Section 44ZZMB sets out when such a law imposes a duty on the Commission or Tribunal.

State or Territory legislative power sufficient to support duty

             (2)  The duty is taken not to be imposed by this Act (or any other law of the Commonwealth) to the extent to which:

                     (a)  imposing the duty is within the legislative powers of the State or Territory concerned; and

                     (b)  imposing the duty by the law of the State or Territory is consistent with the constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the Commission or Tribunal.

Note:          If this subsection applies, the duty will be taken to be imposed by force of the law of the State or Territory (the Commonwealth having consented under section 44ZZM to the imposition of the duty by that law).

Commonwealth legislative power sufficient to support duty but State or Territory legislative powers are not

             (3)  If, to ensure the validity of the purported imposition of the duty, it is necessary that the duty be imposed by a law of the Commonwealth (rather than by the law of the State or Territory), the duty is taken to be imposed by this Act to the extent necessary to ensure that validity.

             (4)  If, because of subsection (3), this Act is taken to impose the duty, it is the intention of the Parliament to rely on all powers available to it under the Constitution to support the imposition of the duty by this Act.

             (5)  The duty is taken to be imposed by this Act in accordance with subsection (3) only to the extent to which imposing the duty:

                     (a)  is within the legislative powers of the Commonwealth; and

                     (b)  is consistent with the constitutional doctrines restricting the duties that may be imposed on the Commission or Tribunal.

             (6)  Subsections (1) to (5) do not limit section 44ZZM.

44ZZMB  When a law of a State or Territory imposes a duty

                   For the purposes of sections 44ZZM and 44ZZMA, a State or Territory access regime law imposes a duty on the Commission or Tribunal if:

                     (a)  the law confers a function or power on the Commission or Tribunal; and

                     (b)  the circumstances in which the function or power is conferred give rise to an obligation on the Commission or Tribunal to perform the function or to exercise the power.

44ZZN  Compensation for acquisition of property

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  a determination would result in an acquisition of property; and

                     (b)  the determination would not be valid, apart from this section, because a particular person has not been sufficiently compensated;

the Commonwealth must pay that person:

                     (c)  a reasonable amount of compensation agreed on between the person and the Commonwealth; or

                     (d)  failing agreement—a reasonable amount of compensation determined by a court of competent jurisdiction.

             (2)  In assessing compensation payable in a proceeding begun under this section, the following must be taken into account if they arise out of the same event or transaction:

                     (a)  any damages or compensation recovered, or other remedy, in a proceeding begun otherwise than under this section;

                     (b)  compensation awarded under a determination.

             (3)  In this section, acquisition of property has the same meaning as in paragraph 51(xxxi) of the Constitution.

44ZZNA  Operation of Parts IV and VII not affected by this Part

                   This Part does not affect the operation of Parts IV and VII.

44ZZO  Conduct by directors, servants or agents

             (1)  If, in a proceeding under this Part in respect of conduct engaged in by a body corporate, it is necessary to establish the state of mind of the body corporate in relation to particular conduct, it is sufficient to show:

                     (a)  that the conduct was engaged in by a director, servant or agent of the body corporate within the scope of his or her actual or apparent authority; and

                     (b)  that the director, servant or agent had the state of mind.

             (2)  Any conduct engaged in on behalf of a body corporate:

                     (a)  by a director, servant or agent of the body corporate within the scope of the person’s actual or apparent authority; or

                     (b)  by any other person at the direction or with the consent or agreement (whether express or implied) of a director, servant or agent of the body corporate, if the giving of the direction, consent or agreement is within the scope of the actual or apparent authority of the director, servant or agent;

is taken for the purposes of this Part to have been engaged in also by the body corporate, unless the body corporate establishes that the body corporate took reasonable precautions and exercised due diligence to avoid the conduct.

             (3)  If, in a proceeding under this Part in respect of conduct engaged in by an individual, it is necessary to establish the state of mind of the individual, it is sufficient to show:

                     (a)  that the conduct was engaged in by a servant or agent of the individual within the scope of his or her actual or apparent authority; and

                     (b)  that the servant or agent had the relevant state of mind.

             (4)  Conduct engaged in on behalf of an individual:

                     (a)  by a servant or agent of the individual within the scope of the actual or apparent authority of the servant or agent; or

                     (b)  by any other person at the direction or with the consent or agreement (whether express or implied) of a servant or agent of the individual, if the giving of the direction, consent or agreement is within the scope of the actual or apparent authority of the servant or agent;

is taken, for the purposes of this Part, to have been engaged in also by that individual, unless that individual establishes that he or she took reasonable precautions and exercised due diligence to avoid the conduct.

             (5)  If:

                     (a)  an individual is convicted of an offence; and

                     (b)  the individual would not have been convicted of the offence if subsections (3) and (4) had not been enacted;

the individual is not liable to be punished by imprisonment for that offence.

             (6)  A reference in subsection (1) or (3) to the state of mind of a person includes a reference to:

                     (a)  the knowledge, intention, opinion, belief or purpose of the person; and

                     (b)  the person’s reasons for the intention, opinion, belief or purpose.

             (7)  A reference in this section to a director of a body corporate includes a reference to a constituent member of a body corporate incorporated for a public purpose by a law of the Commonwealth, of a State or of a Territory.

44ZZOA  Target time limits for Tribunal decisions

             (1)  The Tribunal must use its best endeavours to make a decision on a review under this Part within:

                     (a)  the period (the standard period) of 4 months beginning on the day it received the application for review; or

                     (b)  if the standard period is extended—that period as extended.

Extensions

             (2)  If the Tribunal is unable to make a decision on the review within the standard period, or that period as extended, it must, by notice in writing, extend the standard period by a specified period.

Multiple extensions

             (3)  The Tribunal may extend the standard period more than once.

Publication

             (4)  If the Tribunal extends the standard period, it must publish a notice in a national newspaper:

                     (a)  stating that it has done so; and

                     (b)  specifying the day by which it must now use its best endeavours to make a decision on the review.

44ZZP  Regulations about review by the Tribunal

             (1)  The regulations may make provision about the following matters in relation to the functions of the Tribunal under this Part:

                     (a)  the constitution of the Tribunal;

                     (b)  the arrangement of the business of the Tribunal;

                     (c)  the disclosure of interests by members of the Tribunal;

                     (d)  determining questions before the Tribunal and questions that arise during a review;

                     (e)  procedure and evidence, including the appointment of persons to assist the Tribunal by giving evidence (whether personally or by means of a written report).

             (2)  Regulations made for the purposes of subsection (1) do not apply in relation to the functions of the Tribunal under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law.

Note:          See section 44ZZR.

44ZZQ  Regulations about fees for inspection etc. of registers

                   The regulations may make provision about the inspection of registers maintained under this Part (including provision about fees).

44ZZR  Procedure of the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law

             (1)  Sections 103, 105, 106, 107, 108 and 110 of this Act apply to the Tribunal when performing functions under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law.

             (2)  The regulations may make provision about the following matters in relation to the functions of the Tribunal under a State/Territory energy law or a designated Commonwealth energy law:

                     (a)  the constitution of the Tribunal;

                     (b)  the arrangement of the business of the Tribunal;

                     (c)  the disclosure of interests by members of the Tribunal;

                     (d)  determining questions before the Tribunal and questions that arise during a review;

                     (e)  procedure and evidence, including the appointment of persons to assist the Tribunal by giving evidence (whether personally or by means of a written report);

                      (f)  the fees and expenses of witnesses in proceedings before the Tribunal.

             (3)  Subsection (1), and regulations made for the purposes of subsection (2), have no effect to the extent (if any) to which they are inconsistent with the State/Territory energy law, or the designated Commonwealth energy law, concerned.


 

Part IVRestrictive trade practices

Division 1Cartel conduct

Subdivision AIntroduction

44ZZRA  Simplified outline

                   The following is a simplified outline of this Division:

•      This Division sets out parallel offences and civil penalty provisions relating to cartel conduct.

•      A corporation must not make, or give effect to, a contract, arrangement or understanding that contains a cartel provision.

•      A cartel provision is a provision relating to:

               (a)     price‑fixing; or

               (b)     restricting outputs in the production and supply chain; or

               (c)     allocating customers, suppliers or territories; or

               (d)     bid‑rigging;

       by parties that are, or would otherwise be, in competition with each other.

44ZZRB  Definitions

                   In this Division:

annual turnover, of a body corporate during a 12‑month period, means the sum of the values of all the supplies that the body corporate, and any body corporate related to the body corporate, have made, or are likely to make, during the 12‑month period, other than:

                     (a)  supplies made from any of those bodies corporate to any other of those bodies corporate; or

                     (b)  supplies that are input taxed; or

                     (c)  supplies that are not for consideration (and are not taxable supplies under section 72‑5 of the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999); or

                     (d)  supplies that are not made in connection with an enterprise that the body corporate carries on; or

                     (e)  supplies that are not connected with Australia.

Expressions used in this definition that are also used in the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 have the same meaning as in that Act.

benefit includes any advantage and is not limited to property.

bid includes:

                     (a)  tender; and

                     (b)  the taking, by a potential bidder or tenderer, of a preliminary step in a bidding or tendering process.

evidential burden, in relation to a matter, means the burden of adducing or pointing to evidence that suggests a reasonable possibility that the matter exists or does not exist.

likely, in relation to any of the following:

                     (a)  a supply of goods or services;

                     (b)  an acquisition of goods or services;

                     (c)  the production of goods;

                     (d)  the capacity to supply services;

includes a possibility that is not remote.

obtaining includes:

                     (a)  obtaining for another person; and

                     (b)  inducing a third person to do something that results in another person obtaining.

party has a meaning affected by section 44ZZRC.

production includes manufacture, processing, treatment, assembly, disassembly, renovation, restoration, growing, raising, mining, extraction, harvesting, fishing, capturing and gathering.

44ZZRC  Extended meaning of party

                   For the purposes of this Division, if a body corporate is a party to a contract, arrangement or understanding (otherwise than because of this section), each body corporate related to that body corporate is taken to be a party to that contract, arrangement or understanding.

44ZZRD  Cartel provisions

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  either of the following conditions is satisfied in relation to the provision:

                              (i)  the purpose/effect condition set out in subsection (2);

                             (ii)  the purpose condition set out in subsection (3); and

                     (b)  the competition condition set out in subsection (4) is satisfied in relation to the provision.

Purpose/effect condition

             (2)  The purpose/effect condition is satisfied if the provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  fixing, controlling or maintaining; or

                     (b)  providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of;

the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to:

                     (c)  goods or services supplied, or likely to be supplied, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (d)  goods or services acquired, or likely to be acquired, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (e)  goods or services re‑supplied, or likely to be re‑supplied, by persons or classes of persons to whom those goods or services were supplied by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                      (f)  goods or services likely to be re‑supplied by persons or classes of persons to whom those goods or services are likely to be supplied by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding.

Note 1:       The purpose/effect condition can be satisfied when a provision is considered with related provisions—see subsection (8).

Note 2:       Party has an extended meaning—see section 44ZZRC.

Purpose condition

             (3)  The purpose condition is satisfied if the provision has the purpose of directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  preventing, restricting or limiting:

                              (i)  the production, or likely production, of goods by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  the capacity, or likely capacity, of any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding to supply services; or

                            (iii)  the supply, or likely supply, of goods or services to persons or classes of persons by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (b)  allocating between any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding:

                              (i)  the persons or classes of persons who have acquired, or who are likely to acquire, goods or services from any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  the persons or classes of persons who have supplied, or who are likely to supply, goods or services to any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                            (iii)  the geographical areas in which goods or services are supplied, or likely to be supplied, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                            (iv)  the geographical areas in which goods or services are acquired, or likely to be acquired, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  ensuring that in the event of a request for bids in relation to the supply or acquisition of goods or services:

                              (i)  one or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but one or more other parties do not; or

                             (ii)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but at least 2 of them do so on the basis that one of those bids is more likely to be successful than the others; or

                            (iii)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but not all of those parties proceed with their bids until the suspension or finalisation of the request for bids process; or

                            (iv)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid and proceed with their bids, but at least 2 of them proceed with their bids on the basis that one of those bids is more likely to be successful than the others; or

                             (v)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but a material component of at least one of those bids is worked out in accordance with the contract, arrangement or understanding.

Note 1:       For example, subparagraph (3)(a)(iii) will not apply in relation to a roster for the supply of after‑hours medical services if the roster does not prevent, restrict or limit the supply of services.

Note 2:       The purpose condition can be satisfied when a provision is considered with related provisions—see subsection (9).

Note 3:       Party has an extended meaning—see section 44ZZRC.

Competition condition

             (4)  The competition condition is satisfied if at least 2 of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding:

                     (a)  are or are likely to be; or

                     (b)  but for any contract, arrangement or understanding, would be or would be likely to be;

in competition with each other in relation to:

                     (c)  if paragraph (2)(c) or (3)(b) applies in relation to a supply, or likely supply, of goods or services—the supply of those goods or services; or

                     (d)  if paragraph (2)(d) or (3)(b) applies in relation to an acquisition, or likely acquisition, of goods or services—the acquisition of those goods or services; or

                     (e)  if paragraph (2)(e) or (f) applies in relation to a re‑supply, or likely re‑supply, of goods or services—the supply of those goods or services to that re‑supplier; or

                      (f)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(i) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the production, or likely production, of goods—the production of those goods; or

                     (g)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(ii) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the capacity, or likely capacity, to supply services—the supply of those services; or

                     (h)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(iii) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the supply, or likely supply, of goods or services—the supply of those goods or services; or

                      (i)  if paragraph (3)(c) applies in relation to a supply of goods or services—the supply of those goods or services; or

                      (j)  if paragraph (3)(c) applies in relation to an acquisition of goods or services—the acquisition of those goods or services.

Note:          Party has an extended meaning—see section 44ZZRC.

Immaterial whether identities of persons can be ascertained

             (5)  It is immaterial whether the identities of the persons referred to in paragraph (2)(e) or (f) or subparagraph (3)(a)(iii), (b)(i) or (ii) can be ascertained.

Recommending prices etc.

             (6)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is not taken:

                     (a)  to have the purpose mentioned in subsection (2); or

                     (b)  to have, or be likely to have, the effect mentioned in subsection (2);

by reason only that it recommends, or provides for the recommending of, a price, discount, allowance, rebate or credit.

Immaterial whether particular circumstances or particular conditions

             (7)  It is immaterial whether:

                     (a)  for the purposes of subsection (2), subparagraph (3)(a)(iii) and paragraphs (3)(b) and (c)—a supply or acquisition happens, or a likely supply or likely acquisition is to happen, in particular circumstances or on particular conditions; and

                     (b)  for the purposes of subparagraph (3)(a)(i)—the production happens, or the likely production is to happen, in particular circumstances or on particular conditions; and

                     (c)  for the purposes of subparagraph (3)(a)(ii)—the capacity exists, or the likely capacity is to exist, in particular circumstances or on particular conditions.

Considering related provisions—purpose/effect condition

             (8)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is taken to have the purpose, or to have or be likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection (2) if the provision, when considered together with any or all of the following provisions:

                     (a)  the other provisions of the contract, arrangement or understanding;

                     (b)  the provisions of another contract, arrangement or understanding, if the parties to that other contract, arrangement or understanding consist of or include at least one of the parties to the first‑mentioned contract, arrangement or understanding;

has that purpose, or has or is likely to have that effect.

Considering related provisions—purpose condition

             (9)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is taken to have the purpose mentioned in a paragraph of subsection (3) if the provision, when considered together with any or all of the following provisions:

                     (a)  the other provisions of the contract, arrangement or understanding;

                     (b)  the provisions of another contract, arrangement or understanding, if the parties to that other contract, arrangement or understanding consist of or include at least one of the parties to the first‑mentioned contract, arrangement or understanding;

has that purpose.

Purpose/effect of a provision

           (10)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is not to be taken not to have the purpose, or not to have or to be likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection (2) by reason only of:

                     (a)  the form of the provision; or

                     (b)  the form of the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  any description given to the provision, or to the contract, arrangement or understanding, by the parties.

Purpose of a provision

           (11)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is not to be taken not to have the purpose mentioned in a paragraph of subsection (3) by reason only of:

                     (a)  the form of the provision; or

                     (b)  the form of the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  any description given to the provision, or to the contract, arrangement or understanding, by the parties.

44ZZRE  Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act

                   In determining the meaning of an expression used in a provision of this Act (other than this Division, subsection 6(2C), paragraph 76(1A)(aa) or subsection 93AB(1A)), this Division is to be disregarded.

Subdivision BOffences etc.

44ZZRF  Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision

Offence

             (1)  A corporation commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the corporation makes a contract or arrangement, or arrives at an understanding; and

                     (b)  the contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision.

Note:          Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility.

             (2)  The fault element for paragraph (1)(b) is knowledge or belief.

Penalty

             (3)  An offence against subsection (1) is punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding the greater of the following:

                     (a)  $10,000,000;

                     (b)  if the court can determine the total value of the benefits that:

                              (i)  have been obtained by one or more persons; and

                             (ii)  are reasonably attributable to the commission of the offence;

                            3 times that total value;

                     (c)  if the court cannot determine the total value of those benefits—10% of the corporation’s annual turnover during the 12‑month period ending at the end of the month in which the corporation committed, or began committing, the offence.

Indictable offence

             (4)  An offence against subsection (1) is an indictable offence.

44ZZRG  Giving effect to a cartel provision

Offence

             (1)  A corporation commits an offence if:

                     (a)  a contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision; and

                     (b)  the corporation gives effect to the cartel provision.

Note:          Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility.

             (2)  The fault element for paragraph (1)(a) is knowledge or belief.

Penalty

             (3)  An offence against subsection (1) is punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding the greater of the following:

                     (a)  $10,000,000;

                     (b)  if the court can determine the total value of the benefits that:

                              (i)  have been obtained by one or more persons; and

                             (ii)  are reasonably attributable to the commission of the offence;

                            3 times that total value;

                     (c)  if the court cannot determine the total value of those benefits—10% of the corporation’s annual turnover during the 12‑month period ending at the end of the month in which the corporation committed, or began committing, the offence.

Pre‑commencement contracts etc.

             (4)  Paragraph (1)(a) applies to contracts or arrangements made, or understandings arrived at, before, at or after the commencement of this section.

Indictable offence

             (5)  An offence against subsection (1) is an indictable offence.

44ZZRH  Determining guilt

             (1)  A corporation may be found guilty of an offence against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG even if:

                     (a)  each other party to the contract, arrangement or understanding is a person who is not criminally responsible; or

                     (b)  subject to subsection (2), all other parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding have been acquitted of the offence.

Note:          Party has an extended meaning—see section 44ZZRC.

             (2)  A corporation cannot be found guilty of an offence against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG if:

                     (a)  all other parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding have been acquitted of such an offence; and

                     (b)  a finding of guilt would be inconsistent with their acquittal.

44ZZRI  Court may make related civil orders

                   If a prosecution against a person for an offence against section 44ZZRF or 44ZZRG is being, or has been, heard by a court, the court may:

                     (a)  grant an injunction under section 80 against the person in relation to:

                              (i)  the conduct that constitutes, or is alleged to constitute, the offence; or

                             (ii)  other conduct of that kind; or

                     (b)  make an order under section 86C, 86D, 86E or 87 in relation to the offence.

Subdivision CCivil penalty provisions

44ZZRJ  Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision

                   A corporation contravenes this section if:

                     (a)  the corporation makes a contract or arrangement, or arrives at an understanding; and

                     (b)  the contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision.

Note:          For enforcement, see Part VI.

44ZZRK  Giving effect to a cartel provision

             (1)  A corporation contravenes this section if:

                     (a)  a contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision; and

                     (b)  the corporation gives effect to the cartel provision.

Note:          For enforcement, see Part VI.

             (2)  Paragraph (1)(a) applies to contracts or arrangements made, or understandings arrived at, before, at or after the commencement of this section.

Subdivision DExceptions

44ZZRL  Conduct notified

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply to a corporation in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the cartel provision:

                              (i)  has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection 44ZZRD(2); or

                             (ii)  has the purpose mentioned in a paragraph of subsection 44ZZRD(3) other than paragraph (c); and

                     (b)  the corporation has given the Commission a collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) setting out particulars of the contract, arrangement or understanding; and

                     (c)  the notice is in force under section 93AD.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRM  Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF and 44ZZRJ do not apply in relation to the making of a contract that contains a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  the contract is subject to a condition that the provision will not come into force unless and until the corporation is granted an authorisation to give effect to the provision; and

                     (b)  the corporation applies for the grant of such an authorisation within 14 days after the contract is made.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRN  Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding if the only parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding are bodies corporate that are related to each other.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRO  Joint ventures—prosecution

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF and 44ZZRG do not apply in relation to a contract containing a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  the cartel provision is for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                     (b)  the joint venture is for the production and/or supply of goods or services; and

                     (c)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the contract; and

                     (d)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the contract for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (b) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note 1:       A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

Note 2:       For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

          (1A)  Section 44ZZRF does not apply in relation to an arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  the arrangement or understanding is not a contract; and

                     (b)  when the arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, each party to the arrangement or understanding:

                              (i)  intended the arrangement or understanding to be a contract; and

                             (ii)  reasonably believed that the arrangement or understanding was a contract; and

                     (c)  the cartel provision is for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                     (d)  the joint venture is for the production and/or supply of goods or services; and

                     (e)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the arrangement or understanding; and

                      (f)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the arrangement or understanding for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (d) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note 1:       A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1A) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

Note 2:       For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

          (1B)  Section 44ZZRG does not apply in relation to giving effect to a cartel provision contained in an arrangement or understanding if:

                     (a)  the arrangement or understanding is not a contract; and

                     (b)  when the arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, each party to the arrangement or understanding:

                              (i)  intended the arrangement or understanding to be a contract; and

                             (ii)  reasonably believed that the arrangement or understanding was a contract; and

                     (c)  when the cartel provision was given effect to, each party to the arrangement or understanding reasonably believed that the arrangement or understanding was a contract; and

                     (d)  the cartel provision is for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                     (e)  the joint venture is for the production and/or supply of goods or services; and

                      (f)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the arrangement or understanding; and

                     (g)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the arrangement or understanding for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (e) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note 1:       A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1B) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code).

Note 2:       For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

Notice to prosecutor

             (2)  A person is not entitled to rely on subsection (1), (1A) or (1B) in a trial for an offence unless, within 28 days after the day on which the person is committed for trial, the person gives the prosecutor:

                     (a)  a written notice setting out:

                              (i)  the facts on which the person proposes to rely for the purpose of discharging the evidential burden borne by the person in relation to the matter in subsection (1), (1A) or (1B), as the case may be; and

                             (ii)  the names and address of any witnesses whom the person proposes to call for the purpose of discharging the evidential burden borne by the person in relation to the matter in subsection (1), (1A) or (1B), as the case may be; and

                     (b)  certified copies of any documents which the person proposes to adduce or point to for the purpose of discharging the evidential burden borne by the person in relation to the matter in subsection (1), (1A) or (1B), as the case may be.

             (3)  If the trial of a person for an offence is being, or is to be, held in a court, the court may, by order:

                     (a)  exempt the person from compliance with subsection (2); or

                     (b)  extend the time within which the person is required to comply with subsection (2).

             (4)  For the purposes of paragraph (2)(b), a certified copy of a document is a copy of the document certified to be a true copy by:

                     (a)  a Justice of the Peace; or

                     (b)  a commissioner for taking affidavits.

44ZZRP  Joint ventures—civil penalty proceedings

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to a contract containing a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  the cartel provision is for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                     (b)  the joint venture is for the production and/or supply of goods or services; and

                     (c)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the contract; and

                     (d)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the contract for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (b) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note:          For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

          (1A)  Section 44ZZRJ does not apply in relation to an arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  the arrangement or understanding is not a contract; and

                     (b)  when the arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, each party to the arrangement or understanding:

                              (i)  intended the arrangement or understanding to be a contract; and

                             (ii)  reasonably believed that the arrangement or understanding was a contract; and

                     (c)  the cartel provision is for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                     (d)  the joint venture is for the production and/or supply of goods or services; and

                     (e)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the arrangement or understanding; and

                      (f)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the arrangement or understanding for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (d) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note:          For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

          (1B)  Section 44ZZRK does not apply in relation to giving effect to a cartel provision contained in an arrangement or understanding if:

                     (a)  the arrangement or understanding is not a contract; and

                     (b)  when the arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, each party to the arrangement or understanding:

                              (i)  intended the arrangement or understanding to be a contract; and

                             (ii)  reasonably believed that the arrangement or understanding was a contract; and

                     (c)  when the cartel provision was given effect to, each party to the arrangement or understanding reasonably believed that the arrangement or understanding was a contract; and

                     (d)  the cartel provision is for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                     (e)  the joint venture is for the production and/or supply of goods or services; and

                      (f)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the arrangement or understanding; and

                     (g)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture—the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the arrangement or understanding for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (e) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note:          For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1), (1A) or (1B) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRQ  Covenants affecting competition

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to a contract containing a cartel provision, in so far as the cartel provision constitutes a covenant to which section 45B applies or, but for subsection 45B(9), would apply.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRR  Resale price maintenance

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as the cartel provision relates to:

                     (a)  conduct that contravenes section 48; or

                     (b)  conduct that would contravene section 48 but for the operation of subsection 88(8A); or

                     (c)  conduct that would contravene section 48 if this Act defined the acts constituting the practice of resale price maintenance by reference to the maximum price at which goods or services are to be sold or supplied or are to be advertised, displayed or offered for sale or supply.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRS  Exclusive dealing

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF and 44ZZRJ do not apply in relation to the making of a contract, arrangement or understanding that contains a cartel provision, in so far as giving effect to the cartel provision would, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or 88(8) or section 93, constitute a contravention of section 47.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (3) of this section).

             (2)  Sections 44ZZRG and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to the giving effect to a cartel provision by way of:

                     (a)  engaging in conduct that contravenes, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or 88(8) or section 93 contravene, section 47; or

                     (b)  doing an act by reason of a breach or threatened breach of a condition referred to in subsection 47(2), (4), (6) or (8), being an act done by a person at a time when:

                              (i)  an authorisation under subsection 88(8) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition; or

                             (ii)  by reason of subsection 93(7), conduct engaged in by that person on that condition is not to be taken to have the effect of substantially lessening competition within the meaning of section 47; or

                            (iii)  a notice under subsection 93(1) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (2) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (3) of this section).

             (3)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) or (2) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRT  Dual listed company arrangement

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF and 44ZZRJ do not apply in relation to the making of a contract, arrangement or understanding that contains a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the contract, arrangement or understanding is a dual listed company arrangement; and

                     (b)  the making of the contract, arrangement or understanding would, or would apart from subsection 88(8B), contravene section 49.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (3) of this section).

             (2)  Sections 44ZZRG and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to the giving effect to a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the cartel provision is a provision of a dual listed company arrangement; and

                     (b)  the giving effect to the cartel provision would, or would apart from subsection 88(8B), contravene section 49.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (2) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (3) of this section).

             (3)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) or (2) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRU  Acquisition of shares or assets

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as the cartel provision provides directly or indirectly for the acquisition of:

                     (a)  any shares in the capital of a body corporate; or

                     (b)  any assets of a person.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

44ZZRV  Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding

             (1)  Sections 44ZZRF, 44ZZRG, 44ZZRJ and 44ZZRK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the cartel provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection 44ZZRD(2); and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  the cartel provision relates to the price for goods or services to be collectively acquired, whether directly or indirectly, by the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  the cartel provision is for the joint advertising of the price for the re‑supply of goods or services so acquired.

Note:          A defendant bears an evidential burden in relation to the matter in subsection (1) (see subsection 13.3(3) of the Criminal Code and subsection (2) of this section).

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) in relation to a contravention of section 44ZZRJ or 44ZZRK bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.


 

Division 2Other provisions

45  Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition

             (1)  If a provision of a contract made before the commencement of the Trade Practices Amendment Act 1977:

                     (a) is an exclusionary provision; or

                     (b)  has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition;

that provision is unenforceable in so far as it confers rights or benefits or imposes duties or obligations on a corporation.

             (2)  A corporation shall not:

                     (a)  make a contract or arrangement, or arrive at an understanding, if:

                              (i)  the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding contains an exclusionary provision; or

                             (ii)  a provision of the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (b)  give effect to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, whether the contract or arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at, before or after the commencement of this section, if that provision:

                              (i)  is an exclusionary provision; or

                             (ii)  has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, competition, in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, means competition in any market in which a corporation that is a party to the contract, arrangement or understanding or would be a party to the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or any body corporate related to such a corporation, supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the provision, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

             (4)  For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a particular corporation, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding shall be deemed to have or to be likely to have the effect of substantially lessening competition if that provision and any one or more of the following provisions, namely:

                     (a)  the other provisions of that contract, arrangement or understanding or proposed contract, arrangement or understanding; and

                     (b)  the provisions of any other contract, arrangement or understanding or proposed contract, arrangement or understanding to which the corporation or a body corporate related to the corporation is or would be a party;

together have or are likely to have that effect.

             (5)  This section does not apply to or in relation to:

                     (a)  a provision of a contract where the provision constitutes a covenant to which section 45B applies or, but for subsection 45B(9), would apply;

                     (b)  a provision of a proposed contract where the provision would constitute a covenant to which section 45B would apply or, but for subsection 45B(9), would apply; or

                     (c)  a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding in so far as the provision relates to:

                              (i)  conduct that contravenes section 48; or

                             (ii)  conduct that would contravene section 48 but for the operation of subsection 88(8A); or

                            (iii)  conduct that would contravene section 48 if this Act defined the acts constituting the practice of resale price maintenance by reference to the maximum price at which goods or services are to be sold or supplied or are to be advertised, displayed or offered for sale or supply.

             (6)  The making of a contract, arrangement or understanding does not constitute a contravention of this section by reason that the contract, arrangement or understanding contains a provision the giving effect to which would, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or 88(8) or section 93, constitute a contravention of section 47 and this section does not apply to or in relation to the giving effect to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding by way of:

                     (a)  engaging in conduct that contravenes, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or 88(8) or section 93 contravene, section 47; or

                     (b)  doing an act by reason of a breach or threatened breach of a condition referred to in subsection 47(2), (4), (6) or (8), being an act done by a person at a time when:

                              (i)  an authorization under subsection 88(8) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition; or

                             (ii)  by reason of subsection 93(7) conduct engaged in by that person on that condition is not to be taken to have the effect of substantially lessening competition within the meaning of section 47; or

                            (iii)  a notice under subsection 93(1) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition.

          (6A)  The following conduct:

                     (a)  the making of a dual listed company arrangement;

                     (b)  the giving effect to a provision of a dual listed company arrangement;

does not contravene this section if the conduct would, or would apart from subsection 88(8B), contravene section 49.

             (7)  This section does not apply to or in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding in so far as the contract, arrangement or understanding provides, or to or in relation to a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding in so far as the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding would provide, directly or indirectly for the acquisition of any shares in the capital of a body corporate or any assets of a person.

             (8)  This section does not apply to or in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding, or a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, the only parties to which are or would be bodies corporate that are related to each other.

          (8A)  Subsection (2) does not apply to a corporation engaging in conduct described in that subsection if:

                     (a)  the corporation has given the Commission a collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) describing the conduct; and

                     (b)  the notice is in force under section 93AD.

             (9)  The making by a corporation of a contract that contains a provision in relation to which subsection 88(1) applies is not a contravention of subsection (2) of this section if:

                     (a)  the contract is subject to a condition that the provision will not come into force unless and until the corporation is granted an authorization to give effect to the provision; and

                     (b)  the corporation applies for the grant of such an authorization within 14 days after the contract is made;

but nothing in this subsection prevents the giving effect by a corporation to such a provision from constituting a contravention of subsection (2).

45B  Covenants affecting competition

             (1)  A covenant, whether the covenant was given before or after the commencement of this section, is unenforceable in so far as it confers rights or benefits or imposes duties or obligations on a corporation or on a person associated with a corporation if the covenant has, or is likely to have, the effect of substantially lessening competition in any market in which the corporation or any person associated with the corporation supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the covenant, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

             (2)  A corporation or a person associated with a corporation shall not:

                     (a)  require the giving of a covenant, or give a covenant, if the proposed covenant has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in any market in which:

                              (i)  the corporation, or any person associated with the corporation by virtue of paragraph (7)(b), supplies or acquires, is likely to supply or acquire, or would, but for the covenant, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services; or

                             (ii)  any person associated with the corporation by virtue of the operation of paragraph (7)(a) supplies or acquires, is likely to supply or acquire, or would, but for the covenant, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services, being a supply or acquisition in relation to which that person is, or would be, under an obligation to act in accordance with directions, instructions or wishes of the corporation;

                     (b)  threaten to engage in particular conduct if a person who, but for subsection (1), would be bound by a covenant does not comply with the terms of the covenant; or

                     (c)  engage in particular conduct by reason that a person who, but for subsection (1), would be bound by a covenant has failed to comply, or proposes or threatens to fail to comply, with the terms of the covenant.

             (3)  Where a person:

                     (a)  issues an invitation to another person to enter into a contract containing a covenant;

                     (b)  makes an offer to another person to enter into a contract containing a covenant; or

                     (c)  makes it known that the person will not enter into a contract of a particular kind unless the contract contains a covenant of a particular kind or in particular terms;

the first‑mentioned person shall, by issuing that invitation, making that offer or making that fact known, be deemed to require the giving of the covenant.

             (4)  For the purposes of this section, a covenant or proposed covenant shall be deemed to have, or to be likely to have, the effect of substantially lessening competition in a market if the covenant or proposed covenant, as the case may be, would have, or be likely to have, that effect when taken together with the effect or likely effect on competition in that market of any other covenant or proposed covenant to the benefit of which:

                     (a)  a corporation that, or person who, is or would be, or but for subsection (1) would be, entitled to the benefit of the first‑mentioned covenant or proposed covenant; or

                     (b)  a person associated with the corporation referred to in paragraph (a) or a corporation associated with the person referred to in that paragraph;

is or would be, or but for subsection (1) would be, entitled.

             (5)  The requiring of the giving of, or the giving of, a covenant does not constitute a contravention of this section by reason that giving effect to the covenant would, or would but for the operation of subsection 88(8) or section 93, constitute a contravention of section 47 and this section does not apply to or in relation to engaging in conduct in relation to a covenant by way of:

                     (a)  conduct that contravenes, or would but for the operation of subsection 88(8) or section 93 contravene, section 47; or

                     (b)  doing an act by reason of a breach or threatened breach of a condition referred to in subsection 47(2), (4), (6) or (8), being an act done by a person at a time when:

                              (i)  an authorization under subsection 88(8) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition; or

                             (ii)  by reason of subsection 93(7) conduct engaged in by that person on that condition is not to be taken to have the effect of substantially lessening competition within the meaning of section 47; or

                            (iii)  a notice under subsection 93(1) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition.

             (6)  This section does not apply to or in relation to a covenant or proposed covenant where the only persons who are or would be respectively bound by, or entitled to the benefit of, the covenant or proposed covenant are persons who are associated with each other or are bodies corporate that are related to each other.

             (7)  For the purposes of this section, section 45C and subparagraph 87(3)(a)(ii), a person and a corporation shall be taken to be associated with each other in relation to a covenant or proposed covenant if, and only if:

                     (a)  the person is under an obligation (otherwise than in pursuance of the covenant or proposed covenant), whether formal or informal, to act in accordance with directions, instructions or wishes of the corporation in relation to the covenant or proposed covenant; or

                     (b)  the person is a body corporate in relation to which the corporation is in the position mentioned in subparagraph 4A(1)(a)(ii).

             (8)  The requiring by a person of the giving of, or the giving by a person of, a covenant in relation to which subsection 88(5) applies is not a contravention of subsection (2) of this section if:

                     (a)  the covenant is subject to a condition that the covenant will not come into force unless and until the person is granted an authorization to require the giving of, or to give, the covenant; and

                     (b)  the person applies for the grant of such an authorization within 14 days after the covenant is given;

but nothing in this subsection affects the application of paragraph (2)(b) or (c) in relation to the covenant.

             (9)  This section does not apply to or in relation to a covenant or proposed covenant if:

                     (a)  the sole or principal purpose for which the covenant was or is required to be given was or is to prevent the relevant land from being used otherwise than for residential purposes;

                     (b)  the person who required or requires the covenant to be given was or is a religious, charitable or public benevolent institution or a trustee for such an institution and the covenant was or is required to be given for or in accordance with the purposes or objects of that institution; or

                     (c)  the covenant was or is required to be given in pursuance of a legally enforceable requirement made by, or by a trustee for, a religious, charitable or public benevolent institution, being a requirement made for or in accordance with the purposes or objects of that institution.

45C  Covenants in relation to prices

             (1)  In the application of subsection 45B(1) in relation to a covenant that has, or is likely to have, the effect of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to, goods or services supplied or acquired by the persons who are, or but for that subsection would be, bound by or entitled to the benefit of the covenant, or by any of them, or by any persons associated with any of them, in competition with each other, that subsection has effect as if the words “if the covenant has, or is likely to have, the effect of substantially lessening competition in any market in which the corporation or any person associated with the corporation supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the covenant, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services” were omitted.

             (2)  In the application of subsection 45B(2) in relation to a proposed covenant that has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to, goods or services supplied or acquired by the persons who would, or would but for subsection 45B(1), be bound by or entitled to the benefit of the proposed covenant, or by any of them, or by any persons associated with any of them, in competition with each other, paragraph 45B(2)(a) has effect as if all the words after the words “require the giving of a covenant, or give a covenant” were omitted.

             (3)  For the purposes of this Act, a covenant shall not be taken not to have, or not to be likely to have, the effect, or a proposed covenant shall not be taken not to have the purpose, or not to have, or not to be likely to have, the effect, of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to, goods or services by reason only of:

                     (a)  the form of the covenant or proposed covenant; or

                     (b)  any description given to the covenant by any of the persons who are, or but for subsection 45B(1) would be, bound by or entitled to the benefit of the covenant or any description given to the proposed covenant by any of the persons who would, or would but for subsection 45B(1), be bound by or entitled to the benefit of the proposed covenant.

             (4)  For the purposes of the preceding provisions of this section, but without limiting the generality of those provisions:

                     (a)  a covenant shall be deemed to have, or to be likely to have, the effect of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to, goods or services supplied as mentioned in subsection (1) if the covenant has, or is likely to have, the effect of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, such a price, discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to a re‑supply of the goods or services by persons to whom the goods or services are supplied by the persons who are, or but for subsection 45B(1) would be, bound by or entitled to the benefit of the covenant, or by any of them, or by any persons associated with any of them; and

                     (b)  a proposed covenant shall be deemed to have the purpose, or to have, or to be likely to have, the effect, of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to, goods or services supplied as mentioned in subsection (2) if the proposed covenant has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, as the case may be, of fixing, controlling or maintaining, or providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of, such a price, discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to a re‑supply of the goods or services by persons to whom the goods or services are supplied by the persons who would, or would but for subsection 45B(1), be bound by or entitled to the benefit of the proposed covenant, or by any of them, or by any persons associated with any of them.

             (5)  The reference in subsection (1) to the supply or acquisition of goods or services by persons in competition with each other includes a reference to the supply or acquisition of goods or services by persons who, but for a provision of any contract, arrangement or understanding or of any proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, would be, or would be likely to be, in competition with each other in relation to the supply or acquisition of the goods or services.

45D  Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage

             (1)  In the circumstances specified in subsection (3) or (4), a person must not, in concert with a second person, engage in conduct:

                     (a)  that hinders or prevents:

                              (i)  a third person supplying goods or services to a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); or

                             (ii)  a third person acquiring goods or services from a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); and

                     (b)  that is engaged in for the purpose, and would have or be likely to have the effect, of causing substantial loss or damage to the business of the fourth person.

Note 1:       Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under subsection 88(7).

Note 2:       This section also has effect subject to section 45DD, which deals with permitted boycotts.

             (2)  A person is taken to engage in conduct for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1) if the person engages in the conduct for purposes that include that purpose.

             (3)  Subsection (1) applies if the fourth person is a corporation.

             (4)  Subsection (1) also applies if:

                     (a)  the third person is a corporation and the fourth person is not a corporation; and

                     (b)  the conduct would have or be likely to have the effect of causing substantial loss or damage to the business of the third person.

45DA  Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition

             (1)  In the circumstances specified in subsection (3), a person must not, in concert with a second person, engage in conduct:

                     (a)  that hinders or prevents:

                              (i)  a third person supplying goods or services to a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); or

                             (ii)  a third person acquiring goods or services from a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); and

                     (b)  that is engaged in for the purpose, and would have or be likely to have the effect, of causing a substantial lessening of competition in any market in which the fourth person supplies or acquires goods or services.

Note 1:       Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under subsection 88(7).

Note 2:       This section also has effect subject to section 45DD, which deals with permitted boycotts.

             (2)  A person is taken to engage in conduct for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1) if the person engages in the conduct for purposes that include that purpose.

             (3)  Subsection (1) applies if:

                     (a)  the third person or the fourth person is a corporation, or both of them are corporations; and

                     (b)  the conduct would have or be likely to have the effect of causing substantial loss or damage to the business of one of those persons who is a corporation.

45DB  Boycotts affecting trade or commerce

             (1)  A person must not, in concert with another person, engage in conduct for the purpose, and having or likely to have the effect, of preventing or substantially hindering a third person (who is not an employer of the first person) from engaging in trade or commerce involving the movement of goods between Australia and places outside Australia.

Note 1:       Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under subsection 88(7).

Note 2:       This section also has effect subject to section 45DD, which deals with permitted boycotts.

             (2)  A person is taken to engage in conduct for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1) if the person engages in the conduct for purposes that include that purpose.

45DC  Involvement and liability of employee organisations

Certain organisations taken to be acting in concert

             (1)  If 2 or more persons (the participants), each of whom is a member or officer of the same organisation of employees, engage in conduct in concert with one another, whether or not the conduct is also engaged in in concert with another person, then, unless the organisation proves otherwise, the organisation is taken for the purposes of sections 45D, 45DA and 45DB:

                     (a)  to engage in that conduct in concert with the participants; and

                     (b)  to have engaged in that conduct for the purposes for which the participants engaged in it.

Consequences of organisation contravening subsection 45D(1), 45DA(1) or 45DB(1)

             (2)  The consequences of an organisation of employees engaging, or being taken by subsection (1) to engage, in conduct in concert with any of its members or officers in contravention of subsection 45D(1), 45DA(1) or 45DB(1) are as set out in subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Loss or damage taken to have been caused by organisation’s conduct

             (3)  Any loss or damage suffered by a person as a result of the conduct is taken, for the purposes of this Act, to have been caused by the conduct of the organisation.

Taking proceedings if organisation is a body corporate

             (4)  If the organisation is a body corporate, no action under section 82 to recover the amount of the loss or damage may be brought against any of the members or officers of the organisation in respect of the conduct.

Taking proceedings if organisation is not a body corporate

             (5)  If the organisation is not a body corporate:

                     (a)  a proceeding in respect of the conduct may be brought under section 77, 80 or 82 against an officer of the organisation as a representative of the organisation’s members and the proceeding is taken to be a proceeding against all the persons who were members of the organisation at the time when the conduct was engaged in; and

                     (b)  subsection 76(2) does not prevent an order being made in a proceeding mentioned in paragraph (a) that was brought under section 77; and

                     (c)  the maximum pecuniary penalty that may be imposed in a proceeding mentioned in paragraph (a) that was brought under section 77 is the penalty applicable under section 76 in relation to a body corporate; and

                     (d)  except as provided by paragraph (a), a proceeding in respect of the conduct must not be brought under section 77 or 82 against any of the members or officers of the organisation; and

                     (e)  for the purpose of enforcing any judgment or order given or made in a proceeding mentioned in paragraph (a) that was brought under section 77 or 82, process may be issued and executed against the following property or interests as if the organisation were a body corporate and the absolute owner of the property or interests:

                              (i)  any property of the organisation or of any branch or part of the organisation, whether vested in trustees or however otherwise held;

                             (ii)  any property in which the organisation or any branch or part of the organisation has a beneficial interest, whether vested in trustees or however otherwise held;

                            (iii)  any property in which any members of the organisation or of a branch or part of the organisation have a beneficial interest in their capacity as members, whether vested in trustees or however otherwise held; and

                      (f)  if paragraph (e) applies, no process is to be issued or executed against any property of members or officers of the organisation or of a branch or part of the organisation except as provided in that paragraph.

45DD  Situations in which boycotts permitted

Dominant purpose of conduct relates to employment
matters—conduct by a person

             (1)  A person does not contravene, and is not involved in a contravention of, subsection 45D(1), 45DA(1) or 45DB(1) by engaging in conduct if the dominant purpose for which the conduct is engaged in is substantially related to the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of that person or of another person employed by an employer of that person.

Dominant purpose of conduct relates to employment
matters—conduct by employee organisation and employees

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  an employee, or 2 or more employees who are employed by the same employer, engage in conduct in concert with another person who is, or with other persons each of whom is:

                              (i)  an organisation of employees; or

                             (ii)  an officer of an organisation of employees; and

                     (b)  the conduct is only engaged in by the persons covered by paragraph (a); and

                     (c)  the dominant purpose for which the conduct is engaged in is substantially related to the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of the employee, or any of the employees, covered by paragraph (a);

the persons covered by paragraph (a) do not contravene, and are not involved in a contravention of, subsection 45D(1), 45DA(1) or 45DB(1) by engaging in the conduct.

Dominant purpose of conduct relates to environmental protection or consumer protection

             (3)  A person does not contravene, and is not involved in a contravention of, subsection 45D(1), 45DA(1) or 45DB(1) by engaging in conduct if:

                     (a)  the dominant purpose for which the conduct is engaged in is substantially related to environmental protection or consumer protection; and

                     (b)  engaging in the conduct is not industrial action.

Note 1:       If an environmental organisation or a consumer organisation is a body corporate:

(a)           it is a “person” who may be subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1) and 45DB(1) and who may also be covered by this exemption; and

(b)           each of its members is a “person” who may be subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1) and 45DB(1) and who may also be covered by this exemption.

Note 2:       If an environmental organisation or a consumer organisation is not a body corporate:

(a)           it is not a “person” and is therefore not subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1) and 45DB(1) (consequently, this exemption does not cover the organisation as such); but

(b)           each of its members is a “person” who may be subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1), 45DA(1) and 45DB(1) and who may also be covered by this exemption.

Meaning of industrial action—basic definition

             (4)  In subsection (3), industrial action means:

                     (a)  the performance of work in a manner different from that in which it is customarily performed, or the adoption of a practice in relation to work, the result of which is a restriction or limitation on, or a delay in, the performance of the work, where:

                              (i)  the terms and conditions of the work are prescribed, wholly or partly, by a workplace instrument or an order of an industrial body; or

                             (ii)  the work is performed, or the practice is adopted, in connection with an industrial dispute; or

                     (b)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work, or on acceptance of or offering for work, in accordance with the terms and conditions prescribed by a workplace instrument or by an order of an industrial body; or

                     (c)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work, or on acceptance of or offering for work, that is adopted in connection with an industrial dispute; or

                     (d)  a failure or refusal by persons to attend for work or a failure or refusal to perform any work at all by persons who attend for work.

For this purpose, industrial body and workplace instrument have the same meanings as in the Fair Work Act 2009.

Meaning of industrial action—further clarification

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (3):

                     (a)  conduct is capable of constituting industrial action even if the conduct relates to part only of the duties that persons are required to perform in the course of their employment; and

                     (b)  a reference to industrial action includes a reference to a course of conduct consisting of a series of industrial actions.

Subsections (1), (2) and (3) do not protect people not covered by them

             (6)  In applying subsection 45D(1), 45DA(1) or 45DB(1) to a person who is not covered by subsection (1), (2) or (3) in respect of certain conduct, disregard the fact that other persons may be covered by one of those subsections in respect of the same conduct.

Defences to contravention of subsection 45DB(1)

             (7)  In a proceeding under this Act in relation to a contravention of subsection 45DB(1), it is a defence if the defendant proves:

                     (a)  that a notice in respect of the conduct concerned has been duly given to the Commission under subsection 93(1) and the Commission has not given a notice in respect of the conduct under subsection 93(3) or (3A); or

                     (b)  that the dominant purpose for which the defendant engaged in the conduct concerned was to preserve or further a business carried on by him or her.

Each person to prove defence

             (8)  If:

                     (a)  a person engages in conduct in concert with another person; and

                     (b)  the other person proves a matter specified in paragraph (7)(a) or (b) in respect of that conduct;

in applying subsection 45DB(1) to the first person, ignore the fact that the other person has proved that matter.

Note:          Section 415 of the Fair Work Act 2009 limits the right to bring actions under this Act in respect of industrial action that is protected action for the purposes of that section.

45E  Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services

Situations to which section applies

             (1)  This section applies in the following situations:

                     (a)  a supply situation—in this situation, a person (the first person) has been accustomed, or is under an obligation, to supply goods or services to another person (the second person); or

                     (b)  an acquisition situation—in this situation, a person (the first person) has been accustomed, or is under an obligation, to acquire goods or services from another person (the second person).

Despite paragraphs (a) and (b), this section does not apply unless the first or second person is a corporation or both of them are corporations.

Note :         For the meanings of accustomed to supply and accustomed to acquire, see subsections (5) and (7).

Prohibition in a supply situation

             (2)  In a supply situation, the first person must not make a contract or arrangement, or arrive at an understanding, with an organisation of employees, an officer of such an organisation or a person acting for and on behalf of such an officer or organisation, if the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding contains a provision included for the purpose, or for purposes including the purpose, of:

                     (a)  preventing or hindering the first person from supplying or continuing to supply such goods or services to the second person; or

                     (b)  preventing or hindering the first person from supplying or continuing to supply such goods or services to the second person, except subject to a condition:

                              (i)  that is not a condition to which the supply of such goods or services by the first person to the second person has previously been subject because of a provision in a contract between those persons; and

                             (ii)  that is about the persons to whom, the manner in which or the terms on which the second person may supply any goods or services.

Prohibition in an acquisition situation

             (3)  In an acquisition situation, the first person must not make a contract or arrangement, or arrive at an understanding, with an organisation of employees, an officer of such an organisation or a person acting for and on behalf of such an officer or organisation, if the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding contains a provision included for the purpose, or for purposes including the purpose, of:

                     (a)  preventing or hindering the first person from acquiring or continuing to acquire such goods or services from the second person; or

                     (b)  preventing or hindering the first person from acquiring or continuing to acquire such goods or services from the second person, except subject to a condition:

                              (i)  that is not a condition to which the acquisition of such goods or services by the first person from the second person has previously been subject because of a provision in a contract between those persons; and

                             (ii)  that is about the persons to whom, the manner in which or the terms on which the second person may supply any goods or services.

No contravention if second person gives written consent to written contract etc.

             (4)  Subsections (2) and (3) do not apply to a contract, arrangement or understanding if it is in writing and was made or arrived at with the written consent of the second person.

Meaning of accustomed to supply

             (5)  In this section, a reference to a person who has been accustomed to supply goods or services to a second person includes (subject to subsection (6)):

                     (a)  a regular supplier of such goods or services to the second person; or

                     (b)  the latest supplier of such goods or services to the second person; or

                     (c)  a person who, at any time during the immediately preceding 3 months, supplied such goods or services to the second person.

Exception to subsection (5)

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  goods or services have been supplied by a person to a second person under a contract between them that required the first person to supply such goods or services over a period; and

                     (b)  the period has ended; and

                     (c)  after the end of the period, the second person has been supplied with such goods or services by another person and has not also been supplied with such goods or services by the first person;

then, for the purposes of the application of this section in relation to anything done after the second person has been supplied with goods or services as mentioned in paragraph (c), the first person is not to be taken to be a person who has been accustomed to supply such goods or services to the second person.

Meaning of accustomed to acquire

             (7)  In this section, a reference to a person who has been accustomed to acquire goods or services from a second person includes (subject to subsection (8)):

                     (a)  a regular acquirer of such goods or services from the second person; or

                     (b)  a person who, when last acquiring such goods or services, acquired them from the second person; or

                     (c)  a person who, at any time during the immediately preceding 3 months, acquired such goods or services from the second person.

Exception to subsection (7)

             (8)  If:

                     (a)  goods or services have been acquired by a person from a second person under a contract between them that required the first person to acquire such goods or services over a period; and

                     (b)  the period has ended; and

                     (c)  after the end of the period, the second person has refused to supply such goods or services to the first person;

then, for the purposes of the application of this section in relation to anything done after the second person has refused to supply goods or services as mentioned in paragraph (c), the first person is not to be taken to be a person who has been accustomed to acquire such goods or services from the second person.

Note:          Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under subsection 88(7A).

45EA  Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect

                   A person must not give effect to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding if, because of the provision, the making of the contract or arrangement, or the arriving at the understanding, by the person:

                     (a)  contravened subsection 45E(2) or (3); or

                     (b)  would have contravened subsection 45E(2) or (3) if:

                              (i)  section 45E had been in force when the contract or arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at; and

                             (ii)  the words “is in writing and” and “written” were not included in subsection 45E(4).

Note:          Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under subsection 88(7A).

45EB  Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part

                   Nothing in section 45D, 45DA, 45DB, 45DC, 45DD, 45E or 45EA affects the operation of any other provision of this Part.

46  Misuse of market power

             (1)  A corporation that has a substantial degree of power in a market shall not take advantage of that power in that or any other market for the purpose of:

                     (a)  eliminating or substantially damaging a competitor of the corporation or of a body corporate that is related to the corporation in that or any other market;

                     (b)  preventing the entry of a person into that or any other market; or

                     (c)  deterring or preventing a person from engaging in competitive conduct in that or any other market.

     (1AAA)  If a corporation supplies goods or services for a sustained period at a price that is less than the relevant cost to the corporation of supplying the goods or services, the corporation may contravene subsection (1) even if the corporation cannot, and might not ever be able to, recoup losses incurred by supplying the goods or services.

       (1AA)  A corporation that has a substantial share of a market must not supply, or offer to supply, goods or services for a sustained period at a price that is less than the relevant cost to the corporation of supplying such goods or services, for the purpose of:

                     (a)  eliminating or substantially damaging a competitor of the corporation or of a body corporate that is related to the corporation in that or any other market; or

                     (b)  preventing the entry of a person into that or any other market; or

                     (c)  deterring or preventing a person from engaging in competitive conduct in that or any other market.

        (1AB)  For the purposes of subsection (1AA), without limiting the matters to which the Court may have regard for the purpose of determining whether a corporation has a substantial share of a market, the Court may have regard to the number and size of the competitors of the corporation in the market.

          (1A)  For the purposes of subsections (1) and (1AA):

                     (a)  the reference in paragraphs (1)(a) and (1AA)(a) to a competitor includes a reference to competitors generally, or to a particular class or classes of competitors; and

                     (b)  the reference in paragraphs (1)(b) and (c) and (1AA)(b) and (c) to a person includes a reference to persons generally, or to a particular class or classes of persons.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is related to a corporation has, or 2 or more bodies corporate each of which is related to the one corporation together have, a substantial degree of power in a market; or

                     (b)  a corporation and a body corporate that is, or a corporation and 2 or more bodies corporate each of which is, related to that corporation, together have a substantial degree of power in a market;

the corporation shall be taken for the purposes of this section to have a substantial degree of power in that market.

             (3)  In determining for the purposes of this section the degree of power that a body corporate or bodies corporate has or have in a market, the court shall have regard to the extent to which the conduct of the body corporate or of any of those bodies corporate in that market is constrained by the conduct of:

                     (a)  competitors, or potential competitors, of the body corporate or of any of those bodies corporate in that market; or

                     (b)  persons to whom or from whom the body corporate or any of those bodies corporate supplies or acquires goods or services in that market.

          (3A)  In determining for the purposes of this section the degree of power that a body corporate or bodies corporate has or have in a market, the court may have regard to the power the body corporate or bodies corporate has or have in that market that results from:

                     (a)  any contracts, arrangements or understandings, or proposed contracts, arrangements or understandings, that the body corporate or bodies corporate has or have, or may have, with another party or other parties; and

                     (b)  any covenants, or proposed covenants, that the body corporate or bodies corporate is or are, or would be, bound by or entitled to the benefit of.

          (3B)  Subsections (3) and (3A) do not, by implication, limit the matters to which regard may be had in determining, for the purposes of this section, the degree of power that a body corporate or bodies corporate has or have in a market.

          (3C)  For the purposes of this section, without limiting the matters to which the court may have regard for the purpose of determining whether a body corporate has a substantial degree of power in a market, a body corporate may have a substantial degree of power in a market even though:

                     (a)  the body corporate does not substantially control the market; or

                     (b)  the body corporate does not have absolute freedom from constraint by the conduct of:

                              (i)  competitors, or potential competitors, of the body corporate in that market; or

                             (ii)  persons to whom or from whom the body corporate supplies or acquires goods or services in that market.

          (3D)  To avoid doubt, for the purposes of this section, more than 1 corporation may have a substantial degree of power in a market.

             (4)  In this section:

                     (a)  a reference to power is a reference to market power;

                     (b)  a reference to a market is a reference to a market for goods or services; and

                     (c)  a reference to power in relation to, or to conduct in, a market is a reference to power, or to conduct, in that market either as a supplier or as an acquirer of goods or services in that market.

          (4A)  Without limiting the matters to which the court may have regard for the purpose of determining whether a corporation has contravened subsection (1), the court may have regard to:

                     (a)  any conduct of the corporation that consisted of supplying goods or services for a sustained period at a price that was less than the relevant cost to the corporation of supplying such goods or services; and

                     (b)  the reasons for that conduct.

             (5)  Without extending by implication the meaning of subsection (1), a corporation shall not be taken to contravene that subsection by reason only that it acquires plant or equipment.

             (6)  This section does not prevent a corporation from engaging in conduct that does not constitute a contravention of any of the following sections, namely, sections 45, 45B, 47, 49 and 50, by reason that an authorization or clearance is in force or by reason of the operation of subsection 45(8A) or section 93.

          (6A)  In determining for the purposes of this section whether, by engaging in conduct, a corporation has taken advantage of its substantial degree of power in a market, the court may have regard to any or all of the following:

                     (a)  whether the conduct was materially facilitated by the corporation’s substantial degree of power in the market;

                     (b)  whether the corporation engaged in the conduct in reliance on its substantial degree of power in the market;

                     (c)  whether it is likely that the corporation would have engaged in the conduct if it did not have a substantial degree of power in the market;

                     (d)  whether the conduct is otherwise related to the corporation’s substantial degree of power in the market.

This subsection does not limit the matters to which the court may have regard.

             (7)  Without in any way limiting the manner in which the purpose of a person may be established for the purposes of any other provision of this Act, a corporation may be taken to have taken advantage of its power for a purpose referred to in subsection (1) notwithstanding that, after all the evidence has been considered, the existence of that purpose is ascertainable only by inference from the conduct of the corporation or of any other person or from other relevant circumstances.

46A  Misuse of market power—corporation with substantial degree of power in trans‑Tasman market

             (1)  In this section:

conduct, in relation to a market, means conduct in the market either as a supplier or acquirer of goods or services in the market.

impact market means a market in Australia that is not a market exclusively for services.

market power, in relation to a market, means market power in the market either as a supplier or acquirer of goods or services in the market.

trans‑Tasman market means a market in Australia, New Zealand or Australia and New Zealand for goods or services.

             (2)  A corporation that has a substantial degree of market power in a trans‑Tasman market must not take advantage of that power for the purpose of:

                     (a)  eliminating or substantially damaging a competitor of the corporation, or of a body corporate that is related to the corporation, in an impact market; or

                     (b)  preventing the entry of a person into an impact market; or

                     (c)  deterring or preventing a person from engaging in competitive conduct in an impact market.

          (2A)  For the purposes of subsection (2):

                     (a)  the reference in paragraph (2)(a) to a competitor includes a reference to competitors generally, or to a particular class or classes of competitors; and

                     (b)  the reference in paragraphs (2)(b) and (c) to a person includes a reference to persons generally, or to a particular class or classes of persons.

             (3)  If:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is related to a corporation has, or 2 or more bodies corporate each of which is related to the one corporation together have, a substantial degree of market power in a trans‑Tasman market; or

                     (b)  a corporation and a body corporate that is, or a corporation and 2 or more bodies corporate each of which is, related to the corporation, together have a substantial degree of market power in a trans‑Tasman market;

the corporation is taken, for the purposes of this section, to have a substantial degree of market power in the trans‑Tasman market.

             (4)  In determining for the purposes of this section the degree of market power that a body corporate or bodies corporate has or have in a trans‑Tasman market, the Federal Court is to have regard to the extent to which the conduct of the body corporate or of any of those bodies corporate, in the trans‑Tasman market is constrained by the conduct of:

                     (a)  competitors, or potential competitors, of the body corporate, or of any of those bodies corporate, in the trans‑Tasman market; or

                     (b)  persons to whom or from whom the body corporate, or any of those bodies corporate, supplies or acquires goods or services in the trans‑Tasman market.

             (5)  Without extending by implication the meaning of subsection (2), a corporation is not taken to contravene that subsection merely because it acquires plant or equipment.

             (6)  This section does not prevent a corporation from engaging in conduct that does not constitute a contravention of any of the following sections, namely, sections 45, 45B, 47, 49 and 50, because an authorisation or clearance is in force or because of the operation of subsection 45(8A) or section 93.

             (7)  Without limiting the manner in which the purpose of a person may be established for the purposes of any other provision of this Act, a corporation may be taken to have taken advantage of its market power for a purpose referred to in subsection (2) even though, after all the evidence has been considered, the existence of that purpose is ascertainable only by inference from the conduct of the corporation or of any other person or from other relevant circumstances.

             (8)  It is the intention of the Parliament that this section, and the provisions of Parts VI and XII so far as they relate to a contravention of this section, should apply to New Zealand and New Zealand Crown corporations to the same extent, and in the same way, as they respectively apply under section 2A to the Commonwealth and authorities of the Commonwealth.

             (9)  Subsection (8) has effect despite section 9 of the Foreign States Immunities Act 1985.

46B  No immunity from jurisdiction in relation to certain New Zealand laws

             (1)  It is hereby declared, for the avoidance of doubt, that the Commonwealth, the States, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, and their authorities, are not immune, and may not claim immunity, from the jurisdiction of the courts of Australia and New Zealand in relation to matters arising under sections 36A, 98H and 99A of the Commerce Act 1986 of New Zealand.

             (2)  This section applies in and outside Australia.

47  Exclusive dealing

             (1)  Subject to this section, a corporation shall not, in trade or commerce, engage in the practice of exclusive dealing.

             (2)  A corporation engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation:

                     (a)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services;

                     (b)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services at a particular price; or

                     (c)  gives or allows, or offers to give or allow, a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply or proposed supply of goods or services by the corporation;

on the condition that the person to whom the corporation supplies, or offers or proposes to supply, the goods or services or, if that person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (d)  will not, or will not except to a limited extent, acquire goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation;

                     (e)  will not, or will not except to a limited extent, re‑supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation; or

                      (f)  in the case where the corporation supplies or would supply goods or services, will not re‑supply the goods or services to any person, or will not, or will not except to a limited extent, re‑supply the goods or services:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (3)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation refuses:

                     (a)  to supply goods or services to a person;

                     (b)  to supply goods or services to a person at a particular price; or

                     (c)  to give or allow a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply or proposed supply of goods or services to a person;

for the reason that the person or, if the person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (d)  has acquired, or has not agreed not to acquire, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation;

                     (e)  has re‑supplied, or has not agreed not to re‑supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation; or

                      (f)  has re‑supplied, or has not agreed not to re‑supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired from the corporation to any person, or has re‑supplied, or has not agreed not to re‑supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired from the corporation:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (4)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation:

                     (a)  acquires, or offers to acquire, goods or services; or

                     (b)  acquires, or offers to acquire, goods or services at a particular price;

on the condition that the person from whom the corporation acquires or offers to acquire the goods or services or, if that person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate will not supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, to any person, or will not, or will not except to a limited extent, supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                     (c)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                     (d)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (5)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation refuses:

                     (a)  to acquire goods or services from a person; or

                     (b)  to acquire goods or services at a particular price from a person;

for the reason that the person or, if the person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate has supplied, or has not agreed not to supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                     (c)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                     (d)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (6)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation:

                     (a)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services;

                     (b)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services at a particular price; or

                     (c)  gives or allows, or offers to give or allow, a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply or proposed supply of goods or services by the corporation;

on the condition that the person to whom the corporation supplies or offers or proposes to supply the goods or services or, if that person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate will acquire goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the corporation.

             (7)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation refuses:

                     (a)  to supply goods or services to a person;

                     (b)  to supply goods or services at a particular price to a person; or

                     (c)  to give or allow a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply of goods or services to a person;

for the reason that the person or, if the person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate has not acquired, or has not agreed to acquire, goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the corporation.

             (8)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation grants or renews, or makes it known that it will not exercise a power or right to terminate, a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building on the condition that another party to the lease or licence or, if that other party is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (a)  will not, or will not except to a limited extent:

                              (i)  acquire goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation; or

                             (ii)  re‑supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation;

                     (b)  will not supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, to any person, or will not, or will not except to a limited extent, supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places; or

                     (c)  will acquire goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the corporation.

             (9)  A corporation also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the corporation refuses to grant or renew, or exercises a power or right to terminate, a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building for the reason that another party to the lease or licence or, if that other party is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (a)  has acquired, or has not agreed not to acquire, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation;

                     (b)  has re‑supplied, or has not agreed not to re‑supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the corporation or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the corporation;

                     (c)  has supplied goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places; or

                     (d)  has not acquired, or has not agreed to acquire, goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the corporation.

           (10)  Subsection (1) does not apply to the practice of exclusive dealing constituted by a corporation engaging in conduct of a kind referred to in subsection (2), (3), (4) or (5) or paragraph (8)(a) or (b) or (9)(a), (b) or (c) unless:

                     (a)  the engaging by the corporation in that conduct has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (b)  the engaging by the corporation in that conduct, and the engaging by the corporation, or by a body corporate related to the corporation, in other conduct of the same or a similar kind, together have or are likely to have the effect of substantially lessening competition.

        (10A)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a corporation engaging in conduct described in subsection (6) or (7) or paragraph (8)(c) or (9)(d) if:

                     (a)  the corporation has given the Commission a notice under subsection 93(1) describing the conduct; and

                     (b)  the notice is in force under section 93.

           (11)  Subsections (8) and (9) do not apply with respect to:

                     (a)  conduct engaged in by, or by a trustee for, a religious, charitable or public benevolent institution, being conduct engaged in for or in accordance with the purposes or objects of that institution; or

                     (b)  conduct engaged in in pursuance of a legally enforceable requirement made by, or by a trustee for, a religious, charitable or public benevolent institution, being a requirement made for or in accordance with the purposes or objects of that institution.

           (12)  Subsection (1) does not apply with respect to any conduct engaged in by a body corporate by way of restricting dealings by another body corporate if those bodies corporate are related to each other.

           (13)  In this section:

                     (a)  a reference to a condition shall be read as a reference to any condition, whether direct or indirect and whether having legal or equitable force or not, and includes a reference to a condition the existence or nature of which is ascertainable only by inference from the conduct of persons or from other relevant circumstances;

                     (b)  a reference to competition, in relation to conduct to which a provision of this section other than subsection (8) or (9) applies, shall be read as a reference to competition in any market in which:

                              (i)  the corporation engaging in the conduct or any body corporate related to that corporation; or

                             (ii)  any person whose business dealings are restricted, limited or otherwise circumscribed by the conduct or, if that person is a body corporate, any body corporate related to that body corporate;

                            supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the conduct, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services; and

                     (c)  a reference to competition, in relation to conduct to which subsection (8) or (9) applies, shall be read as a reference to competition in any market in which the corporation engaging in the conduct or any other corporation the business dealings of which are restricted, limited or otherwise circumscribed by the conduct, or any body corporate related to either of those corporations, supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the conduct, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

48  Resale price maintenance

                   A corporation or other person shall not engage in the practice of resale price maintenance.

49  Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition

             (1)  A corporation must not:

                     (a)  make a dual listed company arrangement if a provision of the proposed arrangement has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (b)  give effect to a provision of a dual listed company arrangement if that provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition.

Note:          Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under subsection 88(8B).

Exception

             (2)  The making by a corporation of a dual listed company arrangement that contains a provision that has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition does not contravene this section if:

                     (a)  the arrangement is subject to a condition that the provision will not come into force unless and until the corporation is granted an authorisation to give effect to the provision; and

                     (b)  the corporation applies for the grant of such an authorisation within 14 days after the arrangement is made.

However, this subsection does not permit the corporation to give effect to such a provision.

Meaning of competition

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, competition, in relation to a provision of a dual listed company arrangement or of a proposed dual listed company arrangement, means competition in any market in which:

                     (a)  a corporation that is a party to the arrangement or would be a party to the proposed arrangement; or

                     (b)  any body corporate related to such a corporation;

supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, apart from the provision, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

             (4)  For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a particular corporation, a provision of a dual listed company arrangement or of a proposed dual listed company arrangement is taken to have, or to be likely to have, the effect of substantially lessening competition if that provision and any one or more of the following provisions:

                     (a)  the other provisions of that arrangement or proposed arrangement;

                     (b)  the provisions of any other contract, arrangement or understanding or proposed contract, arrangement or understanding to which the corporation or a body corporate related to the corporation is or would be a party;

together have or are likely to have that effect.

50  Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition

             (1)  A corporation must not directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  acquire shares in the capital of a body corporate; or

                     (b)  acquire any assets of a person;

if the acquisition would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in a market.

Note:          The corporation will not be prevented from making the acquisition if the corporation is granted a clearance or an authorisation for the acquisition under Division 3 of Part VII: see subsections 95AC(2) and 95AT(2).

             (2)  A person must not directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  acquire shares in the capital of a corporation; or

                     (b)  acquire any assets of a corporation;

if the acquisition would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in a market.

Note:          The person will not be prevented from making the acquisition if the person is granted a clearance or an authorisation for the acquisition under Division 3 of Part VII: see subsections 95AC(2) and 95AT(2).

             (3)  Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account for the purposes of subsections (1) and (2) in determining whether the acquisition would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in a market, the following matters must be taken into account:

                     (a)  the actual and potential level of import competition in the market;

                     (b)  the height of barriers to entry to the market;

                     (c)  the level of concentration in the market;

                     (d)  the degree of countervailing power in the market;

                     (e)  the likelihood that the acquisition would result in the acquirer being able to significantly and sustainably increase prices or profit margins;

                      (f)  the extent to which substitutes are available in the market or are likely to be available in the market;

                     (g)  the dynamic characteristics of the market, including growth, innovation and product differentiation;

                     (h)  the likelihood that the acquisition would result in the removal from the market of a vigorous and effective competitor;

                      (i)  the nature and extent of vertical integration in the market.

             (4)  Where:

                     (a)  a person has entered into a contract to acquire shares in the capital of a body corporate or assets of a person;

                     (b)  the contract is subject to a condition that the provisions of the contract relating to the acquisition will not come into force unless and until the person has been granted a clearance or an authorization to acquire the shares or assets; and

                     (c)  the person applied for the grant of such a clearance or an authorization before the expiration of 14 days after the contract was entered into;

the acquisition of the shares or assets shall not be regarded for the purposes of this Act as having taken place in pursuance of the contract before:

                     (d)  the application for the clearance or authorization is disposed of; or

                     (e)  the contract ceases to be subject to the condition;

whichever first happens.

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (4), an application for a clearance shall be taken to be disposed of:

                     (a)  in a case to which paragraph (b) of this subsection does not apply—at the expiration of 14 days after the period in which an application may be made to the Tribunal for a review of the determination by the Commission of the application for the clearance; or

                     (b)  if an application is made to the Tribunal for a review of the determination by the Commission of the application for the clearance—at the expiration of 14 days after the date of the making by the Tribunal of a determination on the review.

          (5A)  For the purposes of subsection (4), an application for an authorisation is taken to be disposed of 14 days after the day the Tribunal makes a determination on the application.

             (6)  In this section:

market means a substantial market for goods or services in:

                     (a)  Australia; or

                     (b)  a State; or

                     (c)  a Territory; or

                     (d)  a region of Australia.

50A  Acquisitions that occur outside Australia

             (1)  Where a person acquires, outside Australia, otherwise than by reason of the application of paragraph (8)(b), a controlling interest (the first controlling interest) in any body corporate and, by reason, but not necessarily by reason only, of the application of paragraph (8)(b) in relation to the first controlling interest, obtains a controlling interest (the second controlling interest) in a corporation or each of 2 or more corporations, the Tribunal may, on the application of the Minister, the Commission or any other person, if the Tribunal is satisfied that:

                     (a)  the person’s obtaining the second controlling interest would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in a market; and

                     (b)  the person’s obtaining the second controlling interest would not, in all the circumstances, result, or be likely to result, in such a benefit to the public that the obtaining should be disregarded for the purposes of this section;

make a declaration accordingly.

          (1A)  Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account in determining whether the obtaining of the second controlling interest would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in a market, the matters mentioned in subsection 50(3) must be taken into account for that purpose.

          (1B)  In determining whether the obtaining of the second controlling interest would result, or be likely to result, in such a benefit to the public that it should be disregarded for the purposes of this section:

                     (a)  the Tribunal must regard the following as benefits to the public (in addition to any other benefits to the public that may exist apart from this paragraph):

                              (i)  a significant increase in the real value of exports;

                             (ii)  a significant substitution of domestic products for imported goods; and

                     (b)  without limiting the matters that may be taken into account, the Tribunal must take into account all other relevant matters that relate to the international competitiveness of any Australian industry.

             (2)  Where an application under subsection (1) is made:

                     (a)  the Tribunal shall give to:

                              (i)  each corporation in relation to which the application relates; and

                             (ii)  the Minister and the Commission;

                            a notice in writing stating that the application has been made; and

                     (b)  the persons referred to in paragraph (a) and, if the application was made by another person, that other person are entitled to appear, or be represented, at the proceedings following the application.

             (3)  An application under subsection (1) may be made at any time within 12 months after the date of the acquisition referred to in that subsection in relation to which the application is made.

             (4)  The Tribunal may, on the application of the Minister, the Commission or any other person, or of its own motion, revoke a declaration made under subsection (1).

             (5)  The Tribunal shall state in writing its reasons for making, refusing to make or revoking a declaration under subsection (1).

             (6)  After the end of 6 months after a declaration is made under subsection (1) in relation to the obtaining of a controlling interest in a corporation or 2 or more corporations by a person or, if the person, before the end of that period of 6 months, makes an application to a presidential member for an extension of that period, after the end of such further period (not exceeding 6 months) as the presidential member allows, the corporation or each of the corporations, as the case may be, shall not, while the declaration remains in force, carry on business in the market to which the declaration relates.

             (7)  Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to an acquisition referred to in that subsection if section 50 applies in relation to that acquisition.

             (8)  For the purposes of this section:

                     (a)  a person shall be taken to hold a controlling interest in a body corporate if the body corporate is, or, if the person were a body corporate, would be, a subsidiary of the person (otherwise than by reason of the application of paragraph 4A(1)(b)); and

                     (b)  where a person holds a controlling interest (including a controlling interest held by virtue of another application or other applications of this paragraph) in a body corporate and that body corporate:

                              (i)  controls the composition of the board of directors of another body corporate;

                             (ii)  is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, any votes that might be cast at a general meeting of another body corporate; or

                            (iii)  holds shares in the capital of another body corporate;

                            the person shall be deemed (but not to the exclusion of any other person) to control the composition of that board, to be in a position to cast, or control the casting of, those votes or to hold those shares, as the case may be.

             (9)  In this section:

market means a substantial market for goods or services in Australia, in a State or in a Territory.

51  Exceptions

             (1)  In deciding whether a person has contravened this Part, the following must be disregarded:

                     (a)  anything specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an Act (not including an Act relating to patents, trade marks, designs or copyrights); or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an Act;

                     (b)  anything done in a State, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an Act passed by the Parliament of that State; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an Act;

                     (c)  anything done in the Australian Capital Territory, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an enactment as defined in section 3 of the Australian Capital Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1988; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an enactment;

                     (d)  anything done in the Northern Territory, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an enactment as defined in section 4 of the Northern Territory (Self‑Government) Act 1978; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an enactment;

                     (e)  anything done in another Territory, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an Ordinance of that Territory; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an Ordinance.

          (1A)  Without limiting subsection (1), conduct is taken to be specified in, and authorised by, a law for the purposes of that subsection if:

                     (a)  a licence or other instrument issued or made under the law specifies one or both of the following:

                              (i)  the person authorised to engage in the conduct;

                             (ii)  the place where the conduct is to occur; and

                     (b)  the law specifies the attributes of the conduct except those mentioned in paragraph (a).

For this purpose, law means an Act, State Act, enactment or Ordinance.

          (1B)  Subsections (1) and (1A) apply regardless of when the Acts, State Acts, enactments, Ordinances, regulations or instruments referred to in those subsections were passed, made or issued.

          (1C)  The operation of subsection (1) is subject to the following limitations:

                     (a)  in order for something to be regarded as specifically authorised for the purposes of subsection (1), the authorising provision must expressly refer to this Act;

                     (b)  subparagraph (1)(a)(ii) and paragraphs (1)(b), (c), (d) and (e) do not apply in deciding whether a person has contravened section 50 or 50A;

                     (c)  regulations referred to in subparagraph (1)(a)(ii), (b)(ii), (c)(ii), (d)(ii) or (e)(ii) do not have the effect of requiring a particular thing to be disregarded if the thing happens more than 2 years after those regulations came into operation;

                     (d)  regulations referred to in subparagraph (1)(a)(ii), (b)(ii), (c)(ii), (d)(ii) or (e)(ii) do not have the effect of requiring a particular thing to be disregarded to the extent that the regulations are the same in substance as other regulations:

                              (i)  referred to in the subparagraph concerned; and

                             (ii)  that came into operation more than 2 years before the particular thing happened;

                     (e)  paragraphs (1)(b) to (d) have no effect in relation to things authorised by a law of a State or Territory unless:

                              (i)  at the time of the alleged contravention referred to in subsection (1) the State or Territory was a fully‑participating jurisdiction and a party to the Competition Principles Agreement; or

                             (ii)  all of the following conditions are met:

                                        (A)  the Minister published a notice in the Gazette under subsection 150K(1) in relation to the State or Territory, or the State or Territory ceased to be a party to the Competition Principles Agreement, within 12 months before the alleged contravention referred to in subsection (1);

                                        (B)  the thing authorised was the making of a contract, or an action under a contract, that existed immediately before the Minister published the notice or the State or Territory ceased to be a party;

                                        (C)  the law authorising the thing was in force immediately before the Minister published the notice or the State or Territory ceased to be a party;

                      (f)  subsection (1) does not apply to things that are covered by paragraph (1)(b), (c), (d) or (e) to the extent that those things are prescribed by regulations made under this Act for the purposes of this paragraph.

             (2)  In determining whether a contravention of a provision of this Part other than section 45D, 45DA, 45DB, 45E, 45EA or 48 has been committed, regard shall not be had:

                     (a)  to any act done in relation to, or to the making of a contract or arrangement or the entering into of an understanding, or to any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, to the extent that the contract, arrangement or understanding, or the provision, relates to, the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of employees;

                     (b)  to any provision of a contract of service or of a contract for the provision of services, being a provision under which a person, not being a body corporate, agrees to accept restrictions as to the work, whether as an employee or otherwise, in which he or she may engage during, or after the termination of, the contract;

                     (c)  to any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, being a provision obliging a person to comply with or apply standards of dimension, design, quality or performance prepared or approved by Standards Australia International Limited or by a prescribed association or body;

                     (d)  to any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding between partners none of whom is a body corporate, being a provision in relation to the terms of the partnership or the conduct of the partnership business or in relation to competition between the partnership and a party to the contract, arrangement or understanding while he or she is, or after he or she ceases to be, a partner;

                     (e)  in the case of a contract for the sale of a business or of shares in the capital of a body corporate carrying on a business—to any provision of the contract that is solely for the protection of the purchaser in respect of the goodwill of the business; or

                     (g)  to any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, being a provision that relates exclusively to the export of goods from Australia or to the supply of services outside Australia, if full and accurate particulars of the provision (not including particulars of prices for goods or services but including particulars of any method of fixing, controlling or maintaining such prices) were furnished to the Commission before the expiration of 14 days after the date on which the contract or arrangement was made or the understanding was arrived at, or before 8 September 1976, whichever was the later.

          (2A)  In determining whether a contravention of a provision of this Part other than section 48 has been committed, regard shall not be had to any acts done, otherwise than in the course of trade or commerce, in concert by ultimate users or consumers of goods or services against the suppliers of those goods or services.

             (3)  A contravention of a provision of this Part other than section 46, 46A or 48 shall not be taken to have been committed by reason of:

                     (a)  the imposing of, or giving effect to, a condition of:

                              (i)  a licence granted by the proprietor, licensee or owner of a patent, of a registered design, of a copyright or of EL rights within the meaning of the Circuit Layouts Act 1989, or by a person who has applied for a patent or for the registration of a design; or

                             (ii)  an assignment of a patent, of a registered design, of a copyright or of such EL rights, or of the right to apply for a patent or for the registration of a design;

                            to the extent that the condition relates to:

                            (iii)  the invention to which the patent or application for a patent relates or articles made by the use of that invention;

                            (iv)  goods in respect of which the design is, or is proposed to be, registered and to which it is applied;

                             (v)  the work or other subject matter in which the copyright subsists; or

                            (vi)  the eligible layout in which the EL rights subsist;

                     (b)  the inclusion in a contract, arrangement or understanding authorizing the use of a certification trade mark of a provision in accordance with rules applicable under Part XI of the Trade Marks Act 1955, or the giving effect to such a provision; or

                     (c)  the inclusion in a contract, arrangement or understanding between:

                              (i)  the registered proprietor of a trade mark other than a certification trade mark; and

                             (ii)  a person registered as a registered user of that trade mark under Part IX of the Trade Marks Act 1955 or a person authorized by the contract to use the trade mark subject to his or her becoming registered as such a registered user;

                            of a provision to the extent that it relates to the kinds, qualities or standards of goods bearing the mark that may be produced or supplied, or the giving effect to the provision to that extent.

             (4)  This section applies in determining whether a provision of a contract is unenforceable by reason of subsection 45(1), or whether a covenant is unenforceable by reason of subsection 45B(1), in like manner as it applies in determining whether a contravention of a provision of this Part has been committed.

             (5)  In the application of subsection (2A) to section 46A, the reference in that subsection to trade or commerce includes trade or commerce within New Zealand.

51AAA  Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws

                   It is the Parliament’s intention that a law of a State or Territory should be able to operate concurrently with this Part unless the law is directly inconsistent with this Part.


 

Part IVAUnconscionable conduct

  

51AAB  Part does not apply to financial services

             (1)  Section 51AA does not apply to conduct engaged in in relation to financial services.

             (2)  Section 51AB does not apply to the supply, or possible supply, of services that are financial services.

51AA  Unconscionable conduct within the meaning of the unwritten law of the States and Territories

             (1)  A corporation must not, in trade or commerce, engage in conduct that is unconscionable within the meaning of the unwritten law, from time to time, of the States and Territories.

             (2)  This section does not apply to conduct that is prohibited by section 51AB or 51AC.

51AB  Unconscionable conduct

             (1)  A corporation shall not, in trade or commerce, in connection with the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person, engage in conduct that is, in all the circumstances, unconscionable.

             (2)  Without in any way limiting the matters to which the court may have regard for the purpose of determining whether a corporation has contravened subsection (1) in connection with the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person (in this subsection referred to as the consumer), the court may have regard to:

                     (a)  the relative strengths of the bargaining positions of the corporation and the consumer;

                     (b)  whether, as a result of conduct engaged in by the corporation, the consumer was required to comply with conditions that were not reasonably necessary for the protection of the legitimate interests of the corporation;

                     (c)  whether the consumer was able to understand any documents relating to the supply or possible supply of the goods or services;

                     (d)  whether any undue influence or pressure was exerted on, or any unfair tactics were used against, the consumer or a person acting on behalf of the consumer by the corporation or a person acting on behalf of the corporation in relation to the supply or possible supply of the goods or services; and

                     (e)  the amount for which, and the circumstances under which, the consumer could have acquired identical or equivalent goods or services from a person other than the corporation.

             (3)  A corporation shall not be taken for the purposes of this section to engage in unconscionable conduct in connection with the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person by reason only that the corporation institutes legal proceedings in relation to that supply or possible supply or refers a dispute or claim in relation to that supply or possible supply to arbitration.

             (4)  For the purpose of determining whether a corporation has contravened subsection (1) in connection with the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person:

                     (a)  the court shall not have regard to any circumstances that were not reasonably forseeable at the time of the alleged contravention; and

                     (b)  the court may have regard to conduct engaged in, or circumstances existing, before the commencement of this section.

             (5)  A reference in this section to goods or services is a reference to goods or services of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption.

             (6)  A reference in this section to the supply or possible supply of goods does not include a reference to the supply or possible supply of goods for the purpose of re‑supply or for the purpose of using them up or transforming them in trade or commerce.

             (7)  Section 51A applies for the purposes of this section in the same way as it applies for the purposes of Division 1 of Part V.

51AC  Unconscionable conduct in business transactions

             (1)  A corporation must not, in trade or commerce, in connection with:

                     (a)  the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person (other than a listed public company); or

                     (b)  the acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services from a person (other than a listed public company);

engage in conduct that is, in all the circumstances, unconscionable.

             (2)  A person must not, in trade or commerce, in connection with:

                     (a)  the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a corporation (other than a listed public company); or

                     (b)  the acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services from a corporation (other than a listed public company);

engage in conduct that is, in all the circumstances, unconscionable.

             (3)  Without in any way limiting the matters to which the court may have regard for the purpose of determining whether a corporation or a person (the supplier) has contravened subsection (1) or (2) in connection with the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person or a corporation (the business consumer), the court may have regard to:

                     (a)  the relative strengths of the bargaining positions of the supplier and the business consumer; and

                     (b)  whether, as a result of conduct engaged in by the supplier, the business consumer was required to comply with conditions that were not reasonably necessary for the protection of the legitimate interests of the supplier; and

                     (c)  whether the business consumer was able to understand any documents relating to the supply or possible supply of the goods or services; and

                     (d)  whether any undue influence or pressure was exerted on, or any unfair tactics were used against, the business consumer or a person acting on behalf of the business consumer by the supplier or a person acting on behalf of the supplier in relation to the supply or possible supply of the goods or services; and

                     (e)  the amount for which, and the circumstances under which, the business consumer could have acquired identical or equivalent goods or services from a person other than the supplier; and

                      (f)  the extent to which the supplier’s conduct towards the business consumer was consistent with the supplier’s conduct in similar transactions between the supplier and other like business consumers; and

                     (g)  the requirements of any applicable industry code; and

                     (h)  the requirements of any other industry code, if the business consumer acted on the reasonable belief that the supplier would comply with that code; and

                      (i)  the extent to which the supplier unreasonably failed to disclose to the business consumer:

                              (i)  any intended conduct of the supplier that might affect the interests of the business consumer; and

                             (ii)  any risks to the business consumer arising from the supplier’s intended conduct (being risks that the supplier should have foreseen would not be apparent to the business consumer); and

                      (j)  the extent to which the supplier was willing to negotiate the terms and conditions of any contract for supply of the goods or services with the business consumer; and

                     (ja)  whether the supplier has a contractual right to vary unilaterally a term or condition of a contract between the supplier and the business consumer for the supply of the goods or services; and

                     (k)  the extent to which the supplier and the business consumer acted in good faith.

             (4)  Without in any way limiting the matters to which the court may have regard for the purpose of determining whether a corporation or a person (the acquirer) has contravened subsection (1) or (2) in connection with the acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services from a person or corporation (the small business supplier), the court may have regard to:

                     (a)  the relative strengths of the bargaining positions of the acquirer and the small business supplier; and

                     (b)  whether, as a result of conduct engaged in by the acquirer, the small business supplier was required to comply with conditions that were not reasonably necessary for the protection of the legitimate interests of the acquirer; and

                     (c)  whether the small business supplier was able to understand any documents relating to the acquisition or possible acquisition of the goods or services; and

                     (d)  whether any undue influence or pressure was exerted on, or any unfair tactics were used against, the small business supplier or a person acting on behalf of the small business supplier by the acquirer or a person acting on behalf of the acquirer in relation to the acquisition or possible acquisition of the goods or services; and

                     (e)  the amount for which, and the circumstances in which, the small business supplier could have supplied identical or equivalent goods or services to a person other than the acquirer; and

                      (f)  the extent to which the acquirer’s conduct towards the small business supplier was consistent with the acquirer’s conduct in similar transactions between the acquirer and other like small business suppliers; and

                     (g)  the requirements of any applicable industry code; and

                     (h)  the requirements of any other industry code, if the small business supplier acted on the reasonable belief that the acquirer would comply with that code; and

                      (i)  the extent to which the acquirer unreasonably failed to disclose to the small business supplier:

                              (i)  any intended conduct of the acquirer that might affect the interests of the small business supplier; and

                             (ii)  any risks to the small business supplier arising from the acquirer’s intended conduct (being risks that the acquirer should have foreseen would not be apparent to the small business supplier); and

                      (j)  the extent to which the acquirer was willing to negotiate the terms and conditions of any contract for the acquisition of the goods and services with the small business supplier; and

                     (ja)  whether the acquirer has a contractual right to vary unilaterally a term or condition of a contract between the acquirer and the small business supplier for the acquisition of the goods or services; and

                     (k)  the extent to which the acquirer and the small business supplier acted in good faith.

             (5)  A person is not to be taken for the purposes of this section to engage in unconscionable conduct in connection with:

                     (a)  the supply or possible supply of goods or services to another person; or

                     (b)  the acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services from another person;

by reason only that the first‑mentioned person institutes legal proceedings in relation to that supply, possible supply, acquisition or possible acquisition or refers to arbitration a dispute or claim in relation to that supply, possible supply, acquisition or possible acquisition.

             (6)  For the purpose of determining whether a corporation has contravened subsection (1) or whether a person has contravened subsection (2):

                     (a)  the court must not have regard to any circumstances that were not reasonably foreseeable at the time of the alleged contravention; and

                     (b)  the court may have regard to circumstances existing before the commencement of this section but not to conduct engaged in before that commencement.

             (7)  A reference in this section to the supply or possible supply of goods or services is a reference to the supply or possible supply of goods or services to a person whose acquisition or possible acquisition of the goods or services is or would be for the purpose of trade or commerce.

             (8)  A reference in this section to the acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services is a reference to the acquisition or possible acquisition of goods or services by a person whose acquisition or possible acquisition of the goods or services is or would be for the purpose of trade or commerce.

           (12)  Section 51A applies for the purposes of this section in the same way as it applies for the purposes of Division 1 of Part V.

           (13)  Expressions used in this section that are defined for the purpose of Part IVB have the same meaning in this section as they do in Part IVB.

           (14)  In this section, listed public company has the same meaning as it has in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997.

51ACAA  Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws

                   It is the Parliament’s intention that a law of a State or Territory should be able to operate concurrently with this Part unless the law is directly inconsistent with this Part.


 

Part IVBIndustry codes

  

51ACA  Definitions

             (1)  In this Part:

applicable industry code, in relation to a corporation that is a participant in an industry, means:

                     (a)  the prescribed provisions of any mandatory industry code relating to the industry; and

                     (b)  the prescribed provisions of any voluntary industry code that binds the corporation.

consumer, in relation to an industry, means a person to whom goods or services are or may be supplied by participants in the industry.

industry code means a code regulating the conduct of participants in an industry towards other participants in the industry or towards consumers in the industry.

mandatory industry code means an industry code that is declared by regulations under section 51AE to be mandatory.

voluntary industry code means an industry code that is declared by regulations under section 51AE to be voluntary.

             (2)  For the purposes of this Part, a voluntary industry code binds a person who has agreed, as prescribed, to be bound by the code and who has not subsequently ceased, as prescribed, to be bound by it.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, it is declared that:

                     (a)  franchising is an industry for the purposes of this Part; and

                     (b)  franchisors and franchisees are participants in the industry of franchising, whether or not they are also participants in another industry.

51AD  Contravention of industry codes

                   A corporation must not, in trade or commerce, contravene an applicable industry code.

51AE  Regulations relating to industry codes

                   The regulations may:

                     (a)  prescribe an industry code, or specified provisions of an industry code, for the purposes of this Part; and

                     (b)  declare the industry code to be a mandatory industry code or a voluntary industry code; and

                     (c)  for a voluntary industry code, specify the method by which a corporation agrees to be bound by the code and the method by which it ceases to be so bound (by reference to provisions of the code or otherwise).

51AEA  Concurrent operation of State and Territory laws

                   It is the Parliament’s intention that a law of a State or Territory should be able to operate concurrently with this Part unless the law is directly inconsistent with this Part.


 

Part VConsumer protection

Division 1Unfair practices

51AF  Part does not apply to financial services

             (1)  This Part does not apply to the supply, or possible supply, of services that are financial services.

             (2)  Without limiting subsection (1):

                     (a)  sections 52 and 55A do not apply to conduct engaged in in relation to financial services; and

                     (b)  if a financial product consists of or includes an interest in land, section 53A does not apply to that interest; and

                     (c)  section 63A does not apply to:

                              (i)  a credit card that is part of, or that provides access to, a credit facility that is a financial product; or

                             (ii)  a debit card that allows access to an account that is a financial product.

             (3)  In subsection (2):

credit card has the same meaning as in section 63A.

debit card has the same meaning as in section 63A.

51A  Interpretation

             (1)  For the purposes of this Division, where a corporation makes a representation with respect to an