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Fair Work Act 2009

  • - C2009C00392
  • In force - Superseded Version
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Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Act No. 70 of 2009
An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes
Administered by: Education, Employment and Workplace Relations; Attorney-General's
General Comments: This compilation is affected by a retrospective amendment, please see Statute Law Revision Act 2012 [Act No. 136 of 2012], for details.
Registered 05 Aug 2009
Start Date 05 Aug 2009
End Date 14 Dec 2009

Fair Work Act 2009

Act No. 28 of 2009 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 5 August 2009
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 70 of 2009

[Note: Sections 44–49, 55–57A, 59–168, 282–299, 328–331, 333A and 741–768 of this Act are not in force, see s. 2(1) and Note 1]

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney‑General’s Department, Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

Chapter 1—Introduction                                                                                                     1

Part 1‑1—Introduction                                                                                                          1

Division 1—Preliminary                                                                                              1

1............ Short title [see Note 1]....................................................................... 1

2............ Commencement.................................................................................. 1

Division 2—Object of this Act                                                                                 4

3............ Object of this Act............................................................................... 4

Division 3—Guide to this Act                                                                                  5

4............ Guide to this Act................................................................................ 5

5............ Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)............................ 5

6............ Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)            7

7............ Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4).......................................... 7

8............ Administration (Chapter 5)................................................................ 8

9............ Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)................................................................. 8

Part 1‑2—Definitions                                                                                                          10

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          10

10.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 10

11.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 10

Division 2—The Dictionary                                                                                     11

12.......... The Dictionary................................................................................. 11

Division 3—Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.  33

13.......... Meaning of national system employee.............................................. 33

14.......... Meaning of national system employer.............................................. 33

15.......... Ordinary meanings of employee and employer................................. 34

Division 4—Other definitions                                                                                35

16.......... Meaning of base rate of pay............................................................. 35

17.......... Meaning of child of a person............................................................ 36

18.......... Meaning of full rate of pay................................................................ 36

19.......... Meaning of industrial action............................................................. 37

20.......... Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees              38

21.......... Meaning of pieceworker................................................................... 39

22.......... Meanings of service and continuous service.................................... 40

23.......... Meaning of small business employer................................................ 43

Part 1‑3—Application of this Act                                                                                  44

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          44

24.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 44

25.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 44

Division 2—Interaction with State and Territory laws                              45

26.......... Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws................................ 45

27.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26.......... 46

28.......... Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws............................ 48

29.......... Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws        48

30.......... Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases.......... 49

Division 2A—Application of this Act in a referring State                       50

30A....... Meaning of terms used in this Division............................................ 50

30B....... Meaning of referring State................................................................ 52

30C....... Extended meaning of national system employee................................ 54

30D....... Extended meaning of national system employer................................ 54

30E........ Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer................... 54

30F........ Extended meaning of outworker entity.............................................. 55

30G....... General protections.......................................................................... 55

30H....... Division only has effect if supported by reference.......................... 56

30J........ Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901............................... 56

Division 3—Geographical application of this Act                                        57

31.......... Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia... 57

32.......... Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia        57

33.......... Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf     58

34.......... Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf            59

35.......... Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee.. 60

35A....... Regulations excluding application of Act......................................... 61

36.......... Geographical application of offences............................................... 61

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                      62

37.......... Act binds Crown.............................................................................. 62

38.......... Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power................ 62

39.......... Acquisition of property................................................................... 63

40.......... Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws    63

Chapter 2—Terms and conditions of employment                                             65

Part 2‑1—Core provisions for this Chapter                                                           65

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          65

41.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 65

42.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 66

Division 2—Core provisions for this Chapter                                               67

Subdivision A—Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act   67

43.......... Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act...... 67

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards       68

44.......... Contravening the National Employment Standards......................... 68

Subdivision C—Terms and conditions of employment provided by a modern award           68

45.......... Contravening a modern award.......................................................... 68

46.......... The significance of a modern award applying to a person............... 68

47.......... When a modern award applies to an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity                69

48.......... When a modern award covers an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity [see Note 2] 70

49.......... When a modern award is in operation.............................................. 71

Subdivision D—Terms and conditions of employment provided by an enterprise agreement           72

50.......... Contravening an enterprise agreement.............................................. 72

51.......... The significance of an enterprise agreement applying to a person... 72

52.......... When an enterprise agreement applies to an employer, employee or employee organisation 72

53.......... When an enterprise agreement covers an employer, employee or employee organisation      73

54.......... When an enterprise agreement is in operation.................................. 74

Division 3—Interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements                                                                                            75

Subdivision A—Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or an enterprise agreement                                                                                                         75

55.......... Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or enterprise agreement               75

56.......... Terms of a modern award or enterprise agreement contravening section 55 have no effect    77

Subdivision B—Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements              77

57.......... Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements....... 77

57A....... Designated outworker terms of a modern award continue to apply 78

Subdivision C—Interaction between one or more enterprise agreements     78

58.......... Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee.............. 78

Part 2‑2—The National Employment Standards                                                 80

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                          80

59.......... Guide to this Part............................................................................. 80

60.......... Meanings of employee and employer................................................ 80

Division 2—The National Employment Standards                                      81

61.......... The National Employment Standards are minimum standards applying to employment of employees                81

Division 3—Maximum weekly hours                                                                 82

62.......... Maximum weekly hours................................................................... 82

63.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for averaging of hours of work       83

64.......... Averaging of hours of work for award/agreement free employees... 84

Division 4—Requests for flexible working arrangements                      85

65.......... Requests for flexible working arrangements..................................... 85

66.......... State and Territory laws that are not excluded................................. 86

Division 5—Parental leave and related entitlements                                87

Subdivision A—General                                                                                           87

67.......... General rule—employee must have completed at least 12 months of service         87

68.......... General rule for adoption‑related leave—child must be under 16 etc. 89

69.......... Transfer of employment situations in which employee is entitled to continue on leave etc.  89

Subdivision B—Parental leave                                                                                90

70.......... Entitlement to unpaid parental leave................................................ 90

71.......... The period of leave—other than for members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave    90

72.......... The period of leave—members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave           91

73.......... Pregnant employee may be required to take unpaid parental leave within 6 weeks before the birth      93

74.......... Notice and evidence requirements.................................................... 95

75.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending to use more of available parental leave period   96

76.......... Extending period of unpaid parental leave—extending for up to 12 months beyond available parental leave period.......................................................................................................... 97

77.......... Reducing period of unpaid parental leave......................................... 98

78.......... Employee who ceases to have responsibility for care of child......... 98

79.......... Interaction with paid leave............................................................... 99

Subdivision C—Other entitlements                                                                       99

80.......... Unpaid special maternity leave........................................................ 99

81.......... Transfer to a safe job...................................................................... 100

82.......... Employee on paid no safe job leave may be asked to provide a further medical certificate    102

83.......... Consultation with employee on unpaid parental leave.................. 102

84.......... Return to work guarantee............................................................... 103

85.......... Unpaid pre‑adoption leave............................................................. 103

Division 6—Annual leave                                                                                       105

86.......... Division applies to employees other than casual employees......... 105

87.......... Entitlement to annual leave............................................................. 105

88.......... Taking paid annual leave................................................................. 106

89.......... Employee not taken to be on paid annual leave at certain times.... 106

90.......... Payment for annual leave................................................................ 107

91.......... Transfer of employment situations that affect entitlement to payment for period of untaken paid annual leave  107

92.......... Paid annual leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms        108

93.......... Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out and taking paid annual leave........................................................................................................ 108

94.......... Cashing out and taking paid annual leave for award/agreement free employees      109

Division 7—Personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave           111

Subdivision A—Paid personal/carer’s leave                                                      111

95.......... Subdivision applies to employees other than casual employees.... 111

96.......... Entitlement to paid personal/carer’s leave...................................... 111

97.......... Taking paid personal/carer’s leave.................................................. 111

98.......... Employee taken not to be on paid personal/carer’s leave on public holiday           112

99.......... Payment for paid personal/carer’s leave......................................... 112

100........ Paid personal/carer’s leave must not be cashed out except in accordance with permitted cashing out terms         112

101........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may include terms relating to cashing out paid personal/carer’s leave........................................................................................................ 112

Subdivision B—Unpaid carer’s leave                                                                   113

102........ Entitlement to unpaid carer’s leave................................................ 113

103........ Taking unpaid carer’s leave............................................................ 113

Subdivision C—Compassionate leave                                                                  113

104........ Entitlement to compassionate leave............................................... 113

105........ Taking compassionate leave........................................................... 114

106........ Payment for compassionate leave (other than for casual employees) 114

Subdivision D—Notice and evidence requirements                                          115

107........ Notice and evidence requirements.................................................. 115

Division 8—Community service leave                                                            117

108........ Entitlement to be absent from employment for engaging in eligible community service activity            117

109........ Meaning of eligible community service activity.............................. 117

110........ Notice and evidence requirements.................................................. 119

111........ Payment to employees (other than casuals) on jury service.......... 119

112........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 121

Division 9—Long service leave                                                                          122

113........ Entitlement to long service leave.................................................... 122

113A..... Enterprise agreements may contain terms discounting service under prior agreements etc. in certain circumstances........................................................................................................ 124

Division 10—Public holidays                                                                                126

114........ Entitlement to be absent from employment on public holiday...... 126

115........ Meaning of public holiday.............................................................. 127

116........ Payment for absence on public holiday.......................................... 128

Division 11—Notice of termination and redundancy pay                       129

Subdivision A—Notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice               129

117........ Requirement for notice of termination or payment in lieu............. 129

118........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for notice of termination by employees         130

Subdivision B—Redundancy pay                                                                          130

119........ Redundancy pay............................................................................. 130

120........ Variation of redundancy pay for other employment or incapacity to pay             131

121........ Exclusions from obligation to pay redundancy pay....................... 132

122........ Transfer of employment situations that affect the obligation to pay redundancy pay           132

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                               133

123........ Limits on scope of this Division.................................................... 133

Division 12—Fair Work Information Statement                                        135

124........ Fair Work Ombudsman to prepare and publish Fair Work Information Statement                135

125........ Giving new employees the Fair Work Information Statement....... 135

Division 13—Miscellaneous                                                                                 136

126........ Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for school‑based apprentices and trainees to be paid loadings in lieu.............................................................................................. 136

127........ Regulations about what modern awards and enterprise agreements can do             136

128........ Relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements etc. permitted by this Part for award/agreement free employees................................................................................ 136

129........ Regulations about what can be agreed to etc. in relation to award/agreement free employees                137

130........ Restriction on taking or accruing leave or absence while receiving workers’ compensation    137

131........ Relationship with other Commonwealth laws............................... 138

Part 2‑3—Modern awards                                                                                              139

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        139

132........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 139

133........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 140

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                141

134........ The modern awards objective......................................................... 141

135........ Special provisions relating to modern award minimum wages....... 142

Division 3—Terms of modern awards                                                             143

Subdivision A—Preliminary                                                                                 143

136........ What can be included in modern awards......................................... 143

137........ Terms that contravene section 136 have no effect......................... 144

138........ Achieving the modern awards objective......................................... 144

Subdivision B—Terms that may be included in modern awards                     144

139........ Terms that may be included in modern awards—general............... 144

140........ Outworker terms............................................................................ 145

141........ Industry‑specific redundancy schemes.......................................... 146

142........ Incidental and machinery terms...................................................... 147

Subdivision C—Terms that must be included in modern awards                   147

143........ Coverage terms............................................................................... 147

144........ Flexibility terms.............................................................................. 148

145........ Effect of individual flexibility arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term             150

146........ Terms about settling disputes........................................................ 150

147........ Ordinary hours of work.................................................................. 151

148........ Base and full rates of pay for pieceworkers................................... 151

149........ Automatic variation of allowances................................................. 151

Subdivision D—Terms that must not be included in modern awards            151

150........ Objectionable terms........................................................................ 151

151........ Terms about payments and deductions for benefit of employer etc. 152

152........ Terms about right of entry............................................................. 152

153........ Terms that are discriminatory........................................................ 152

154........ Terms that contain State‑based differences.................................... 153

155........ Terms dealing with long service leave............................................. 154

Division 4—4 yearly reviews of modern awards                                        155

156........ 4 yearly reviews of modern awards to be conducted..................... 155

Division 5—Exercising modern award powers outside 4 yearly reviews and annual wage reviews      157

Subdivision A—Exercise of powers if necessary to achieve modern awards objective       157

157........ FWA may vary etc. modern awards if necessary to achieve modern awards objective          157

158........ Applications to vary, revoke or make modern award.................... 158

Subdivision B—Other situations                                                                         160

159........ Variation of modern award to update or omit name of employer, organisation or outworker entity      160

160........ Variation of modern award to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error    160

161........ Variation of modern award on referral by HREOC........................ 161

Division 6—General provisions relating to modern award powers 162

162........ General............................................................................................ 162

163........ Special criteria relating to changing coverage of modern awards..... 162

164........ Special criteria for revoking modern awards................................... 163

165........ When variation determinations come into operation, other than determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages.................................................................... 163

166........ When variation determinations setting, varying or revoking modern award minimum wages come into operation........................................................................................................ 164

167........ Special rules relating to retrospective variations of awards............ 165

168........ Varied modern award must be published........................................ 166

Part 2‑4—Enterprise agreements                                                                              167

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        167

169........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 167

170........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 168

171........ Objects of this Part......................................................................... 168

Division 2—Employers and employees may make enterprise agreements        170

172........ Making an enterprise agreement..................................................... 170

Division 3—Bargaining and representation during bargaining          172

173........ Notice of employee representational rights.................................... 172

174........ Content of notice of employee representational rights.................. 173

176........ Bargaining representatives for proposed enterprise agreements that are not greenfields agreements      174

178........ Appointment of bargaining representatives—other matters.......... 176

178A..... Revocation of appointment of bargaining representatives etc........ 176

Division 4—Approval of enterprise agreements                                       178

Subdivision A—Pre‑approval steps and applications for FWA approval       178

180........ Employees must be given a copy of a proposed enterprise agreement etc.            178

181........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed enterprise agreement 179

182........ When an enterprise agreement is made........................................... 179

183........ Entitlement of an employee organisation to have an enterprise agreement cover it                180

184........ Multi‑enterprise agreement to be varied if not all employees approve the agreement            181

185........ Bargaining representative must apply for FWA approval of an enterprise agreement           181

Subdivision B—Approval of enterprise agreements by FWA                         182

186........ When FWA must approve an enterprise agreement—general requirements           182

187........ When FWA must approve an enterprise agreement—additional requirements       184

188........ When employees have genuinely agreed to an enterprise agreement 185

189........ FWA may approve an enterprise agreement that does not pass better off overall test—public interest test        186

190........ FWA may approve an enterprise agreement with undertakings.... 187

191........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 187

192........ When FWA may refuse to approve an enterprise agreement......... 188

Subdivision C—Better off overall test                                                                 188

193........ Passing the better off overall test................................................... 188

Subdivision D—Unlawful terms                                                                            190

194........ Meaning of unlawful term............................................................... 190

195........ Meaning of discriminatory term..................................................... 191

Subdivision E—Approval requirements relating to particular kinds of employees            192

196........ Shiftworkers................................................................................... 192

197........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement includes pieceworker term... 192

198........ Pieceworkers—enterprise agreement does not include a pieceworker term            193

199........ School‑based apprentices and school‑based trainees...................... 193

200........ Outworkers..................................................................................... 194

Subdivision F—Other matters                                                                              194

201........ Approval decision to note certain matters..................................... 194

Division 5—Mandatory terms of enterprise agreements                     196

202........ Enterprise agreements to include a flexibility term etc................... 196

203........ Requirements to be met by a flexibility term................................. 197

204........ Effect of arrangement that does not meet requirements of flexibility term              198

205........ Enterprise agreements to include a consultation term etc............... 199

Division 6—Base rate of pay under enterprise agreements               200

206........ Base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement must not be less than the modern award rate or the national minimum wage order rate etc.......................................................................... 200

Division 7—Variation and termination of enterprise agreements    201

Subdivision A—Variation of enterprise agreements by employers and employees            201

207........ Variation of an enterprise agreement may be made by employers and employees 201

208........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed variation of an enterprise agreement         202

209........ When a variation of an enterprise agreement is made..................... 202

210........ Application for FWA approval of a variation of an enterprise agreement              202

211........ When FWA must approve a variation of an enterprise agreement. 203

212........ FWA may approve a variation of an enterprise agreement with undertakings        205

213........ Effect of undertakings..................................................................... 206

214........ When FWA may refuse to approve a variation of an enterprise agreement            206

215........ Approval decision to note undertakings......................................... 207

216........ When variation comes into operation............................................. 207

Subdivision B—Variations of enterprise agreements where there is ambiguity, uncertainty or discrimination        207

217........ Variation of an enterprise agreement to remove an ambiguity or uncertainty         207

217A..... FWA may deal with certain disputes about variations.................. 207

218........ Variation of an enterprise agreement on referral by HREOC......... 208

Subdivision C—Termination of enterprise agreements by employers and employees       209

219........ Employers and employees may agree to terminate an enterprise agreement           209

220........ Employers may request employees to approve a proposed termination of an enterprise agreement     209

221........ When termination of an enterprise agreement is agreed to............. 210

222........ Application for FWA approval of a termination of an enterprise agreement          210

223........ When FWA must approve a termination of an enterprise agreement 211

224........ When termination comes into operation......................................... 211

Subdivision D—Termination of enterprise agreements after nominal expiry date            211

225........ Application for termination of an enterprise agreement after its nominal expiry date            211

226........ When FWA must terminate an enterprise agreement..................... 212

227........ When termination comes into operation......................................... 212

Division 8—FWA’s general role in facilitating bargaining                   213

Subdivision A—Bargaining orders                                                                     213

228........ Bargaining representatives must meet the good faith bargaining requirements        213

229........ Applications for bargaining orders................................................. 213

230........ When FWA may make a bargaining order...................................... 215

231........ What a bargaining order must specify............................................ 216

232........ Operation of a bargaining order...................................................... 217

233........ Contravening a bargaining order...................................................... 217

Subdivision B—Serious breach declarations                                                    218

234........ Applications for serious breach declarations.................................. 218

235........ When FWA may make a serious breach declaration....................... 218

Subdivision C—Majority support determinations and scope orders             220

236........ Majority support determinations................................................... 220

237........ When FWA must make a majority support determination............ 220

238........ Scope orders................................................................................... 221

239........ Operation of a scope order............................................................. 223

Subdivision D—FWA may deal with a bargaining dispute on request          223

240........ Application for FWA to deal with a bargaining dispute................ 223

Division 9—Low‑paid bargaining                                                                       225

241........ Objects of this Division.................................................................. 225

242........ Low‑paid authorisations................................................................. 225

243........ When FWA must make a low‑paid authorisation.......................... 226

244........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—general............................... 228

245........ Variation of low‑paid authorisations—enterprise agreement etc. comes into operation         228

246........ FWA assistance for the low‑paid................................................... 229

Division 10—Single interest employer authorisations                           230

Subdivision A—Declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement    230

247........ Ministerial declaration that employers may bargain together for a proposed enterprise agreement       230

Subdivision B—Single interest employer authorisations                               231

248........ Single interest employer authorisations.......................................... 231

249........ When FWA must make a single interest employer authorisation.. 231

250........ What a single interest employer authorisation must specify......... 232

251........ Variation of single interest employer authorisations...................... 233

252........ Variation to extend period single interest employer authorisation is in operation  234

Division 11—Other matters                                                                                  235

253........ Terms of an enterprise agreement that are of no effect.................. 235

254........ Applications by bargaining representatives................................... 235

255........ Part does not empower FWA to make certain orders.................... 236

256........ Prospective employers and employees.......................................... 236

256A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described        236

257........ Enterprise agreements may incorporate material in force from time to time etc.    237

Part 2‑5—Workplace determinations                                                                      238

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        238

258........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 238

259........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 239

Division 2—Low‑paid workplace determinations                                      240

260........ Applications for low‑paid workplace determinations.................... 240

261........ When FWA must make a consent low‑paid workplace determination 241

262........ When FWA must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—general requirements                241

263........ When FWA must make a special low‑paid workplace determination—additional requirements            242

264........ Terms etc. of a low‑paid workplace determination........................ 243

265........ No other terms................................................................................ 244

Division 3—Industrial action related workplace determinations      245

266........ When FWA must make an industrial action related workplace determination        245

267........ Terms etc. of an industrial action related workplace determination 246

268........ No other terms................................................................................ 247

Division 4—Bargaining related workplace determinations                 248

269........ When FWA must make a bargaining related workplace determination 248

270........ Terms etc. of a bargaining related workplace determination........... 249

271........ No other terms................................................................................ 250

Division 5—Core terms, mandatory terms and agreed terms of workplace determinations etc.            251

272........ Core terms of workplace determinations........................................ 251

273........ Mandatory terms of workplace determinations............................. 252

274........ Agreed terms for workplace determinations................................... 253

275........ Factors FWA must take into account in deciding terms of a workplace determination          253

Division 6—Operation, coverage and interaction etc. of workplace determinations     255

276........ When a workplace determination operates etc............................... 255

277........ Employers, employees and employee organisations covered by a workplace determination 255

278........ Interaction of a workplace determination with enterprise agreements etc.              256

279........ Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement     257

Division 7—Other matters                                                                                    258

280........ Contravening a workplace determination....................................... 258

281........ Applications by bargaining representatives................................... 258

281A..... How employees, employers and employee organisations are to be described        258

Part 2‑6—Minimum wages                                                                                            260

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        260

282........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 260

283........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 261

Division 2—Overarching provisions                                                                262

284........ The minimum wages objective........................................................ 262

Division 3—Annual wage reviews                                                                     264

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                          264

285........ Annual wage reviews to be conducted............................................ 264

286........ When annual wage review determinations varying modern awards come into operation        264

287........ When national minimum wage orders come into operation etc...... 265

Subdivision B—Provisions about conduct of annual wage reviews                267

288........ General............................................................................................ 267

289........ Everyone to have a reasonable opportunity to make and comment on submissions              267

290........ President may direct investigations and reports............................. 268

291........ Research must be published........................................................... 268

292........ Varied wage rates must be published by 1 July............................. 269

Division 4—National minimum wage orders                                                270

293........ Contravening a national minimum wage order................................ 270

294........ Content of national minimum wage order—main provisions......... 270

295........ Content of national minimum wage order—other matters............. 271

296........ Variation of national minimum wage order to remove ambiguity or uncertainty or correct error            272

297........ When determinations varying national minimum wage orders come into operation                272

298........ Special rule about retrospective variations of national minimum wage orders        273

299........ When a national minimum wage order is in operation.................... 273

Part 2‑7—Equal remuneration                                                                                     274

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        274

300........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 274

301........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 274

Division 2—Equal remuneration orders                                                         275

302........ FWA may make an order requiring equal remuneration................. 275

303........ Equal remuneration order may increase, but must not reduce, rates of remuneration             276

304........ Equal remuneration order may implement equal remuneration in stages 276

305........ Contravening an equal remuneration order..................................... 276

306........ Inconsistency with modern awards, enterprise agreements and orders of FWA     276

Part 2‑8—Transfer of business                                                                                   277

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        277

307........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 277

308........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 277

309........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 277

Division 2—Transfer of instruments                                                                279

310........ Application of this Division........................................................... 279

311........ When does a transfer of business occur.......................................... 279

312........ Instruments that may transfer........................................................ 281

313........ Transferring employees and new employer covered by transferable instrument    281

314........ New non‑transferring employees of new employer may be covered by transferable instrument           282

315........ Organisations covered by transferable instrument......................... 282

316........ Transferring employees who are high income employees.............. 283

Division 3—Powers of FWA                                                                                 285

317........ FWA may make orders in relation to a transfer of business.......... 285

318........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and transferring employees               285

319........ Orders relating to instruments covering new employer and non‑transferring employees       286

320........ Variation of transferable instruments............................................. 288

Part 2‑9—Other terms and conditions of employment                                   291

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        291

321........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 291

322........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 291

Division 2—Payment of wages                                                                             292

323........ Method and frequency of payment................................................ 292

324........ Permitted deductions...................................................................... 292

325........ Unreasonable requirements to spend amount................................. 293

326........ Certain terms have no effect........................................................... 293

327........ Things given or provided, and amounts required to be spent, in contravention of this Division            294

Division 3—Guarantee of annual earnings                                                    295

328........ Employer obligations in relation to guarantee of annual earnings... 295

329........ High income employee................................................................... 296

330........ Guarantee of annual earnings and annual rate of guarantee............. 296

331........ Guaranteed period.......................................................................... 297

332........ Earnings.......................................................................................... 297

333........ High income threshold.................................................................... 299

333A..... Prospective employees................................................................... 299

Chapter 3—Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc.        300

Part 3‑1—General protections                                                                                     300

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        300

334........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 300

335........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 300

336........ Objects of this Part......................................................................... 301

Division 2—Application of this Part                                                                  302

337........ Application of this Part.................................................................. 302

338........ Action to which this Part applies................................................... 302

339........ Additional effect of this Part.......................................................... 303

Division 3—Workplace rights                                                                              304

340........ Protection....................................................................................... 304

341........ Meaning of workplace right........................................................... 304

342........ Meaning of adverse action............................................................. 306

343........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 308

344........ Undue influence or pressure........................................................... 309

345........ Misrepresentations......................................................................... 309

Division 4—Industrial activities                                                                         310

346........ Protection....................................................................................... 310

347........ Meaning of engages in industrial activity....................................... 310

348........ Coercion.......................................................................................... 311

349........ Misrepresentations......................................................................... 311

350........ Inducements—membership action................................................. 311

Division 5—Other protections                                                                            313

351........ Discrimination................................................................................ 313

352........ Temporary absence—illness or injury........................................... 314

353........ Bargaining services fees.................................................................. 314

354........ Coverage by particular instruments................................................ 314

355........ Coercion—allocation of duties etc. to particular person................ 315

356........ Objectionable terms........................................................................ 315

Division 6—Sham arrangements                                                                        316

357........ Misrepresenting employment as independent contracting arrangement  316

358........ Dismissing to engage as independent contractor............................ 316

359........ Misrepresentation to engage as independent contractor................ 316

Division 7—Ancillary rules                                                                                    318

360........ Multiple reasons for action............................................................ 318

361........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise.......... 318

362........ Advising, encouraging, inciting or coercing action.......................... 318

363........ Actions of industrial associations................................................... 318

364........ Unincorporated industrial associations.......................................... 320

Division 8—Compliance                                                                                          321

Subdivision A—Contraventions involving dismissal                                        321

365........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute................................. 321

366........ Time for application....................................................................... 321

367........ Application fees............................................................................. 321

368........ Conferences.................................................................................... 322

369........ Certificate if dispute not resolved.................................................. 322

370........ Advice on general protections court application............................ 322

371........ General protections court applications.......................................... 322

Subdivision B—Other contraventions                                                                 323

372........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute................................. 323

373........ Application fees............................................................................. 323

374........ Conferences.................................................................................... 323

375........ Advice on general protections court application............................ 324

Subdivision C—Conference costs                                                                        324

376........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................ 324

377........ Applications for costs orders......................................................... 325

378........ Contravening costs orders.............................................................. 325

Part 3‑2—Unfair dismissal                                                                                             326

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        326

379........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 326

380........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 326

381........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 326

Division 2—Protection from unfair dismissal                                              328

382........ When a person is protected from unfair dismissal......................... 328

383........ Meaning of minimum employment period...................................... 328

384........ Period of employment.................................................................... 328

Division 3—What is an unfair dismissal                                                          330

385........ What is an unfair dismissal............................................................. 330

386........ Meaning of dismissed..................................................................... 330

387........ Criteria for considering harshness etc............................................. 331

388........ The Small Business Fair Dismissal Code....................................... 331

389........ Meaning of genuine redundancy..................................................... 332

Division 4—Remedies for unfair dismissal                                                   333

390........ When FWA may order remedy for unfair dismissal....................... 333

391........ Remedy—reinstatement etc........................................................... 333

392........ Remedy—compensation................................................................ 335

393........ Monetary orders may be in instalments......................................... 336

Division 5—Procedural matters                                                                          337

394........ Application for unfair dismissal remedy........................................ 337

395........ Application fees............................................................................. 337

396........ Initial matters to be considered before merits................................. 338

397........ Matters involving contested facts.................................................. 338

398........ Conferences.................................................................................... 338

399........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 339

400........ Appeal rights.................................................................................. 339

401........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................ 339

402........ Applications for costs orders......................................................... 340

403........ Schedule of costs............................................................................ 340

404........ Security for costs............................................................................ 341

405........ Contravening orders under this Part............................................... 341

Part 3‑3—Industrial action                                                                                             342

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        342

406........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 342

407........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 343

Division 2—Protected industrial action                                                          344

Subdivision A—What is protected industrial action                                        344

408........ Protected industrial action.............................................................. 344

409........ Employee claim action.................................................................... 344

410........ Employee response action.............................................................. 345

411........ Employer response action.............................................................. 346

412........ Pattern bargaining........................................................................... 346

Subdivision B—Common requirements for industrial action to be protected industrial action       348

413........ Common requirements that apply for industrial action to be protected industrial action       348

414........ Notice requirements for industrial action....................................... 349

Subdivision C—Significance of industrial action being protected industrial action          350

415........ Immunity provision........................................................................ 350

416........ Employer response action—employer may refuse to make payments to employees            351

416A..... Employer response action does not affect continuity of employment 351

Division 3—No industrial action before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.       352

417........ Industrial action must not be organised or engaged in before nominal expiry date of enterprise agreement etc.     352

Division 4—FWA orders stopping etc. industrial action                       354

418........ FWA must order that industrial action by employees or employers stop etc.       354

419........ FWA must order that industrial action by non‑national system employees or non‑national system employers stop etc......................................................................................................... 355

420........ Interim orders etc............................................................................ 355

421........ Contravening an order etc............................................................... 356

Division 5—Injunction against industrial action if pattern bargaining is being engaged in         358

422........ Injunction against industrial action if a bargaining representative is engaging in pattern bargaining        358

Division 6—Suspension or termination of protected industrial action by FWA                359

423........ FWA may suspend or terminate protected industrial action—significant economic harm etc.               359

424........ FWA must suspend or terminate protected industrial action—endangering life etc.              361

425........ FWA must suspend protected industrial action—cooling off........ 362

426........ FWA must suspend protected industrial action—significant harm to a third party               362

427........ FWA must specify the period of suspension................................ 363

428........ Extension of a period of suspension............................................... 364

429........ Employee claim action without a further protected action ballot after a period of suspension etc.       364

430........ Notice of employee claim action engaged in after a period of suspension etc.        365

Division 7—Ministerial declarations                                                                366

431........ Ministerial declaration terminating industrial action...................... 366

432........ Informing people of declaration...................................................... 366

433........ Ministerial directions to remove or reduce threat........................... 366

434........ Contravening a Ministerial direction.............................................. 367

Division 8—Protected action ballots                                                                368

Subdivision A—Introduction                                                                                 368

435........ Guide to this Division.................................................................... 368

436........ Object of this Division................................................................... 368

Subdivision B—Protected action ballot orders                                                  369

437........ Application for a protected action ballot order.............................. 369

438........ Restriction on when application may be made............................... 370

439........ Joint applications........................................................................... 370

440........ Notice of application...................................................................... 370

441........ Application to be determined within 2 days after it is made......... 371

442........ Dealing with multiple applications together................................... 371

443........ When FWA must make a protected action ballot order................. 371

444........ FWA may decide on ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission and independent advisor        372

445........ Notice of protected action ballot order........................................... 373

446........ Protected action ballot order may require 2 or more protected action ballots to be held at the same time             373

447........ Variation of protected action ballot order....................................... 374

448........ Revocation of protected action ballot order................................... 374

Subdivision C—Conduct of protected action ballot                                           374

449........ Protected action ballot to be conducted by Australian Electoral Commission or other specified ballot agent        374

450........ Directions for conduct of protected action ballot........................... 375

451........ Timetable for protected action ballot............................................. 376

452........ Compilation of roll of voters.......................................................... 376

453........ Who is eligible to be included on the roll of voters......................... 377

454........ Variation of roll of voters............................................................... 377

455........ Protected action ballot papers........................................................ 379

456........ Who may vote in protected action ballot....................................... 379

457........ Results of protected action ballot................................................... 379

458........ Report about conduct of protected action ballot............................ 380

Subdivision D—Effect of protected action ballot                                                381

459........ Circumstances in which industrial action is authorised by protected action ballot 381

460........ Immunity for persons who act in good faith on protected action ballot results      382

461........ Validity of protected action ballot etc. not affected by technical breaches             383

Subdivision E—Compliance                                                                                   383

462........ Interferences etc. with protected action ballot............................... 383

463........ Contravening a protected action ballot order etc............................ 385

Subdivision F—Liability for costs of protected action ballot                           386

464........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission            386

465........ Costs of protected action ballot conducted by protected action ballot agent other than the Australian Electoral Commission.................................................................................... 386

466........ Costs of legal challenges................................................................. 387

Subdivision G—Miscellaneous                                                                             387

467........ Information about employees on roll of voters not to be disclosed 387

468........ Records........................................................................................... 388

469........ Regulations..................................................................................... 388

Division 9—Payments relating to periods of industrial action            389

Subdivision A—Protected industrial action                                                       389

470........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action                389

471........ Payments relating to partial work bans.......................................... 390

472........ Orders by FWA relating to certain partial work bans.................... 392

473........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action  393

Subdivision B—Industrial action that is not protected industrial action      393

474........ Payments not to be made relating to certain periods of industrial action                393

475........ Accepting or seeking payments relating to periods of industrial action  394

Subdivision CMiscellaneous                                                                             395

476........ Other responses to industrial action unaffected............................. 395

Division 10—Other matters                                                                                  396

477........ Applications by bargaining representatives................................... 396

Part 3‑4—Right of entry                                                                                                  397

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        397

478........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 397

479........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 397

480........ Object of this Part.......................................................................... 397

Division 2—Entry rights under this Act                                                         399

Subdivision A—Entry to investigate suspected contravention                        399

481........ Entry to investigate suspected contravention................................ 399

482........ Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................ 399

483........ Later access to record or document................................................ 401

483AA.. Application to FWA for access to non‑member records................ 402

Subdivision AA—Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF outworkers          402

483A..... Entry to investigate suspected contravention relating to TCF outworkers             402

483B..... Rights that may be exercised while on premises............................ 403

483C..... Later access to record or document................................................ 404

483D..... Entry onto other premises to access records and documents......... 405

483E...... Later access to record or document—other premises..................... 406

Subdivision B—Entry to hold discussions                                                          407

484........ Entry to hold discussions............................................................... 407

Subdivision C—Requirements for permit holders                                            407

486........ Permit holder must not contravene this Subdivision...................... 407

487........ Giving entry notice or exemption certificate.................................. 408

488........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................ 408

489........ Producing authority documents...................................................... 409

490........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 409

491........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................. 410

492........ Conduct of interviews in particular room etc................................. 410

493........ Residential premises....................................................................... 411

Division 3—State or Territory OHS rights                                                   412

494........ Official must be permit holder to exercise State or Territory OHS right 412

495........ Giving notice of entry..................................................................... 413

496........ Contravening entry permit conditions............................................ 414

497........ Producing entry permit................................................................... 414

498........ When right may be exercised.......................................................... 414

499........ Occupational health and safety requirements................................. 414

Division 4—Prohibitions                                                                                         415

500........ Permit holder must not hinder or obstruct..................................... 415

501........ Person must not refuse or delay entry........................................... 415

502........ Person must not hinder or obstruct permit holder......................... 415

503........ Misrepresentations about things authorised by this Part.............. 415

504........ Unauthorised use or disclosure of information or documents........ 416

Division 5—Powers of FWA                                                                                 418

Subdivision A—Dealing with disputes                                                                418

505........ FWA may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part.... 418

506........ Contravening order made to deal with dispute............................... 419

Subdivision B—Taking action against permit holder                                      419

507........ FWA may take action against permit holder.................................. 419

Subdivision C—Restricting rights of organisations and officials where misuse of rights              419

508........ FWA may restrict rights if organisation or official has misused rights 419

509........ Contravening order made for misuse of rights................................ 420

Subdivision D—When FWA must revoke or suspend entry permits            421

510........ When FWA must revoke or suspend entry permits...................... 421

Subdivision E—General rules for suspending entry permits                         422

511........ General rules for suspending entry permits................................... 422

Division 6—Entry permits, entry notices and certificates                    423

Subdivision A—Entry permits                                                                              423

512........ FWA may issue entry permits....................................................... 423

513........ Considering application.................................................................. 423

514........ When FWA must not issue permit................................................. 424

515........ Conditions on entry permit............................................................ 424

516........ Expiry of entry permit................................................................... 425

517........ Return of entry permits to FWA................................................... 425

Subdivision B—Entry notices                                                                               426

518........ Entry notice requirements.............................................................. 426

Subdivision C—Exemption certificates                                                               428

519........ Exemption certificates.................................................................... 428

Subdivision D—Affected member certificates                                                   428

520........ Affected member certificates.......................................................... 428

Subdivision E—Miscellaneous                                                                              429

521........ Regulations dealing with instruments under this Part.................... 429

Part 3‑5—Stand down                                                                                                       430

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        430

522........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 430

523........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 430

Division 2—Circumstances allowing stand down                                      431

524........ Employer may stand down employees in certain circumstances... 431

525........ Employee not stood down during a period of authorised leave or absence             432

Division 3—Dealing with disputes                                                                     433

526........ FWA may deal with a dispute about the operation of this Part.... 433

527........ Contravening an FWA order dealing with a dispute about the operation of this Part             433

Part 3‑6—Other rights and responsibilities                                                          434

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        434

528........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 434

529........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 434

Division 2—Notification and consultation relating to certain dismissals              435

Subdivision A—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                           435

530........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed dismissals..... 435

Subdivision B—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations  436

531........ FWA may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about dismissals     436

532........ Orders that FWA may make.......................................................... 437

533........ Application for FWA order............................................................ 438

Subdivision C—Limits on scope of this Division                                               438

534........ Limits on scope of this Division.................................................... 438

Division 3—Employer obligations in relation to employee records and pay slips           439

535........ Employer obligations in relation to employee records................... 439

536........ Employer obligations in relation to pay slips................................ 439

Chapter 4—Compliance and enforcement                                                            440

Part 4‑1—Civil remedies                                                                                                 440

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        440

537........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 440

538........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 440

Division 2—Orders                                                                                                    441

Subdivision A—Applications for orders                                                             441

539........ Applications for orders in relation to contraventions of civil remedy provisions   441

540........ Limitations on who may apply for orders etc................................ 451

541........ Applications for orders in relation to safety net contractual entitlements              453

542........ Entitlements under contracts.......................................................... 453

543........ Applications for orders in relation to statutory entitlements derived from contracts             454

544........ Time limit on applications.............................................................. 454

Subdivision B—Orders                                                                                          454

545........ Orders that can be made by particular courts................................. 454

546........ Pecuniary penalty orders................................................................ 456

547........ Interest up to judgment.................................................................. 457

Division 3—Small claims procedure                                                                 458

548........ Plaintiffs may choose small claims procedure................................ 458

Division 4—General provisions relating to civil remedies                  460

549........ Contravening a civil remedy provision is not an offence................ 460

550........ Involvement in contravention treated in same way as actual contravention            460

551........ Civil evidence and procedure rules for proceedings relating to civil remedy provisions         460

552........ Civil proceedings after criminal proceedings.................................. 460

553........ Criminal proceedings during civil proceedings................................ 461

554........ Criminal proceedings after civil proceedings.................................. 461

555........ Evidence given in proceedings for pecuniary penalty not admissible in criminal proceedings                461

556........ Civil double jeopardy..................................................................... 462

557........ Course of conduct........................................................................... 462

558........ Regulations dealing with infringement notices................................ 463

Division 5—Unclaimed money                                                                             464

559........ Unclaimed money........................................................................... 464

Part 4‑2—Jurisdiction and powers of courts                                                        465

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        465

560........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 465

561........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 465

Division 2—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court                  466

562........ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Court.................................. 466

563........ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Court 466

564........ No limitation on Federal Court’s powers....................................... 467

565........ Appeals from eligible State or Territory courts............................. 467

Division 3—Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Magistrates Court               468

566........ Conferring jurisdiction on the Federal Magistrates Court.............. 468

567........ Exercising jurisdiction in the Fair Work Division of the Federal Magistrates Court               468

568........ No limitation on Federal Magistrates Court’s powers................... 468

Division 4—Miscellaneous                                                                                    469

569........ Minister’s entitlement to intervene................................................ 469

570........ Costs only if proceedings instituted vexatiously etc...................... 469

571........ No imprisonment for failure to pay pecuniary penalty................. 470

572........ Regulations dealing with matters relating to court proceedings...... 470

Chapter 5—Administration                                                                                            471

Part 5‑1—Fair Work Australia                                                                                    471

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        471

573........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 471

574........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 472

Division 2—Establishment and functions of Fair Work Australia    473

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions of Fair Work Australia         473

575........ Establishment of Fair Work Australia............................................ 473

576........ Functions of FWA.......................................................................... 473

577........ Performance of functions etc. by FWA.......................................... 474

578........ Matters FWA must take into account in performing functions etc. 474

579........ FWA has privileges and immunities of the Crown......................... 475

580........ Protection of FWA Members......................................................... 475

Subdivision B—Functions and powers of the President                                   475

581........ Functions of the President.............................................................. 475

582........ Directions by the President............................................................ 475

583........ President not subject to direction................................................... 476

584........ Delegation of functions and powers of the President..................... 476

Division 3—Conduct of matters before FWA                                              478

Subdivision A—Applications to FWA                                                                  478

585........ Applications in accordance with procedural rules.......................... 478

586........ Correcting and amending applications and documents etc............. 478

587........ Dismissing applications.................................................................. 478

588........ Discontinuing applications............................................................. 479

Subdivision B—Conduct of matters before FWA                                              479

589........ Procedural and interim decisions.................................................... 479

590........ Powers of FWA to inform itself..................................................... 479

591........ FWA not bound by rules of evidence and procedure..................... 480

592........ Conferences.................................................................................... 480

593........ Hearings.......................................................................................... 480

594........ Confidential evidence...................................................................... 481

595........ FWA’s power to deal with disputes.............................................. 481

Subdivision C—Representation by lawyers and paid agents and Minister’s entitlement to make submissions           482

596........ Representation by lawyers and paid agents................................... 482

597........ Minister’s entitlement to make submissions.................................. 483

Subdivision D—Decisions of FWA                                                                      483

598........ Decisions of FWA.......................................................................... 483

599........ FWA not required to decide an application in terms applied for... 484

600........ Determining matters in the absence of a person............................. 484

601........ Writing and publication requirements for FWA’s decisions.......... 484

602........ Correcting obvious errors etc. in relation to FWA’s decisions....... 485

603........ Varying and revoking FWA’s decisions......................................... 486

Subdivision E—Appeals, reviews and referring questions of law                   487

604........ Appeal of decisions........................................................................ 487

605........ Minister’s entitlement to apply for review of a decision............... 487

606........ Staying decisions that are appealed or reviewed............................ 488

607........ Process for appealing or reviewing decisions................................. 488

608........ Referring questions of law to the Federal Court............................. 489

Subdivision F—Miscellaneous                                                                              489

609........ Procedural rules.............................................................................. 489

610........ Regulations dealing with FWA matters.......................................... 490

611........ Costs............................................................................................... 490

Division 4—Organisation of FWA                                                                     492

Subdivision A—Functions etc. to be performed by a single FWA Member, a Full Bench or the Minimum Wage Panel                                                                                                       492

612........ FWA functions etc. may generally be performed by single FWA Member            492

613........ Appeal of decisions to be heard by a Full Bench, the President or a Deputy President         492

614........ Review of decisions by a Full Bench.............................................. 493

615........ FWA functions etc. performed by a Full Bench on direction by the President      493

616........ FWA functions etc. that must be performed by a Full Bench....... 493

617........ FWA functions etc. that must be performed by the Minimum Wage Panel           494

Subdivision B—Constitution of FWA by a single FWA Member, a Full Bench or the Minimum Wage Panel             494

618........ Constitution and decision‑making of a Full Bench......................... 494

619........ Seniority of FWA Members........................................................... 495

620........ Constitution and decision‑making of the Minimum Wage Panel.... 495

621........ Reconstitution of FWA when single FWA Member becomes unavailable              496

622........ Reconstitution of FWA when FWA Member of a Full Bench or the Minimum Wage Panel becomes unavailable........................................................................................................ 496

623........ When new FWA Members begin to deal with matters.................. 497

624........ FWA’s decisions not invalid when improperly constituted.......... 497

Subdivision C—Delegation of FWA’s functions and powers                          497

625........ Delegation by the President of functions and powers of FWA..... 497

Division 5—FWA Members                                                                                 499

Subdivision A—Appointment of FWA Members                                               499

626........ Appointment of FWA Members................................................... 499

627........ Qualifications for appointment of FWA Members........................ 499

628........ Basis of appointment of FWA Members....................................... 501

629........ Period of appointment of FWA Members..................................... 501

Subdivision B—Terms and conditions of FWA Members                               502

629A..... Status of the President.................................................................... 502

630........ Appointment of a Judge not to affect tenure etc............................ 502

631........ Dual federal and State appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners     502

632........ Dual federal and Territory appointments of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners              503

633........ Outside employment of FWA Members....................................... 503

634........ Oath or affirmation of office........................................................... 503

635........ Remuneration of the President....................................................... 504

636........ Application of Judges’ Pensions Act to the President................... 504

637........ Remuneration of FWA Members other than the President............ 505

638........ Remuneration of Deputy Presidents or Commissioners performing duties on a part‑time basis           506

639........ Leave of absence of FWA Members other than the President....... 507

640........ Disclosure of interests by FWA Members other than the President 507

641........ Termination of appointment on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity                508

642........ Suspension on grounds of misbehaviour or incapacity.................. 508

643........ Termination of appointment for bankruptcy, etc.......................... 509

644........ Termination of appointment for outside employment................... 509

645........ Resignation of FWA Members....................................................... 510

646........ Other terms and conditions of FWA Members.............................. 510

647........ Appointment of acting President................................................... 510

648........ Appointment of acting Deputy Presidents.................................... 511

Division 6—Cooperation with the States                                                       513

649........ President to cooperate with prescribed State industrial authorities 513

650........ Provision of administrative support............................................... 513

Division 7—Seals and additional powers and functions of the President and the General Manager     514

651........ Seals................................................................................................ 514

652........ Annual report................................................................................. 514

653........ Reports about making enterprise agreements, individual flexibility arrangements etc.            515

653A..... Arrangements with the Federal Court and the Federal Magistrates Court              516

654........ President must provide certain information etc. to the Minister and Fair Work Ombudsman               516

655........ Disclosure of information by FWA................................................ 517

Division 8—General Manager, staff and consultants                              518

Subdivision A—Functions of the General Manager                                         518

656........ Establishment................................................................................. 518

657........ Functions and powers of the General Manager.............................. 518

658........ Directions from the President......................................................... 518

659........ General Manager not otherwise subject to direction...................... 519

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the General Manager               519

660........ Appointment of the General Manager........................................... 519

661........ Remuneration of the General Manager........................................... 519

662........ Leave of absence of the General Manager...................................... 519

663........ Outside employment of the General Manager............................... 520

664........ Disclosure of interests to the President.......................................... 520

665........ Resignation of the General Manager............................................... 520

666........ Termination of appointment of the General Manager.................... 520

667........ Other terms and conditions of the General Manager...................... 521

668........ Appointment of acting General Manager....................................... 521

669........ Minister to consult the President................................................... 521

Subdivision C—Staff and consultants                                                                 522

670........ Staff................................................................................................ 522

671........ Delegation by General Manager to staff......................................... 522

672........ Persons assisting FWA................................................................... 522

673........ Consultants..................................................................................... 522

Division 9—Offences relating to Fair Work Australia                            523

674........ Offences in relation to FWA.......................................................... 523

675........ Contravening an FWA order........................................................... 525

676........ Intimidation etc............................................................................... 525

677........ Offences in relation to attending before FWA................................ 526

678........ False or misleading evidence........................................................... 527

Part 5‑2—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                                528

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        528

679........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 528

680........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 528

Division 2—Fair Work Ombudsman                                                                529

Subdivision A—Establishment and functions and powers of the Fair Work Ombudsman                529

681........ Establishment................................................................................. 529

682........ Functions of the Fair Work Ombudsman....................................... 529

683........ Delegation by the Fair Work Ombudsman..................................... 530

684........ Directions from the Minister.......................................................... 530

685........ Minister may require reports......................................................... 531

686........ Annual report................................................................................. 531

Subdivision B—Appointment and terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman   531

687........ Appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman................................. 531

688........ Remuneration of the Fair Work Ombudsman................................. 532

689........ Leave of absence of the Fair Work Ombudsman............................ 532

690........ Outside employment of the Fair Work Ombudsman..................... 532

691........ Disclosure of interests to the Minister........................................... 532

692........ Resignation of the Fair Work Ombudsman.................................... 532

693........ Termination of appointment of the Fair Work Ombudsman......... 533

694........ Other terms and conditions of the Fair Work Ombudsman........... 533

695........ Appointment of acting Fair Work Ombudsman............................. 533

Division 3—Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman                                    535

Subdivision A—Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 535

696........ Establishment of the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman........... 535

Subdivision B—Staff and consultants etc.                                                          535

697........ Staff................................................................................................ 535

698........ Persons assisting the Fair Work Ombudsman................................ 535

699........ Consultants..................................................................................... 536

Subdivision C—Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors                                   536

700........ Appointment of Fair Work Inspectors.......................................... 536

701........ Fair Work Ombudsman is a Fair Work Inspector.......................... 536

702........ Identity cards.................................................................................. 536

Subdivision D—Functions and powers of Fair Work Inspectors                   537

703........ Conditions and restrictions on functions and powers.................... 537

704........ General directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman......................... 538

705........ Particular directions by the Fair Work Ombudsman...................... 538

706........ Purpose for which powers of inspectors may be exercised........... 538

707........ When powers of inspectors may be exercised................................ 539

708........ Power of inspectors to enter premises........................................... 539

709........ Powers of inspectors while on premises........................................ 539

710........ Persons assisting inspectors........................................................... 540

711........ Power to ask for person’s name and address................................. 540

712........ Power to require persons to produce records or documents.......... 541

713........ Self‑incrimination [see Note 4]....................................................... 541

713A..... Certain records and documents are inadmissible............................ 542

714........ Power to keep records or documents............................................. 542

715........ Enforceable undertakings relating to contraventions of civil remedy provisions     543

716........ Compliance notices......................................................................... 544

717........ Review of compliance notices........................................................ 546

Subdivision E—Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman  546

718........ Disclosure of information by the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman 546

Chapter 6—Miscellaneous                                                                                            548

Part 6‑1—Multiple actions                                                                                             548

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        548

719........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 548

720........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 548

Division 2—Certain actions not permitted if alternative action can be taken    549

721........ Equal remuneration applications.................................................... 549

722........ Notification and consultation requirements applications............... 549

723........ Unlawful termination applications................................................. 550

Division 3—Preventing multiple actions                                                        551

Subdivision A—Equal remuneration applications                                             551

724........ Equal remuneration applications.................................................... 551

Subdivision B—Applications and complaints relating to dismissal              552

725........ General rule..................................................................................... 552

726........ Dismissal remedy bargaining order applications............................ 552

727........ General protections FWA applications.......................................... 552

728........ General protections court applications.......................................... 553

729........ Unfair dismissal applications......................................................... 553

730........ Unlawful termination FWA applications....................................... 553

731........ Unlawful termination court applications........................................ 554

732........ Applications and complaints under other laws.............................. 554

733........ Dismissal does not include failure to provide benefits................... 555

Subdivision C—General protections applications that do not relate to dismissal               555

734........ General rule..................................................................................... 555

Part 6‑2—Dealing with disputes                                                                                 556

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        556

735........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 556

736........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 556

Division 2—Dealing with disputes                                                                     557

Subdivision A—Model term about dealing with disputes                                 557

737........ Model term about dealing with disputes........................................ 557

Subdivision B—Dealing with disputes                                                                557

738........ Application of this Division........................................................... 557

739........ Disputes dealt with by FWA......................................................... 557

740........ Dispute dealt with by persons other than FWA............................ 558

Part 6‑3—Extension of National Employment Standards entitlements 560

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        560

741........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 560

742........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 560

Division 2—Extension of entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements          561

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                          561

743........ Object of this Division................................................................... 561

744........ Extending the entitlement to unpaid parental leave and related entitlements          561

745........ Contravening the extended parental leave provisions..................... 562

746........ References to the National Employment Standards include extended parental leave provisions            563

747........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 563

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended parental leave provisions     563

748........ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees            563

749........ Modification of meaning of base rate of pay for pieceworkers...... 563

750........ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers........ 564

751........ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if determined by State industrial instrument      564

752........ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—if not determined by State industrial instrument               564

753........ Modification of meaning of ordinary hours of work—regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours  564

754........ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................................ 565

755........ Modification of provision about interaction with paid leave......... 565

756........ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements             565

757........ Modification of power to make regulations................................... 565

Division 3—Extension of entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice      567

Subdivision A—Main provisions                                                                          567

758........ Object of this Division................................................................... 567

759........ Extending entitlement to notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice           567

760........ Contravening the extended notice of termination provisions......... 568

761........ References to the National Employment Standards include extended notice of termination provisions 568

762........ State and Territory laws that are not excluded............................... 569

Subdivision B—Modifications of the extended notice of termination provisions 569

763........ Non‑national system employees are not award/agreement free employees            569

764........ Modification of meaning of full rate of pay for pieceworkers........ 569

765........ Modification of meaning of pieceworker........................................ 569

766........ Modification of provision about notice of termination by employee 570

767........ Modification of provision about relationship between National Employment Standards and agreements             570

768........ Modification of power to make regulations................................... 570

Part 6‑4—Additional provisions relating to termination of employment 571

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        571

769........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 571

770........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 571

Division 2—Termination of employment                                                       572

771........ Object of this Division................................................................... 572

772........ Employment not to be terminated on certain grounds................... 572

773........ Application for FWA to deal with a dispute................................. 574

774........ Time for application....................................................................... 574

775........ Application fees............................................................................. 574

776........ Conferences.................................................................................... 575

777........ Certificate if dispute not resolved.................................................. 575

778........ Advice on unlawful termination court application......................... 575

779........ Unlawful termination court applications........................................ 575

780........ Costs orders against lawyers and paid agents................................ 576

781........ Applications for costs orders......................................................... 577

782........ Contravening costs orders.............................................................. 577

783........ Reason for action to be presumed unless proved otherwise.......... 577

Division 3—Notification and consultation requirements relating to certain terminations of employment                                                                                                                    578

Subdivision A—Object of this Division                                                               578

784........ Object of this Division................................................................... 578

Subdivision B—Requirement to notify Centrelink                                           578

785........ Employer to notify Centrelink of certain proposed terminations.. 578

Subdivision C—Failure to notify or consult registered employee associations  579

786........ FWA may make orders where failure to notify or consult registered employee associations about terminations  579

787........ Orders that FWA may make.......................................................... 580

788........ Application to FWA for order....................................................... 581

Subdivision D—Limits on scope of this Division                                               581

789........ Limits on scope of this Division.................................................... 581

Part 6‑5—Miscellaneous                                                                                                583

Division 1—Introduction                                                                                        583

790........ Guide to this Part........................................................................... 583

791........ Meanings of employee and employer.............................................. 583

Division 2—Miscellaneous                                                                                    584

792........ Delegation by Minister................................................................... 584

793........ Liability of bodies corporate.......................................................... 584

794........ Signature on behalf of body corporate............................................ 585

795........ Public sector employer to act through employing authority.......... 585

796........ Regulations—general...................................................................... 587

796A..... Regulations conferring functions.................................................... 587

797........ Regulations dealing with offences................................................... 587

798........ Regulations dealing with civil penalties.......................................... 587

799........ Regulations dealing with infringement notices................................ 587

800........ Regulations dealing with exhibiting fair work instruments............. 588

Notes                                                                                                                                       589


An Act relating to workplace relations, and for related purposes

Chapter 1Introduction

Part 1‑1Introduction

Division 1Preliminary

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Fair Work Act 2009.

2  Commencement

             (1)  Each provision of this Act specified in column 1 of the table commences, or is taken to have commenced, in accordance with column 2 of the table. Any other statement in column 2 has effect according to its terms.

 

Commencement information

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Provision(s)

Commencement

Date/Details

1.  Sections 1 and 2 and anything in this Act not elsewhere covered by this table

The day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent.

7 April 2009

2.  Sections 3 to 40

A single day to be fixed by Proclamation.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

26 May 2009

(see F2009L01818)

3.  Sections 41 to 572

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections 41–43, 50–54, 58,
169–281A,
300–327, 332, 333, 334–572: 1 July 2009
(see F2009L02563)

Sections 44–49, 55–57A,
59–168,
282–299,
328–331, 333A: 1 January 2010
(see F2009L02563)

4.  Sections 573 to 718

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

5.  Sections 719 to 800

A day or days to be fixed by Proclamation.

A Proclamation must not specify a day that occurs before the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent.

However, if any of the provision(s) do not commence within the period of 12 months beginning on the day on which the Fair Work (Transitional Provisions and Consequential Amendments) Act 2009 receives the Royal Assent, they commence on the first day after the end of that period.

Sections
719–740,
769–800: 1 July 2009
(see F2009L02563)

Sections
741–768: 1 January 2010
(see F2009L02563)

6.  Schedule 1

At the same time as the provision(s) covered by table item 2.

26 May 2009

Note:          This table relates only to the provisions of this Act as originally passed by both Houses of the Parliament and assented to. It will not be expanded to deal with provisions inserted in this Act after assent.

             (2)  Column 3 of the table contains additional information that is not part of this Act. Information in this column may be added to or edited in any published version of this Act.


 

Division 2Object of this Act

3  Object of this Act

                   The object of this Act is to provide a balanced framework for cooperative and productive workplace relations that promotes national economic prosperity and social inclusion for all Australians by:

                     (a)  providing workplace relations laws that are fair to working Australians, are flexible for businesses, promote productivity and economic growth for Australia’s future economic prosperity and take into account Australia’s international labour obligations; and

                     (b)  ensuring a guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum terms and conditions through the National Employment Standards, modern awards and national minimum wage orders; and

                     (c)  ensuring that the guaranteed safety net of fair, relevant and enforceable minimum wages and conditions can no longer be undermined by the making of statutory individual employment agreements of any kind given that such agreements can never be part of a fair workplace relations system; and

                     (d)  assisting employees to balance their work and family responsibilities by providing for flexible working arrangements; and

                     (e)  enabling fairness and representation at work and the prevention of discrimination by recognising the right to freedom of association and the right to be represented, protecting against unfair treatment and discrimination, providing accessible and effective procedures to resolve grievances and disputes and providing effective compliance mechanisms; and

                      (f)  achieving productivity and fairness through an emphasis on enterprise‑level collective bargaining underpinned by simple good faith bargaining obligations and clear rules governing industrial action; and

                     (g)  acknowledging the special circumstances of small and medium‑sized businesses.


 

Division 3Guide to this Act

4  Guide to this Act

Overview of this Act

             (1)  This Act is about workplace relations. It:

                     (a)  provides for terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2); and

                     (b)  sets out rights and responsibilities of employees, employers and organisations in relation to that employment (Chapter 3); and

                     (c)  provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act (Chapter 4); and

                     (d)  provides for the administration of this Act by establishing Fair Work Australia and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman (Chapter 5); and

                     (e)  deals with other matters relating to the above (Chapter 6).

Overview of the rest of this Chapter

             (2)  The rest of this Chapter deals with:

                     (a)  definitions that are used in this Act (Part 1‑2); and

                     (b)  the application of this Act (Part 1‑3), including how this Act interacts with certain State and Territory laws and its geographical application.

Definitions

             (3)  Many of the terms in this Act are defined. The Dictionary in section 12 contains a list of every term that is defined in this Act.

5  Terms and conditions of employment (Chapter 2)

             (1)  Chapter 2 provides for terms and conditions of employment of national system employees.

             (2)  Part 2‑1 has the core provisions for the Chapter. It deals with compliance with, and interaction between, the sources of the main terms and conditions provided under this Act—the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

Note:          Workplace determinations are another source of main terms and conditions. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279).

Main terms and conditions

             (3)  Part 2‑2 contains the National Employment Standards, which are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

             (4)  Part 2‑3 is about modern awards. A modern award is made for a particular industry or occupation and provides additional minimum terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A modern award can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (5)  Part 2‑4 is about enterprise agreements. An enterprise agreement is made at the enterprise level and provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. An enterprise agreement can have terms that are ancillary or supplementary to the National Employment Standards.

             (6)  Part 2‑5 is about workplace determinations. A workplace determination provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom it applies. A workplace determination is made by FWA if certain conditions are met.

             (7)  Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements, workplace determinations and other instruments if there is a transfer of business from one national system employer to another national system employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (8)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment for national system employees include those:

                     (a)  provided by a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6) or an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  provided by Part 2‑9 (which deals with the frequency and method of making payments to employees, deductions from payments and high‑income employees).

6  Rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, organisations etc. (Chapter 3)

             (1)  Chapter 3 sets out rights and responsibilities of national system employees, national system employers, organisations and others (such as independent contractors and industrial associations).

             (2)  Part 3‑1 provides general workplace protections. It:

                     (a)  protects workplace rights; and

                     (b)  protects freedom of association and involvement in lawful industrial activities; and

                     (c)  provides other protections, including protection from discrimination.

             (3)  Part 3‑2 deals with unfair dismissal of national system employees, and the granting of remedies when that happens.

             (4)  Part 3‑3 deals mainly with industrial action by national system employees and national system employers and sets out when industrial action is protected industrial action. No action lies under any law in force in a State or Territory in relation to protected industrial action except in certain circumstances.

             (5)  Part 3‑4 is about the rights of officials of organisations who hold entry permits to enter premises for purposes related to their representative role under this Act and under State or Territory OHS laws. In exercising those rights, permit holders must comply with the requirements set out in the Part.

             (6)  Part 3‑5 allows a national system employer to stand down a national system employee without pay in certain circumstances.

             (7)  Part 3‑6 deals with other rights and responsibilities of national system employers in relation to:

                     (a)  termination of employment; and

                     (b)  keeping records and giving payslips.

7  Compliance and enforcement (Chapter 4)

             (1)  Chapter 4 provides for compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act.

             (2)  Part 4‑1 is about civil remedies. Certain provisions in this Act impose obligations on certain persons. Civil remedies may be sought in relation to contraventions of these civil remedy provisions. Part 4‑1:

                     (a)  deals with applications for orders for contraventions of civil remedy provisions; and

                     (b)  sets out the orders the courts can make in relation to a contravention of a civil remedy provision.

             (3)  Part 4‑2 is about the jurisdiction and powers of the courts in relation to matters arising under this Act.

8  Administration (Chapter 5)

             (1)  Chapter 5 provides for the administration of this Act by establishing Fair Work Australia and the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman.

             (2)  Part 5‑1 is about FWA. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on FWA; and

                     (b)  sets out how matters before FWA are to be conducted (for example, how FWA is to deal with applications made to it).

             (3)  Part 5‑2 is about the Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman. It:

                     (a)  establishes and confers functions on the Fair Work Ombudsman; and

                     (b)  confers functions and powers on Fair Work Inspectors.

9  Miscellaneous (Chapter 6)

             (1)  Chapter 6 is a collection of miscellaneous matters that relate to the other Chapters.

             (2)  Part 6‑1 provides rules relating to applications for remedies under this Act. It prevents certain applications if other remedies are available and prevents multiple applications or complaints in relation to the same conduct.

             (3)  Part 6‑2 is about dealing with disputes between national system employees and their employers under modern awards, enterprise agreements and contracts of employment.

             (4)  Part 6‑3 extends the National Employment Standards relating to unpaid parental leave and notice of termination to non‑national system employees.

             (5)  Part 6‑4 contains provisions to give effect, or further effect, to certain international agreements relating to termination of employment.

             (6)  Part 6‑5 deals with miscellaneous matters such as delegations and regulations.


 

Part 1‑2Definitions

Division 1Introduction

10  Guide to this Part

This Part is about the terms that are defined in this Act.

Division 2 has the Dictionary (see section 12). The Dictionary is a list of every term that is defined in this Act. A term will either be defined in the Dictionary itself, or in another provision of this Act. If another provision defines the term, the Dictionary will have a signpost to that definition.

Division 3 has definitions relating to the meanings of employee and employer.

Division 4 has some other definitions that apply across this Act.

11  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.


 

Division 2The Dictionary

12  The Dictionary

                   In this Act:

4 yearly review of modern awards: see subsection 156(1).

access period for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 180(4).

action includes an omission.

adoption‑related leave: see subsection 67(5).

adverse action: see section 342.

affected employees for a variation of an enterprise agreement: see subsection 207(2).

affected employer:

                     (a)  in relation to an entry under Subdivision A of Division 2 of Part 3‑4: see subsection 482(2); and

                    (aa)  in relation to an entry under section 483A other than a designated outworker terms entry: see paragraph 483B(3)(a); and

                    (ab)  in relation to a designated outworker terms entry under section 483A: see paragraph 483B(3)(b); and

                     (b)  in relation to an entry in accordance with Division 3 of Part 3‑4: see paragraph 495(2)(a); and

                     (c)  in relation to a State or Territory OHS right to inspect or otherwise access an employee record: see paragraph 495(2)(b).

affected member certificate: see subsection 520(1).

agreed terms for a workplace determination: see section 274.

agreed to in relation to a termination of an enterprise agreement: see section 221.

annual rate of an employee’s guaranteed annual earnings: see subsection 330(3).

annual wage review: see subsection 285(1).

anti‑discrimination law: see subsection 351(3).

applicable agreement‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(5).

applicable award‑derived long service leave terms: see subsection 113(3).

application or complaint under another law: see subsection 732(2).

applies:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 47; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 52.

applies to employment generally: see subsection 26(4).

appointment of a bargaining representative means an appointment of a bargaining representative under paragraph 176(1)(c) or (d).

appropriate safe job: see subsection 81(4).

approved by FWA, in relation to an enterprise agreement, means approved by FWA under section 186 or 189.

associated entity has the meaning given by section 50AAA of the Corporations Act 2001.

Australian‑based employee: see subsections 35(2) and (3).

Australian employer: see subsection 35(1).

Australian ship means a ship that has Australian nationality under section 29 of the Shipping Registration Act 1981.

authority documents: see subsection 489(3).

available parental leave period: see subsection 75(2).

award/agreement free employee means a national system employee to whom neither a modern award nor an enterprise agreement applies.

award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(4).

award modernisation process means the process of making modern awards under Part 10A of the Workplace Relations Act 1996, as in force immediately before the commencement of Part 2‑3 of this Act (which deals with modern awards).

bargaining order: see subsection 229(1).

bargaining related workplace determination: see subsection 269(1).

bargaining representative for a proposed enterprise agreement: see section 176.

bargaining services: see subsection 353(3).

bargaining services fee: see subsection 353(2).

base rate of pay: see section 16.

birth‑related leave: see subsection 67(4).

child of a person: see subsection 17(1).

civil remedy provision: see subsections 539(1) and (3).

Commissioner means a Commissioner of FWA.

common requirements in relation to industrial action: see section 413.

Commonwealth authority means:

                     (a)  a body corporate established for a public purpose by or under a law of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  a body corporate:

                              (i)  incorporated under a law of the Commonwealth or a State or a Territory; and

                             (ii)  in which the Commonwealth has a controlling interest.

Commonwealth place means a place referred to in paragraph 52(i) of the Constitution, other than the seat of government.

compassionate leave means compassionate leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 104.

compliance powers: see section 703.

compliance purposes: see subsection 706(1).

conduct includes an omission.

conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(5).

connected with a Territory: an arrangement for work to be performed for a person (either directly or indirectly) is connected with a Territory if one or more of the following apply:

                     (a)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a Territory in Australia;

                     (b)  the work is to be performed in such a Territory;

                     (c)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that Territory;

                     (d)  the person carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in such a Territory, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

Note:          In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

consent low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(2).

consistent with the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code: see subsection 388(2).

constitutional corporation means a corporation to which paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution applies.

constitutionally‑covered entity: see subsection 338(2).

constitutional trade or commerce means trade or commerce:

                     (a)  between Australia and a place outside Australia; or

                     (b)  among the States; or

                     (c)  between a State and a Territory; or

                     (d)  between 2 Territories; or

                     (e)  within a Territory.

continental shelf means the continental shelf (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

continuous service has a meaning affected by section 22.

coverage terms in relation to a modern award: see subsection 143(1).

covers:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award: see section 48; and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 53; and

                     (c)  in relation to a workplace determination: see section 277.

day of placement: see subsection 67(6).

de facto partner of a national system employee:

                     (a)  means a person who, although not legally married to the employee, lives with the employee in a relationship as a couple on a genuine domestic basis (whether the employee and the person are of the same sex or different sexes); and

                     (b)  includes a former de facto partner of the employee.

Deputy President means a Deputy President of FWA.

designated outworker term of a modern award, enterprise agreement, workplace determination or other instrument, means any of the following terms, so far as the term relates to outworkers in the textile, clothing or footwear industry:

                     (a)  a term that deals with the registration of an employer or outworker entity;

                     (b)  a term that deals with the making and retaining of, or access to, records about work to which outworker terms of a modern award apply;

                     (c)  a term imposing conditions under which an arrangement may be entered into by an employer or an outworker entity for the performance of work, where the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (d)  a term relating to the liability of an employer or outworker entity for work undertaken by an outworker under such an arrangement, including a term which provides for the outworker to make a claim against an employer or outworker entity;

                     (e)  a term that requires minimum pay or other conditions, including the National Employment Standards, to be applied to an outworker who is not an employee;

                      (f)  any other terms prescribed by the regulations.

designated outworker terms entry: see subsection 483A(5).

Disability Discrimination Commissioner means the Disability Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Disability Discrimination Act 1992.

discriminatory term of an enterprise agreement: see section 195.

dismissal remedy bargaining order application: see subsection 726(2).

dismissed: see section 386.

earnings: see subsections 332(1) and (2).

eligible community service activity: see section 109.

eligible State or Territory court means one of the following courts:

                     (a)  a District, County or Local Court;

                     (b)  a magistrates court;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Court of South Australia;

                     (d)  any other State or Territory court that is prescribed by the regulations.

employee is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employee either as a national system employee or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsection 15(1) and subsection 30E(1).

employee claim action: see section 409 and paragraph 471(4A)(c).

employee couple: 2 national system employees are an employee couple if each of the employees is the spouse or de facto partner of the other.

employee organisation means an organisation of employees.

employee record, in relation to an employee, has the meaning given by the Privacy Act 1988.

employee response action: see section 410 and paragraph 471(4A)(d).

employee with a disability means a national system employee who is qualified for a disability support pension as set out in section 94 or 95 of the Social Security Act 1991, or who would be so qualified but for paragraph 94(1)(e) or 95(1)(c) of that Act.

employer is defined in the first Division of each Part (other than Part 1‑1) in which the term appears.

Note 1:       The definition in the Part will define employer either as a national system employer or as having its ordinary meaning. However, there may be particular provisions in the Part where a different meaning for the term is specified.

Note 2:       If the term has its ordinary meaning, see further subsection 15(2) and subsection 30E(2).

employer organisation means an organisation of employers.

employer response action: see section 411.

employing authority: see subsection 795(6).

engages in industrial activity: see section 347.

enterprise means a business, activity, project or undertaking.

enterprise agreement means:

                     (a)  a single‑enterprise agreement; or

                     (b)  a multi‑enterprise agreement.

entry notice: see subsection 487(2).

entry permit: see section 512.

equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value: see subsection 302(2).

equal remuneration order: see subsection 302(1).

exclusive economic zone means the exclusive economic zone (as defined in the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973) of Australia (including its external Territories).

exemption certificate: see subsection 519(1).

extended notice of termination provisions: see subsection 759(3).

extended parental leave provisions: see subsection 744(3).

Fair Work Australia or FWA means the body established by section 575.

Fair Work Information Statement: see subsection 124(1).

Fair Work Inspector means:

                     (a)  a person appointed as a Fair Work Inspector under section 700; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work Ombudsman in his or her capacity as a Fair Work Inspector under section 701.

fair work instrument means:

                     (a)  a modern award; or

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement; or

                     (c)  a workplace determination; or

                     (d)  an FWA order.

Federal Court means the Federal Court of Australia.

first employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

fixed platform means an artificial island, installation or structure permanently attached to the sea‑bed for the purpose of exploration for, or exploitation of, resources or for other economic purposes.

flexibility term:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see subsection 202(1).

flight crew officer means a person who performs (whether with or without other duties) duties as a pilot, navigator or flight engineer of aircraft, and includes a person being trained for the performance of such duties.

franchise has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

Full Bench means a Full Bench of FWA constituted under section 618.

full rate of pay: see section 18.

FWA: see Fair Work Australia.

FWA Member means the President, a Deputy President, a Commissioner or a Minimum Wage Panel Member.

General Manager means the General Manager of FWA.

general protections court application: see subsection 370(2).

general protections FWA application: see subsection 727(2).

general State industrial law: see subsection 26(3).

genuinely agreed in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 188.

genuine redundancy: see section 389.

good faith bargaining requirements: see section 228.

greenfields agreement: see subsection 172(4).

guaranteed period for a guarantee of annual earnings: see section 331.

guarantee of annual earnings: see subsection 330(1).

high income employee: see section 329.

high income threshold: see section 333.

ILO means the International Labour Organization.

immediate family of a national system employee means:

                     (a)  a spouse, de facto partner, child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of the employee; or

                     (b)  a child, parent, grandparent, grandchild or sibling of a spouse or de facto partner of the employee.

independent advisor for a protected action ballot means the person (if any) specified in the protected action ballot order as the independent advisor for the ballot.

independent contractor is not confined to an individual.

individual flexibility arrangement:

                     (a)  in relation to a modern award—see subsection 144(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to an enterprise agreement—see paragraph 202(1)(a).

industrial action: see section 19.

industrial action related workplace determination: see subsection 266(1).

industrial association means:

                     (a)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, or an association of employers, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a workplace law; or

                     (b)  an association of employees, or independent contractors, or both (whether formed formally or informally), a purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning their employment, or their interests as independent contractors (as the case may be); or

                     (c)  an association of employers a principal purpose of which is the protection and promotion of their interests in matters concerning employment and/or independent contractors;

and includes:

                     (d)  a branch of such an association; and

                     (e)  an organisation; and

                      (f)  a branch of an organisation.

industrial body means:

                     (a)  FWA; or

                     (b)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under an industrial law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on FWA by this Act; or

                     (c)  a court or commission (however described) performing or exercising, under a workplace law, functions and powers corresponding to those conferred on FWA by the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

industrial law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009; or

                     (c)  a law of the Commonwealth, however designated, that regulates the relationships between employers and employees; or

                     (d)  a State or Territory industrial law.

industry‑specific redundancy scheme means redundancy or termination payment arrangements in a modern award that are described in the award as an industry‑specific redundancy scheme.

inspector means a Fair Work Inspector.

involved in: see section 550.

irregularity, in relation to the conduct of a protected action ballot: see subsection 458(6).

junior employee means a national system employee who is under 21.

jury service pay: see subsection 111(6).

jury service summons: see subsection 111(7).

lawyer means a person who is admitted to the legal profession by a Supreme Court of a State or Territory.

lock out: see subsection 19(3).

long term casual employee: a national system employee of a national system employer is a long term casual employee at a particular time if, at that time:

                     (a)  the employee is a casual employee; and

                     (b)  the employee has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis for a sequence of periods of employment during a period of at least 12 months.

low‑paid authorisation: see subsection 242(1).

low‑paid workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a consent low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  a special low‑paid workplace determination.

made:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement: see section 182; and

                     (b)  in relation to a variation of an enterprise agreement: see section 209.

magistrates court means:

                     (a)  a court constituted by a police, stipendiary or special magistrate; or

                     (b)  a court constituted by an industrial magistrate.

majority support determination: see subsection 236(1).

maritime employee means a person who is, or whose occupation is that of, a master as defined in section 6 of the Navigation Act 1912, a seaman as so defined or a pilot as so defined.

medical certificate means a certificate signed by a medical practitioner.

medical practitioner means a person registered, or licensed, as a medical practitioner under a law of a State or Territory that provides for the registration or licensing of medical practitioners.

membership action: see subsection 350(3).

minimum employment period: see section 383.

Minimum Wage Panel means the Minimum Wage Panel of FWA constituted under section 620.

Minimum Wage Panel Member means a Minimum Wage Panel Member of FWA.

minimum wages objective: see subsection 284(1).

miscellaneous modern award: see subsection 163(4).

model consultation term: see subsection 205(3).

model flexibility term: see subsection 202(5).

modern award means a modern award made under Part 2‑3.

modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(3).

modern award powers: see subsection 134(2).

modern awards objective: see subsection 134(1).

modifications includes additions, omissions and substitutions.

multi‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(3).

named employer award: see subsection 312(2).

National Employment Standards: see subsection 61(3).

national minimum wage order means a national minimum wage order made in an annual wage review.

national system employee: see section 13.

Note:          Section 30C extends the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

national system employer: see section 14.

Note:          Section 30D extends the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

new employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

nominal expiry date:

                     (a)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 186, means the date specified in the agreement as its nominal expiry date; or

                     (b)  of an enterprise agreement approved under section 189 (which deals with agreements that do not pass the better off overall test): see subsection 189(4); or

                     (c)  of a workplace determination, means the date specified in the determination as its nominal expiry date.

non‑excluded matters: see subsection 27(2).

non‑member record or document: see subsection 482(2A).

non‑monetary benefits: see subsection 332(3).

non‑national system employee means an employee who is not a national system employee.

non‑national system employer means an employer that is not a national system employer.

non‑transferring employee of a new employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 314(2).

notification time for a proposed enterprise agreement: see subsection 173(2).

objectionable term means a term that:

                     (a)  requires, has the effect of requiring, or purports to require or have the effect of requiring; or

                     (b)  permits, has the effect of permitting, or purports to permit or have the effect of permitting;

either of the following:

                     (c)  a contravention of Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections);

                     (d)  the payment of a bargaining services fee.

occupier, of premises, includes a person in charge of the premises.

office, in an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an office of president, vice president, secretary or assistant secretary of the association; or

                     (b)  the office of a voting member of a collective body of the association, being a collective body that has power in relation to any of the following functions:

                              (i)  the management of the affairs of the association;

                             (ii)  the determination of policy for the association;

                            (iii)  the making, alteration or rescission of rules of the association;

                            (iv)  the enforcement of rules of the association, or the performance of functions in relation to the enforcement of such rules; or

                     (c)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(i) and (iv), other than an office the holder of which participates only in accordance with directions given by a collective body or another person for the purpose of implementing:

                              (i)  existing policy of the association; or

                             (ii)  decisions concerning the association; or

                     (d)  an office the holder of which is, under the rules of the association, entitled to participate directly in any of the functions referred to in subparagraphs (b)(ii) and (iii); or

                     (e)  the office of a person holding (whether as trustee or otherwise) property:

                              (i)  of the association; or

                             (ii)  in which the association has a beneficial interest.

Office of the Fair Work Ombudsman means the body established by section 696.

officer, of an industrial association, means:

                     (a)  an official of the association; or

                     (b)  a delegate or other representative of the association.

official, of an industrial association, means a person who holds an office in, or is an employee of, the association.

old employer, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee: see section 20.

organisation means an organisation registered under the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009.

outworker means:

                     (a)  an employee who, for the purpose of the business of his or her employer, performs work at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises; or

                     (b)  an individual who, for the purpose of a contract for the provision of services, performs work:

                              (i)  in the textile, clothing or footwear industry; and

                             (ii)  at residential premises or at other premises that would not conventionally be regarded as being business premises.

outworker entity means any of the following entities, other than in the entity’s capacity as a national system employer:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation;

                     (b)  the Commonwealth;

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority;

                     (d)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory;

                     (e)  a person so far as:

                              (i)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                             (ii)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                            (iii)  the arrangement is connected with a Territory.

Note:          Section 30F extends the meaning of outworker entity in relation to a referring State.

outworker terms: see subsection 140(3).

paid agent, in relation to a matter before FWA, means an agent (other than a bargaining representative) who charges or receives a fee to represent a person in the matter.

paid annual leave means paid annual leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 87.

paid no safe job leave means paid no safe job leave to which a national system employee is entitled under paragraph 81(3)(b).

paid personal/carer’s leave means paid personal/carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 96.

partial work ban: see subsection 470(3).

passes the better off overall test:

                     (a)  in relation to an enterprise agreement that is not a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(1); and

                     (b)  in relation to a greenfields agreement: see subsection 193(3).

pattern bargaining: see section 412.

peak council means a national or State council or federation that is effectively representative of a significant number of organisations (within the ordinary meaning of the term) representing employers or employees in a range of industries.

pecuniary penalty order means an order under subsection 546(1).

penalty unit has the meaning given by section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

period of employment: see section 384.

permissible occasion: see sections 102 and 104.

permit holder means a person who holds an entry permit.

permit qualification matters: see subsection 513(1).

permitted matters in relation to an enterprise agreement: see subsection 172(1).

pieceworker: see section 21.

pilot, in relation to an aircraft, includes a pilot in command, co‑pilot or pilot of any other description.

post‑declaration negotiating period: see subsection 269(2).

post‑industrial action negotiating period: see subsection 266(3).

premises includes:

                     (a)  any land, building, structure, mine, mine working, aircraft ship, vessel, vehicle or place; and

                     (b)  a part of premises (including premises referred to in paragraph (a)).

pre‑parental leave position: see subsection 83(2).

prescribed State industrial authority means a State board, court, tribunal, body or official prescribed by the regulations.

President means the President of FWA.

procedural rules means the procedural rules of FWA made under section 609.

process or proceedings under a workplace law or workplace instrument: see subsection 341(2).

prospective award covered employee for an enterprise agreement: see subsection 193(5).

protected action ballot means a ballot conducted under Division 8 of Part 3‑3.

protected action ballot agent for a protected action ballot means the person that conducts the protected action ballot.

protected action ballot order: see subsection 437(1).

protected from unfair dismissal: see section 382.

protected industrial action: see section 408.

public holiday: see section 115.

public sector employment: see subsections 795(4) and (5).

public sector employment law: see subsection 40(3).

recognised emergency management body: see subsection 109(3).

registered employee association means:

                     (a)  an employee organisation; or

                     (b)  an association of employees or independent contractors, or both, that is registered or recognised as such an association (however described) under a State or Territory industrial law.

reinstatement includes appointment by an associated entity in the circumstances provided for in an order to which subsection 391(1A) applies.

related body corporate has the meaning given by the Corporations Act 2001.

relevant employee organisation, in relation to a greenfields agreement, means an employee organisation that is entitled to represent the industrial interests of one or more of the employees who will be covered by the agreement, in relation to work to be performed under the agreement.

safety net contractual entitlement means an entitlement under a contract between an employee and an employer that relates to any of the subject matters described in:

                     (a)  subsection 61(2) (which deals with the National Employment Standards); or

                     (b)  subsection 139(1) (which deals with modern awards).

school age, for a child, means the age at which the child is required by a law of the State or Territory in which the child lives to start attending school.

school‑based apprentice means a national system employee who is an apprentice to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based trainee means a national system employee (other than a school‑based apprentice) to whom a school‑based training arrangement applies.

school‑based training arrangement means a training arrangement undertaken as part of a course of secondary education.

scope order: see subsection 238(1).

second employer, in relation to a transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

serious breach declaration: see section 234.

serious misconduct has the meaning prescribed by the regulations.

service: see section 22.

setting modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

Sex Discrimination Commissioner means the Sex Discrimination Commissioner appointed under the Sex Discrimination Act 1984.

ship includes a barge, lighter, hulk or other vessel.

single‑enterprise agreement means an enterprise agreement made as referred to in subsection 172(2).

single interest employer authorisation: see subsection 248(1).

small business employer: see section 23.

Small Business Fair Dismissal Code means the Small Business Fair Dismissal Code declared under subsection 388(1).

special low‑paid workplace determination: see subsection 260(4).

spouse includes a former spouse.

State industrial instrument means an award, an agreement (whether individual or collective), or another industrial instrument or order, that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a law of a State that is a State or Territory industrial law; and

                     (b)  determines terms and conditions of employment.

state of mind: see subsection 793(3).

State or Territory industrial law: see subsection 26(2).

State or Territory OHS law: see subsection 494(3).

State or Territory OHS right: see subsection 494(2).

step‑child: without limiting who is a step‑child of a person, someone who is a child of the person’s de facto partner is a step‑child of a person, if he or she would be the person’s step‑child except that the person is not legally married to the de facto partner.

TCF award means an instrument prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this definition.

TCF outworker means an outworker in the textile, clothing or footwear industry whose work is covered by a TCF award.

termination of industrial action instrument: see subsection 266(2).

territorial sea, in relation to Australia, has the meaning given by Division 1 of Part II of the Seas and Submerged Lands Act 1973.

Territory employer: see subsection 338(4).

test time: see subsection 193(6).

this Act includes the regulations.

trade and commerce employer: see subsection 338(3).

training arrangement means a combination of work and training that is subject to a training agreement, or a training contract, that takes effect under a law of a State or Territory relating to the training of employees.

transferable instrument: see subsection 312(1).

transfer of business: see subsection 311(1).

transfer of employment: see subsection 22(7).

transfer of employment between associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(a).

transfer of employment between non‑associated entities: see paragraph 22(8)(b).

transferring employee, in relation to a transfer of business: see subsection 311(2).

transferring work, in relation to a transfer of business: see paragraph 311(1)(c).

unfair dismissal application: see subsection 729(2).

unfairly dismissed: see section 385.

unlawful term of an enterprise agreement: see section 194.

unlawful termination court application: see subsection 778(2).

unlawful termination FWA application: see subsection 730(2).

unpaid carer’s leave means unpaid carer’s leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 102.

unpaid parental leave means unpaid parental leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 70.

unpaid pre‑adoption leave means unpaid pre‑adoption leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 85.

unpaid special maternity leave means unpaid special maternity leave to which a national system employee is entitled under section 80.

varying modern award minimum wages: see subsection 284(4).

vocational placement means a placement that is:

                     (a)  undertaken with an employer for which a person is not entitled to be paid any remuneration; and

                     (b)  undertaken as a requirement of an education or training course; and

                     (c)  authorised under a law or an administrative arrangement of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

voluntary emergency management activity: see subsection 109(2).

waters above the continental shelf means any part of the area in, on or over the continental shelf.

waterside worker has the meaning given by clause 1 of Schedule 2 to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 as in force immediately before the commencement of this section.

working day means a day that is not a Saturday, a Sunday or a public holiday.

workplace determination means:

                     (a)  a low‑paid workplace determination; or

                     (b)  an industrial action related workplace determination; or

                     (c)  a bargaining related workplace determination.

workplace instrument means an instrument that:

                     (a)  is made under, or recognised by, a workplace law; and

                     (b)  concerns the relationships between employers and employees.

workplace law means:

                     (a)  this Act; or

                     (b)  the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009; or

                     (c)  the Independent Contractors Act 2006; or

                     (d)  any other law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory that regulates the relationships between employers and employees (including by dealing with occupational health and safety matters).

workplace right: see subsection 341(1).

work value reasons: see subsection 156(4).


 

Division 3Definitions relating to the meanings of employee, employer etc.

13  Meaning of national system employee

                   A national system employee is an individual so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in the definition of national system employer in section 14, by a national system employer, except on a vocational placement.

Note:          Section 30C extends the meaning of national system employee in relation to a referring State.

14  Meaning of national system employer

                   A national system employer is:

                     (a)  a constitutional corporation, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (b)  the Commonwealth, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (c)  a Commonwealth authority, so far as it employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                     (d)  a person so far as the person, in connection with constitutional trade or commerce, employs, or usually employs, an individual as:

                              (i)  a flight crew officer; or

                             (ii)  a maritime employee; or

                            (iii)  a waterside worker; or

                     (e)  a body corporate incorporated in a Territory, so far as the body employs, or usually employs, an individual; or

                      (f)  a person who carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a Territory in Australia, so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual in connection with the activity carried on in the Territory.

Note 1:       In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island and the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands (see paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

Note 2:       Section 30D extends the meaning of national system employer in relation to a referring State.

15  Ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning:

                     (a)  includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employee; and

                     (b)  does not include a person on a vocational placement.

Note:          Subsection 30E(1) extends the meaning of employee in relation to a referring State.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a person who is usually such an employer.

Note:          Subsection 30E(2) extends the meaning of employer in relation to a referring State.


 

Division 4Other definitions

16  Meaning of base rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The base rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee for his or her ordinary hours of work, but not including any of the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s base rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the base rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s base rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

Meaning for pieceworkers for the purpose of section 206

             (3)  The regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the base rate of pay, for the purpose of section 206, of an employee who is a pieceworker. If the regulations do so, the employee’s base rate of pay, for the purpose of that section, is as prescribed by, or determined in accordance with, the regulations.

Note:          Section 206 deals with an employee’s base rate of pay under an enterprise agreement.

17  Meaning of child of a person

             (1)  A child of a person includes:

                     (a)  someone who is a child of the person within the meaning of the Family Law Act 1975; and

                     (b)  an adopted child or step‑child of the person.

It does not matter whether the child is an adult.

             (2)  If, under this section, one person is a child of another person, other family relationships are also to be determined on the basis that the child is a child of that other person.

Note:          For example, for the purpose of leave entitlements in relation to immediate family under Division 7 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave):

(a)    the other person is the parent of the child, and so is a member of the child’s immediate family; and

(b)    the child, and any other children, of the other person are siblings, and so are members of each other’s immediate family.

18  Meaning of full rate of pay

General meaning

             (1)  The full rate of pay of a national system employee is the rate of pay payable to the employee, including all the following:

                     (a)  incentive‑based payments and bonuses;

                     (b)  loadings;

                     (c)  monetary allowances;

                     (d)  overtime or penalty rates;

                     (e)  any other separately identifiable amounts.

Meaning for pieceworkers in relation to entitlements under National Employment Standards

             (2)  However, if one of the following paragraphs applies to a national system employee who is a pieceworker, the employee’s full rate of pay, in relation to entitlements under the National Employment Standards, is the full rate of pay referred to in that paragraph:

                     (a)  a modern award applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  an enterprise agreement applies to the employee and specifies the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards;

                     (c)  the employee is an award/agreement free employee, and the regulations prescribe, or provide for the determination of, the employee’s full rate of pay for the purposes of the National Employment Standards.

19  Meaning of industrial action

             (1)  Industrial action means action of any of the following kinds:

                     (a)  the performance of work by an employee in a manner different from that in which it is customarily performed, or the adoption of a practice in relation to work by an employee, the result of which is a restriction or limitation on, or a delay in, the performance of the work;

                     (b)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work by an employee or on the acceptance of or offering for work by an employee;

                     (c)  a failure or refusal by employees to attend for work or a failure or refusal to perform any work at all by employees who attend for work;

                     (d)  the lockout of employees from their employment by the employer of the employees.

Note:          In Automotive, Food, Metals, Engineering, Printing and Kindred Industries Union v The Age Company Limited, PR946290, the Full Bench of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission considered the nature of industrial action and noted that action will not be industrial in character if it stands completely outside the area of disputation and bargaining.

             (2)  However, industrial action does not include the following:

                     (a)  action by employees that is authorised or agreed to by the employer of the employees;

                     (b)  action by an employer that is authorised or agreed to by, or on behalf of, employees of the employer;

                     (c)  action by an employee if:

                              (i)  the action was based on a reasonable concern of the employee about an imminent risk to his or her health or safety; and

                             (ii)  the employee did not unreasonably fail to comply with a direction of his or her employer to perform other available work, whether at the same or another workplace, that was safe and appropriate for the employee to perform.

             (3)  An employer locks out employees from their employment if the employer prevents the employees from performing work under their contracts of employment without terminating those contracts.

Note:          In this section, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings (see section 11).

20  Meaning of ordinary hours of work for award/agreement free employees

Agreed ordinary hours of work

             (1)  The ordinary hours of work of an award/agreement free employee are the hours agreed by the employee and his or her national system employer as the employee’s ordinary hours of work.

If there is no agreement

             (2)  If there is no agreement about ordinary hours of work for an award/agreement free employee, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are:

                     (a)  for a full time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

If the agreed hours are less than usual weekly hours

             (3)  If, for an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee, there is an agreement under subsection (1) between the employee and his or her national system employer, but the agreed ordinary hours of work are less than the employee’s usual weekly hours of work, the ordinary hours of work of the employee in a week are the lesser of:

                     (a)  38 hours; and

                     (b)  the employee’s usual weekly hours of work.

Regulations may prescribe usual weekly hours

             (4)  For an award/agreement free employee who is not a full‑time employee and who does not have usual weekly hours of work, the regulations may prescribe, or provide for the determination of, hours that are taken to be the employee’s usual weekly hours of work for the purposes of subsections (2) and (3).

21  Meaning of pieceworker

             (1)  A pieceworker is:

                     (a)  a national system employee to whom a modern award applies and who is defined or described in the award as a pieceworker; or

                     (b)  a national system employee to whom an enterprise agreement applies and who is defined or described in the agreement as a pieceworker; or

                     (c)  an award/agreement free employee who is in a class of employees prescribed by the regulations as pieceworkers.

Note:          Sections 197 and 198 affect whether FWA may approve an enterprise agreement covering a national system employee that includes a term that:

(a)    defines or describes the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and does not include such a term; or

(b)    does not define or describe the employee as a pieceworker, if the employee is covered by a modern award that is in operation and includes such a term.

             (2)  Without limiting the way in which a class may be described for the purposes of paragraph (1)(c), the class may be described by reference to one or more of the following:

                     (a)  a particular industry or part of an industry;

                     (b)  a particular kind of work;

                     (c)  a particular type of employment.

22  Meanings of service and continuous service

General meaning

             (1)  A period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include any period (an excluded period) that does not count as service because of subsection (2).

             (2)  The following periods do not count as service:

                     (a)  any period of unauthorised absence;

                     (b)  any period of unpaid leave or unpaid authorised absence, other than:

                              (i)  a period of absence under Division 8 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with community service leave); or

                             (ii)  a period of stand down under Part 3‑5, under an enterprise agreement that applies to the employee, or under the employee’s contract of employment; or

                            (iii)  a period of leave or absence of a kind prescribed by the regulations;

                     (c)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  An excluded period does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service.

          (3A)  Regulations made for the purposes of paragraph (2)(c) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions of this Act (other than provisions to which subsection (4) applies). If they do so, subsection (3) applies accordingly.

Meaning for Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2

             (4)  For the purposes of Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2:

                     (a)  a period of service by a national system employee with his or her national system employer is a period during which the employee is employed by the employer, but does not include:

                              (i)  any period of unauthorised absence; or

                             (ii)  any other period of a kind prescribed by the regulations; and

                     (b)  a period referred to in subparagraph (a)(i) or (ii) does not break a national system employee’s continuous service with his or her national system employer, but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service; and

                     (c)  subsections (1), (2) and (3) do not apply.

Note:          Divisions 4 and 5, and Subdivision A of Division 11, of Part 2‑2 deal, respectively, with requests for flexible working arrangements, parental leave and related entitlements, and notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice.

          (4A)  Regulations made for the purposes of subparagraph (4)(a)(ii) may prescribe different kinds of periods for the purposes of different provisions to which subsection (4) applies. If they do so, paragraph (4)(b) applies accordingly.

When service with one employer counts as service with another employer

             (5)  If there is a transfer of employment (see subsection (7)) in relation to a national system employee:

                     (a)  any period of service of the employee with the first employer counts as service of the employee with the second employer; and

                     (b)  the period between the termination of the employment with the first employer and the start of the employment with the second employer does not break the employee’s continuous service with the second employer (taking account of the effect of paragraph (a)), but does not count towards the length of the employee’s continuous service with the second employer.

Note:          This subsection does not apply to a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities, for the purpose of Division 6 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with annual leave) or Subdivision B of Division 11 of Part 2‑2 (which deals with redundancy pay), if the second employer decides not to recognise the employee’s service with the first employer for the purpose of that Division or Subdivision (see subsections 91(1) and 122(1)).

             (6)  If the national system employee has already had the benefit of an entitlement the amount of which was calculated by reference to a period of service with the first employer, subsection (5) does not result in that period of service with the first employer being counted again when calculating the employee’s entitlements of that kind as an employee of the second employer.

Note:          For example:

(a)    the accrued paid annual leave to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer does not include any period of paid annual leave that the employee has already taken as an employee of the first employer; and

(b)    if an employee receives notice of termination or payment in lieu of notice in relation to a period of service with the first employer, that period of service is not counted again in calculating the amount of notice of termination, or payment in lieu, to which the employee is entitled as an employee of the second employer.

Meaning of transfer of employment etc.

             (7)  There is a transfer of employment of a national system employee from one national system employer (the first employer) to another national system employer (the second employer) if:

                     (a)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee becomes employed by the second employer not more than 3 months after the termination of the employee’s employment with the first employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer; or

                     (b)  the following conditions are satisfied:

                              (i)  the employee is a transferring employee in relation to a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer;

                             (ii)  the first employer and the second employer are not associated entities when the employee becomes employed by the second employer.

Note:          Paragraph (a) applies whether or not there is a transfer of business from the first employer to the second employer.

             (8)  A transfer of employment:

                     (a)  is a transfer of employment between associated entities if paragraph (7)(a) applies; and

                     (b)  is a transfer of employment between non‑associated entities if paragraph (7)(b) applies.

23  Meaning of small business employer

             (1)  A national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time if the employer employs fewer than 15 employees at that time.

             (2)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time:

                     (a)  subject to paragraph (b), all employees employed by the employer at that time are to be counted; and

                     (b)  a casual employee is not to be counted unless, at that time, he or she has been employed by the employer on a regular and systematic basis.

             (3)  For the purpose of calculating the number of employees employed by the employer at a particular time, associated entities are taken to be one entity.

             (4)  To avoid doubt, in determining whether a national system employer is a small business employer at a particular time in relation to the dismissal of an employee, or termination of an employee’s employment, the employees that are to be counted include (subject to paragraph (2)(b)):

                     (a)  the employee who is being dismissed or whose employment is being terminated; and

                     (b)  any other employee of the employer who is also being dismissed or whose employment is also being terminated.


 

Part 1‑3Application of this Act

Division 1Introduction

24  Guide to this Part

This Part deals with the extent of the application of this Act.

Division 2 is about how this Act affects the operation of certain State or Territory laws.

Division 2A is about the extended application of this Act in a State that has referred to the Parliament of the Commonwealth matters relating to this Act.

Division 3 is about the geographical application of this Act.

Division 4 deals with other matters relating to the application of this Act.

25  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee and employer have their ordinary meanings.


 

Division 2Interaction with State and Territory laws

26  Act excludes State or Territory industrial laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of all State or Territory industrial laws so far as they would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (2)  A State or Territory industrial law is:

                     (a)  a general State industrial law; or

                     (b)  an Act of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and has one or more of the following as its main purpose or one or more of its main purposes:

                              (i)  regulating workplace relations (including industrial matters, industrial activity, collective bargaining, industrial disputes and industrial action);

                             (ii)  providing for the establishment or enforcement of terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iii)  providing for the making and enforcement of agreements (including individual agreements and collective agreements), and other industrial instruments or orders, determining terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  prohibiting conduct relating to a person’s membership or non‑membership of an industrial association;

                             (v)  providing for rights and remedies connected with the termination of employment;

                            (vi)  providing for rights and remedies connected with conduct that adversely affects an employee in his or her employment; or

                     (c)  a law of a State or Territory that applies to employment generally and deals with leave (other than long service leave or leave for victims of crime); or

                     (d)  a law of a State or Territory providing for a court or tribunal constituted by a law of the State or Territory to make an order in relation to equal remuneration for work of equal or comparable value; or

                     (e)  a law of a State or Territory providing for the variation or setting aside of rights and obligations arising under a contract of employment, or another arrangement for employment, that a court or tribunal finds is unfair; or

                      (f)  a law of a State or Territory that entitles a representative of a trade union to enter premises; or

                     (g)  an instrument made under a law described in paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) or (f), so far as the instrument is of a legislative character; or

                     (h)  either of the following:

                              (i)  a law that is a law of a State or Territory;

                             (ii)  an instrument of a legislative character made under such a law;

                            that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  Each of the following is a general State industrial law:

                     (a)  the Industrial Relations Act 1996 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Industrial Relations Act 1999 of Queensland;

                     (c)  the Industrial Relations Act 1979 of Western Australia;

                     (d)  the Fair Work Act 1994 of South Australia;

                     (e)  the Industrial Relations Act 1984 of Tasmania.

             (4)  A law or an Act of a State or Territory applies to employment generally if it applies (subject to constitutional limitations) to:

                     (a)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory; or

                     (b)  all employers and employees in the State or Territory except those identified (by reference to a class or otherwise) by a law of the State or Territory.

For this purpose, it does not matter whether or not the law also applies to other persons, or whether or not an exercise of a power under the law affects all the persons to whom the law applies.

27  State and Territory laws that are not excluded by section 26

          (1A)  Section 26 does not apply to any of the following laws:

                     (a)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1977 of New South Wales;

                     (b)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1995 of Victoria;

                     (c)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1991 of Queensland;

                     (d)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of Western Australia;

                     (e)  the Equal Opportunity Act 1984 of South Australia;

                      (f)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act 1998 of Tasmania;

                     (g)  the Discrimination Act 1991 of the Australian Capital Territory;

                     (h)  the Anti‑Discrimination Act of the Northern Territory.

             (1)  Section 26 does not apply to a law of a State or Territory so far as:

                     (b)  the law is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which section 26 does not apply; or

                     (c)  the law deals with any non‑excluded matters; or

                     (d)  the law deals with rights or remedies incidental to:

                              (i)  any law referred to in subsection (1A); or

                             (ii)  any matter dealt with by a law to which paragraph (b) applies; or

                            (iii)  any non‑excluded matters.

Note:          Examples of incidental matters covered by paragraph (d) are entry to premises for a purpose connected with workers compensation, occupational health and safety or outworkers.

             (2)  The non‑excluded matters are as follows:

                     (a)  superannuation;

                     (b)  workers compensation;

                     (c)  occupational health and safety;

                     (d)  matters relating to outworkers (within the ordinary meaning of the term);

                     (e)  child labour;

                      (f)  training arrangements, except in relation to terms and conditions of employment to the extent that those terms and conditions are provided for by the National Employment Standards or may be included in a modern award;

                     (g)  long service leave, except in relation to an employee who is entitled under Division 9 of Part 2‑2 to long service leave;

                     (h)  leave for victims of crime;

                      (i)  attendance for service on a jury, or for emergency service duties;

Note:       See also section 112 for employee entitlements in relation to engaging in eligible community service activities.

                      (j)  declaration, prescription or substitution of public holidays, except in relation to the rights and obligations of an employee or employer in relation to public holidays;

                     (k)  the following matters relating to provision of essential services or to situations of emergency:

                              (i)  directions to perform work (including to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                             (ii)  directions not to perform work (including not to perform work at a particular time or place, or in a particular way);

                      (l)  regulation of any of the following:

                              (i)  employee associations;

                             (ii)  employer associations;

                            (iii)  members of employee associations or of employer associations;

                    (m)  workplace surveillance;

                     (n)  business trading hours;

                     (o)  claims for enforcement of contracts of employment, except so far as the law in question provides for a matter to which paragraph 26(2)(e) applies;

                     (p)  any other matters prescribed by the regulations.

28  Act excludes prescribed State and Territory laws

             (1)  This Act is intended to apply to the exclusion of a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  However, subsection (1) applies only so far as the law of the State or Territory would otherwise apply in relation to a national system employee or a national system employer.

             (3)  To avoid doubt, subsection (1) has effect even if the law is covered by section 27 (so that section 26 does not apply to the law). This subsection does not limit subsection (1).

29  Interaction of modern awards and enterprise agreements with State and Territory laws

             (1)  A modern award or enterprise agreement prevails over a law of a State or Territory, to the extent of any inconsistency.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement applies subject to the following:

                     (a)  any law covered by subsection 27(1A);

                     (b)  any law of a State or Territory so far as it is covered by paragraph 27(1)(b), (c) or (d).

             (3)  Despite subsection (2), a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement does not apply subject to a law of a State or Territory that is prescribed by the regulations as a law to which modern awards and enterprise agreements are not subject.

30  Act may exclude State and Territory laws etc. in other cases

                   This Division is not a complete statement of the circumstances in which this Act and instruments made under it are intended to apply to the exclusion of, or prevail over, laws of the States and Territories or instruments made under those laws.


 

Division 2AApplication of this Act in a referring State

30A  Meaning of terms used in this Division

                   In this Division:

amendment includes the insertion, omission, repeal, substitution, addition or relocation of words or matter.

excluded subject matter means:

                     (a)  a matter dealt with in a law referred to in subsection 27(1A) of this Act as originally enacted; or

                     (b)  a non‑excluded matter within the meaning of subsection 27(2) of this Act as so enacted (other than paragraph 27(2)(p) of this Act as so enacted); or

                     (c)  rights or remedies incidental to a matter referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this definition;

except to the extent that this Act as so enacted deals with the matter (directly or indirectly), or requires or permits instruments made or given effect under this Act so to deal with the matter.

express amendment means the direct amendment of this Act, but does not include the enactment by a Commonwealth Act of a provision that has, or will have, substantive effect otherwise than as part of the text of this Act.

law enforcement officer is a member of a police force, a police reservist, a police recruit or a protective services officer.

referral law, of a State, means the law of the State that refers matters, as mentioned in subsection 30B(1), to the Parliament of the Commonwealth.

referred provisions means the provisions of this Division to the extent to which they deal with matters that are included in the legislative powers of the Parliaments of the States.

referred subject matters means any of the following:

                     (a)  terms and conditions of employment, including any of the following:

                              (i)  minimum terms and conditions of employment, (including employment standards and minimum wages);

                             (ii)  terms and conditions of employment contained in instruments (including instruments such as awards, determinations and enterprise‑level agreements);

                            (iii)  bargaining in relation to terms and conditions of employment;

                            (iv)  the effect of a transfer of business on terms and conditions of employment;

                     (b)  terms and conditions under which an outworker entity may arrange for work to be performed for the entity (directly or indirectly), if the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers;

                     (c)  rights and responsibilities of employees, employers, independent contractors, outworkers, outworker entities, associations of employees or associations of employers, being rights and responsibilities relating to any of the following:

                              (i)  freedom of association and related protections;

                             (ii)  protection from discrimination relating to employment;

                            (iii)  termination of employment;

                            (iv)  industrial action;

                             (v)  protection from payment of fees for services related to bargaining;

                            (vi)  sham independent contractor arrangements;

                           (vii)  standing down employees without pay;

                           (viii)  rights of entry and rights of access to records;

                     (d)  compliance with, and enforcement of, this Act;

                     (e)  the administration of this Act;

                      (f)  the application of this Act;

                     (g)  matters incidental or ancillary to the operation of this Act or of instruments made or given effect under this Act;

but does not include any excluded subject matter.

referring State: see section 30B.

State public sector employee, of a State, means:

                     (a)  an employee of a State public sector employer of the State; or

                     (b)  any other employee in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a law enforcement officer to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

State public sector employer, of a State, means an employer that is:

                     (a)  the State; or

                     (b)  a body (whether incorporated or unincorporated) established for a public purpose by or under a law of the State, by the Governor of a State or by a Minister of the State; or

                     (c)  a body corporate in which the State has a controlling interest; or

                     (d)  any other employer in the State of a kind specified in the regulations;

and includes a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

30B  Meaning of referring State

Reference of matters by State Parliament to Commonwealth Parliament

             (1)  A State is a referring State if the Parliament of the State has referred the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) in relation to the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth for the purposes of paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution:

                     (a)  if and to the extent that the matters are not otherwise included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the Commonwealth (otherwise than by a reference under paragraph 51(xxxvii) of the Constitution); and

                     (b)  if and to the extent that the matters are included in the legislative powers of the Parliament of the State.

This subsection has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (2)  A State is a referring State even if:

                     (a)  the State’s referral law provides that the reference to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of any or all of the matters covered by subsections (3), (4) and (5) is to terminate in particular circumstances; or

                     (b)  the State’s referral law provides that particular matters relating to State public sector employees, or State public sector employers, of the State are not included in any or all of those matters.

Reference covering referred provisions

             (3)  This subsection covers the matters to which the referred provisions relate to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by amending this Act, as originally enacted, to include the referred provisions.

Reference covering amendments

             (4)  This subsection covers the referred subject matters to the extent of making laws with respect to those matters by making express amendments of this Act.

Reference covering transitional matters

             (5)  This subsection covers making laws with respect to the transition from the regime provided for by:

                     (a)  the Workplace Relations Act 1996; or

                     (b)  a law of a State relating to workplace relations;

to the regime provided for by this Act.

Effect of termination of reference

             (6)  Despite anything to the contrary in a referral law of a State, a State ceases to be a referring State if any or all of the following occurs:

                     (a)  the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection (3) terminates;

                     (b)  the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection (4) terminates;

                     (c)  the reference by the Parliament of the State to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of the matters covered by subsection (5) terminates.

30C  Extended meaning of national system employee

             (1)  A national system employee includes:

                     (a)  any individual in a referring State so far as he or she is employed, or usually employed, as described in paragraph 30D(1)(a), except on a vocational placement; and

                     (b)  a law enforcement officer of the State to whom subsection 30E(1) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 13 (which defines a national system employee).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employee.

30D  Extended meaning of national system employer

             (1)  A national system employer includes:

                     (a)  any person in a referring State so far as the person employs, or usually employs, an individual; and

                     (b)  a holder of an office to whom subsection 30E(2) applies.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of section 14 (which defines a national system employer).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of national system employer.

30E  Extended ordinary meanings of employee and employer

             (1)  A reference in this Act to an employee with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a law enforcement officer of a referring State if the State’s referral law so provides for the purposes of that law.

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an employer with its ordinary meaning includes a reference to a holder of an office of a State if the State’s referral law provides, for the purposes of that law, that the holder of the office is taken to be the employer of a law enforcement officer of the State.

             (3)  This section does not limit the operation of section 15 (which deals with references to employee and employer with their ordinary meanings).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meanings of employee and employer.

30F  Extended meaning of outworker entity

             (1)  An outworker entity includes a person, other than in the person’s capacity as a national system employer, so far as:

                     (a)  the person arranges for work to be performed for the person (either directly or indirectly); and

                     (b)  the work is of a kind that is often performed by outworkers; and

                     (c)  one or more of the following applies:

                              (i)  at the time the arrangement is made, one or more parties to the arrangement is in a referring State;

                             (ii)  the work is to be performed in a referring State;

                            (iii)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a referring State, and the work is reasonably likely to be performed in that State;

                            (iv)  the person referred to in paragraph (a) carries on an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature) in a referring State, and the work is to be performed in connection with that activity.

             (2)  This section does not limit the operation of the definition of outworker entity in section 12.

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the meaning of outworker entity.

30G  General protections

             (1)  Part 3‑1 (which deals with general protections) applies to action taken in a referring State.

             (2)  This section applies despite section 337 (which limits the application of Part 3‑1), and does not limit the operation of sections 338 and 339 (which set out the application of that Part).

Note:          Section 30H may limit the extent to which this section extends the application of Part 3‑1.

30H  Division only has effect if supported by reference

                   A provision of this Division has effect in relation to a referring State only to the extent that the State’s referral law refers to the Parliament of the Commonwealth the matters mentioned in subsection 30B(1) that result in the Parliament of the Commonwealth having sufficient legislative power for the provision so to have effect.

30J  Application of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901

             (1)  The Acts Interpretation Act 1901, as in force on the day on which this Division commences, applies to this Act.

             (2)  Amendments of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 made after that day do not apply to this Act.


 

Division 3Geographical application of this Act

31  Exclusion of persons etc. insufficiently connected with Australia

             (1)  A provision of this Act prescribed by the regulations does not apply to a person or entity in Australia prescribed by the regulations as a person to whom, or an entity to which, the provision does not apply.

Note 1:       In this context, Australia includes the Territory of Christmas Island, the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands and the coastal sea (see section 15B and paragraph 17(a) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901).

Note 2:       The regulations may prescribe the person or entity by reference to a class (see subsection 13(3) of the Legislative Instruments Act 2003).

             (2)  Before the Governor‑General makes regulations for the purposes of subsection (1) prescribing either or both of the following:

                     (a)  a provision of this Act that is not to apply to a person or entity;

                     (b)  a person to whom, or an entity to which, a provision of this Act is not to apply;

the Minister must be satisfied that the provision should not apply to the person or entity in Australia because there is not a sufficient connection between the person or entity and Australia.

32  Regulations may modify application of this Act in certain parts of Australia

                   If the regulations prescribe modifications of this Act for its application in relation to all or part of any one or more of the following areas:

                     (a)  all the waters of the sea on the landward side of the outer limits of the territorial sea of Australia, including:

                              (i)  such waters within the limits of a State or Territory; and

                             (ii)  the airspace over, and the seabed and sub‑soil beneath, such waters;

                     (b)  the Territory of Christmas Island;

                     (c)  the Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands;

then this Act has effect as so modified in relation to any such area or part.

Note:          This Act would, in the absence of any such regulations, apply in relation to these areas in the same way as it applies in relation to the rest of Australia.

33  Extension of this Act to the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

Extension to Australian ships etc.

             (1)  Without limiting subsection (3), this Act extends to or in relation to:

                     (a)  any Australian ship in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf; and

                     (b)  any fixed platform in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf; and

                     (c)  any ship, in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf, that:

                              (i)  supplies, services or otherwise operates in connection with a fixed platform in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf; and

                             (ii)  operates to and from an Australian port; and

                     (d)  any ship, in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf, that:

                              (i)  is operated or chartered by an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  uses Australia as a base.

             (2)  For the purposes of extending this Act in accordance with paragraph (1)(d):

                     (a)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employer is taken to include a reference to an Australian employer; and

                     (b)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employee is taken to include a reference to an employee of an Australian employer.

Extensions prescribed by regulations

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), if the regulations prescribe further extensions of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, to or in relation to the exclusive economic zone or to the waters above the continental shelf, then this Act extends accordingly.

Modifications relating to extended application

             (4)  Despite subsections (1) and (3), if the regulations prescribe modifications of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, for its operation under subsection (1) or (3) in relation to one or both of the following:

                     (a)  all or part of the exclusive economic zone;

                     (b)  all or part of the continental shelf;

then, so far as this Act would, apart from this subsection, extend to the zone or part, or to the continental shelf or part, it has effect as so modified.

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (4), the regulations may prescribe different modifications in relation to different parts of the exclusive economic zone or continental shelf.

34  Extension of this Act beyond the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

Extension to Australian ships etc.

             (1)  Without limiting subsection (3), this Act extends to or in relation to:

                     (a)  any Australian ship outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf; and

                     (b)  any ship, outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, that:

                              (i)  is operated or chartered by an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  uses Australia as a base.

             (2)  For the purposes of extending this Act in accordance with paragraph (1)(b):

                     (a)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employer is taken to include a reference to an Australian employer; and

                     (b)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employee is taken to include a reference to an employee of an Australian employer.

Extensions prescribed by regulations

             (3)  Without limiting subsection (1), if the regulations prescribe further extensions of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, in relation to all or part of the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, then this Act, or the specified provisions, extend accordingly to:

                     (a)  any Australian employer; and

                     (b)  any Australian‑based employee.

          (3A)  For the purposes of extending this Act in accordance with subsection (3):

                     (a)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employer is taken to include a reference to:

                              (i)  an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  an employer of an Australian‑based employee; and

                     (b)  any reference in a provision of this Act to an employee is taken to include a reference to:

                              (i)  an employee of an Australian employer; and

                             (ii)  an Australian‑based employee.

Modified application in the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf

             (4)  Despite subsections (1) and (3), if the regulations prescribe modifications of this Act, or specified provisions of this Act, for their operation under subsection (1) or (3) in relation to all or part of the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf, then this Act, or the specified provisions, have effect as so modified in relation to the area or part.

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (4), the regulations may prescribe different modifications in relation to different parts of the area outside the outer limits of the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf.

35  Meanings of Australian employer and Australian‑based employee

             (1)  An Australian employer is an employer that:

                     (a)  is a trading corporation formed within the limits of the Commonwealth (within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution); or

                     (b)  is a financial corporation formed within the limits of the Commonwealth (within the meaning of paragraph 51(xx) of the Constitution); or

                     (c)  is the Commonwealth; or

                     (d)  is a Commonwealth authority; or

                     (e)  is a body corporate incorporated in a Territory; or

                      (f)  carries on in Australia, in the exclusive economic zone or in the waters above the continental shelf an activity (whether of a commercial, governmental or other nature), and whose central management and control is in Australia; or

                     (g)  is prescribed by the regulations.

             (2)  An Australian‑based employee is an employee:

                     (a)  whose primary place of work is in Australia; or

                     (b)  who is employed by an Australian employer (whether the employee is located in Australia or elsewhere); or

                     (c)  who is prescribed by the regulations.

             (3)  However, paragraph (2)(b) does not apply to an employee who is engaged outside Australia and the external Territories to perform duties outside Australia and the external Territories.

35A  Regulations excluding application of Act

             (1)  Regulations made for the purposes of section 32 or subsection 33(4) or 34(4) may exclude the application of the whole of this Act in relation to all or a part of an area referred to in section 32 or subsection 33(4) or 34(4) (as the case may be).

             (2)  If subsection (1) applies, this Act has effect as if it did not apply in relation to that area or that part of that area.

36  Geographical application of offences

                   Division 14 (Standard geographical jurisdiction) of the Criminal Code does not apply in relation to an offence against this Act.

Note:          The extended geographical application that this Division gives to this Act will apply to the offences in this Act.


 

Division 4Miscellaneous

37  Act binds Crown

             (1)  This Act binds the Crown in each of its capacities.

             (2)  However, this Act does not make the Crown liable to be prosecuted for an offence.

38  Act not to apply so as to exceed Commonwealth power

             (1)  Unless the contrary intention appears, if a provision of this Act:

                     (a)  would, apart from this section, have an application (an invalid application) in relation to:

                              (i)  one or more particular persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases; or

                             (ii)  one or more classes (however defined or determined) of persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases;

                            because of which the provision exceeds the Commonwealth’s legislative power; and

                     (b)  also has at least one application (a valid application) in relation to:

                              (i)  one or more particular persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases; or

                             (ii)  one or more classes (however defined or determined) of persons, things, matters, places, circumstances or cases;

                            that, if it were the provision’s only application, would be within the Commonwealth’s legislative power;

it is the Parliament’s intention that the provision is not to have the invalid application, but is to have every valid application.

             (2)  Despite subsection (1), the provision is not to have a particular valid application if:

                     (a)  apart from this section, it is clear, taking into account the provision’s context and the purpose or object underlying this Act, that the provision was intended to have that valid application only if every invalid application, or a particular invalid application, of the provision had also been within the Commonwealth’s legislative power; or

                     (b)  the provision’s operation in relation to that valid application would be different in a substantial respect from what would have been its operation in relation to that valid application if every invalid application of the provision had been within the Commonwealth’s legislative power.

             (3)  Subsection (2) does not limit the cases where a contrary intention may be taken to appear for the purposes of subsection (1).

             (4)  This section applies to a provision of this Act, whether enacted before, at or after the commencement of this section.

39  Acquisition of property

                   This Act, or any instrument made under this Act, does not apply to the extent that the operation of this Act or the instrument would result in an acquisition of property (within the meaning of paragraph 51(xxxi) of the Constitution) from a person otherwise than on just terms (within the meaning of that paragraph).

40  Interaction between fair work instruments and public sector employment laws

Generally, public sector employment laws prevail

             (1)  A public sector employment law prevails over a fair work instrument that deals with public sector employment, to the extent of any inconsistency.

When fair work instruments or their terms prevail

             (2)  However, a fair work instrument, or a term of a fair work instrument, that deals with public sector employment prevails over a public sector employment law, to the extent of any inconsistency, if:

                     (a)  the instrument or term is prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of that particular law; or

                     (b)  the instrument or term (other than an FWA order or a term of an FWA order) is included in a class of instruments or terms that are prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of that particular law.

Meaning of public sector employment law

             (3)  A public sector employment law is a law of the Commonwealth (other than this Act) or a Territory, or a term of an instrument made under such a law, that deals with public sector employment.

Laws that fair work instruments never prevail over

             (4)  Subsection (2) does not apply to any provisions of the following that are public sector employment laws:

                     (a)  the Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1988;

                     (b)  the Superannuation Act 1976;

                     (c)  the Superannuation Act 1990;

                     (d)  the Superannuation Act 2005;

                     (e)  the Superannuation (Productivity Benefit) Act 1988;

                      (f)  an instrument made under a law referred to in any of the above paragraphs.

Relationship with section 29

             (5)  This section prevails over section 29, to the extent of any inconsistency.


 

Chapter 2Terms and conditions of employment

Part 2‑1Core provisions for this Chapter

Division 1Introduction

41  Guide to this Part

This Part has the core provisions for this Chapter, which deals with terms and conditions of employment of national system employees. The main terms and conditions come from the National Employment Standards, modern awards, enterprise agreements and workplace determinations.

The National Employment Standards (Part 2‑2) are minimum terms and conditions that apply to all national system employees.

A modern award (see Part 2‑3), an enterprise agreement (see Part 2‑4) or a workplace determination (see Part 2‑5) provides terms and conditions for those national system employees to whom the award, agreement or determination applies. Only one of those instruments can apply to an employee at a particular time.

Division 2 has the provisions to enforce the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements. It also sets out when a modern award or enterprise agreement applies to a person and the significance of that for this Act.

                   Note:             In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279). For the rules about workplace determinations, see Part 2‑5.

Division 3 deals with the interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements.

42  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee means a national system employee, and employer means a national system employer.


 

Division 2Core provisions for this Chapter

Subdivision ATerms and conditions of employment provided under this Act

43  Terms and conditions of employment provided under this Act

Main terms and conditions

             (1)  The main terms and conditions of employment of an employee that are provided under this Act are those set out in:

                     (a)  the National Employment Standards (see Part 2‑2); and

                     (b)  a modern award (see Part 2‑3), an enterprise agreement (see Part 2‑4) or a workplace determination (see Part 2‑5) that applies to the employee.

Note 1:       The situations in which a workplace determination, rather than a modern award or enterprise agreement, provides an employee’s terms and conditions of employment are limited. In most cases, this Act applies to a workplace determination as if it were an enterprise agreement in operation (see section 279). See Part 2‑5 generally for the rules on workplace determinations.

Note 2:       Part 2‑8 provides for the transfer of certain modern awards, enterprise agreements and workplace determinations if there is a transfer of business from an employee’s employer to another employer.

Other terms and conditions

             (2)  In addition, other terms and conditions of employment include:

                     (a)  those terms and conditions arising from:

                              (i)  a national minimum wage order (see Part 2‑6); or

                             (ii)  an equal remuneration order (see Part 2‑7); and

                     (b)  those terms and conditions provided by Part 2‑9.

Note:          Part 2‑9 deals with miscellaneous terms and conditions of employment, such as payment of wages.

Subdivision BTerms and conditions of employment provided by the National Employment Standards

44  Contravening the National Employment Standards

             (1)  An employer must not contravene a provision of the National Employment Standards.

Note:          This subsection is a civil remedy provision (see Part 4‑1).

             (2)  However, an order cannot be made under Division 2 of Part 4‑1 in relation to a contravention (or alleged contravention) of subsection 65(5) or 76(4).

Note 1:       Subsections 65(5) and 76(4) state that an employer may refuse a request for flexible working arrangements, or an application to extend unpaid parental leave, only on reasonable business grounds.

Note 2:       Modern awards and enterprise agreements include terms about settling disputes in relation to the National Employment Standards (other than disputes as to whether an employer had reasonable business grounds under subsection 65(5) or 76(4)).

Subdivision CTerms and conditions of employment provided by a modern award

45  Contravening a modern award

                   A person must not contravene a term of a modern award.

Note 1:       This section is a civil remedy provision (see Part 4‑1).

Note 2:       A person does not contravene a term of a modern award unless the award applies to the person: see subsection 46(1).

46  The significance of a modern award applying to a person

             (1)  A modern award does not impose obligations on a person, and a person does not contravene a term of a modern award, unless the award applies to the person.

             (2)  A modern award does not give a person an entitlement unless the award applies to the person.

Note:          Subsection (2) does not affect the ability of outworker terms in a modern award to be enforced under Part 4‑1 in relation to outworkers who are not employees.

47  When a modern award applies to an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity

When a modern award applies to an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity

             (1)  A modern award applies to an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity if:

                     (a)  the modern award covers the employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity; and

                     (b)  the modern award is in operation; and

                     (c)  no other provision of this Act provides, or has the effect, that the modern award does not apply to the employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity.

Note 1:       Section 57 provides that a modern award does not apply to an employee (or to an employer, or an employee organisation, in relation to the employee) in relation to particular employment at a time when an enterprise agreement applies to the employee in relation to that employment.

Note 2:       In a modern award, coverage of an outworker entity must be expressed to relate only to outworker terms: see subsection 143(4).

Modern awards do not apply to high income employees

             (2)  However, a modern award does not apply to an employee (or to an employer, or an employee organisation, in relation to the employee) at a time when the employee is a high income employee.

Modern awards apply to employees in relation to particular employment

             (3)  A reference in this Act to a modern award applying to an employee is a reference to the award applying to the employee in relation to particular employment.

48  When a modern award covers an employer, employee, organisation or outworker entity [see Note 2]

When a modern award covers an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity

             (1)  A modern award covers an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity if the award is expressed to cover the employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity.

Note:          In a modern award, coverage of an outworker entity must be expressed to relate only to outworker terms: see subsection 143(4).

Effect of other provisions of this Act, FWA orders or court orders on coverage

             (2)  A modern award also covers an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity if any of the following provides, or has the effect, that the award covers the employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity:

                     (a)  a provision of this Act or of the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009;

                     (b)  an FWA order made under a provision of this Act;

                     (c)  an order of a court.

             (3)  Despite subsections (1) and (2), a modern award does not cover an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity if any of the following provides, or has the effect, that the award does not cover the employee, employer or organisation or outworker entity:

                     (a)  a provision of this Act;

                     (b)  an FWA order made under a provision of this Act;

                     (c)  an order of a court.

Modern awards that have ceased to operate

             (4)  Despite subsections (1) and (2), a modern award that has ceased to operate does not cover an employee, employer, organisation or outworker entity.

Modern awards cover employees in relation to particular employment

             (5)  A reference to a modern award covering an employee is a reference to the award covering the employee in relation to particular employment.

49  When a modern award is in operation

When a modern award comes into operation

             (1)  A modern award comes into operation:

                     (a)  on 1 July in the next financial year after it is made; or

                     (b)  if it is made on 1 July in a financial year—on that day.

             (2)  However, if FWA specifies another day as the day on which the modern award comes into operation, it comes into operation on that other day. FWA must not specify another day unless it is satisfied that it is appropriate to do so.

             (3)  The specified day must not be earlier than the day on which the modern award is made.

When a determination revoking a modern award comes into operation

             (4)  A determination revoking a modern award comes into operation on the day specified in the determination.

             (5)  The specified day must not be earlier than the day on which the determination is made.

Modern awards and revocation determinations take effect from first full pay period

             (6)  A modern award, or a determination revoking a modern award, does not take effect in relation to a particular employee until the start of the employee’s first full pay period that starts on or after the day the award or determination comes into operation.

Modern awards operate until revoked

             (7)  A modern award continues in operation until it is revoked.

Subdivision DTerms and conditions of employment provided by an enterprise agreement

50  Contravening an enterprise agreement

                   A person must not contravene a term of an enterprise agreement.

Note 1:       This section is a civil remedy provision (see Part 4‑1).

Note 2:       A person does not contravene a term of an enterprise agreement unless the agreement applies to the person: see subsection 51(1).

51  The significance of an enterprise agreement applying to a person

             (1)  An enterprise agreement does not impose obligations on a person, and a person does not contravene a term of an enterprise agreement, unless the agreement applies to the person.

             (2)  An enterprise agreement does not give a person an entitlement unless the agreement applies to the person.

52  When an enterprise agreement applies to an employer, employee or employee organisation

When an enterprise agreement applies to an employee, employer or organisation

             (1)  An enterprise agreement applies to an employee, employer or employee organisation if:

                     (a)  the agreement is in operation; and

                     (b)  the agreement covers the employee, employer or organisation; and

                     (c)  no other provision of this Act provides, or has the effect, that the agreement does not apply to the employee, employer or organisation.

Enterprise agreements apply to employees in relation to particular employment

             (2)  A reference in this Act to an enterprise agreement applying to an employee is a reference to the agreement applying to the employee in relation to particular employment.

53  When an enterprise agreement covers an employer, employee or employee organisation

Employees and employers

             (1)  An enterprise agreement covers an employee or employer if the agreement is expressed to cover (however described) the employee or the employer.

Employee organisations

             (2)  An enterprise agreement covers an employee organisation:

                     (a)  for an enterprise agreement that is not a greenfields agreement—if FWA has noted in its decision to approve the agreement that the agreement covers the organisation (see subsection 201(2)); or

                     (b)  for a greenfields agreement—if the agreement is made by the organisation.

Effect of provisions of this Act, FWA orders and court orders on coverage

             (3)  An enterprise agreement also covers an employee, employer or employee organisation if any of the following provides, or has the effect, that the agreement covers the employee, employer or organisation:

                     (a)  a provision of this Act or of the Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Act 2009;

                     (b)  an FWA order made under a provision of this Act;

                     (c)  an order of a court.

             (4)  Despite subsections (1), (2) and (3), an enterprise agreement does not cover an employee, employer or employee organisation if any of the following provides, or has the effect, that the agreement does not cover the employee, employer or organisation:

                     (a)  another provision of this Act;

                     (b)  an FWA order made under another provision of this Act;

                     (c)  an order of a court.

Enterprise agreements that have ceased to operate

             (5)  Despite subsections (1), (2) and (3), an enterprise agreement that has ceased to operate does not cover an employee, employer or employee organisation.

Enterprise agreements cover employees in relation to particular employment

             (6)  A reference in this Act to an enterprise agreement covering an employee is a reference to the agreement covering the employee in relation to particular employment.

54  When an enterprise agreement is in operation

             (1)  An enterprise agreement approved by FWA operates from:

                     (a)  7 days after the agreement is approved; or

                     (b)  if a later day is specified in the agreement—that later day.

             (2)  An enterprise agreement ceases to operate on the earlier of the following days:

                     (a)  the day on which a termination of the agreement comes into operation under section 224 or 227;

                     (b)  the day on which section 58 first has the effect that there is no employee to whom the agreement applies.

Note:          Section 58 deals with when an enterprise agreement ceases to apply to an employee.

             (3)  An enterprise agreement that has ceased to operate can never operate again.


 

Division 3Interaction between the National Employment Standards, modern awards and enterprise agreements

Subdivision AInteraction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or an enterprise agreement

55  Interaction between the National Employment Standards and a modern award or enterprise agreement

National Employment Standards must not be excluded

             (1)  A modern award or enterprise agreement must not exclude the National Employment Standards or any provision of the National Employment Standards.

Terms expressly permitted by Part 2‑2 or regulations may be included

             (2)  A modern award or enterprise agreement may include any terms that the award or agreement is expressly permitted to include:

                     (a)  by a provision of Part 2‑2 (which deals with the National Employment Standards); or

                     (b)  by regulations made for the purposes of section 127.

Note:          In determining what is permitted to be included in a modern award or enterprise agreement by a provision referred to in paragraph (a), any regulations made for the purpose of section 127 that expressly prohibit certain terms must be taken into account.

             (3)  The National Employment Standards have effect subject to terms included in a modern award or enterprise agreement as referred to in subsection (2).

Note:          See also the note to section 63 (which deals with the effect of averaging arrangements).

Ancillary and supplementary terms may be included

             (4)  A modern award or enterprise agreement may also include the following kinds of terms:

                     (a)  terms that are ancillary or incidental to the operation of an entitlement of an employee under the National Employment Standards;

                     (b)  terms that supplement the National Employment Standards;

but only to the extent that the effect of those terms is not detrimental to an employee in any respect, when compared to the National Employment Standards.

Note 1:       Ancillary or incidental terms permitted by paragraph (a) include (for example) terms:

(a)    under which, instead of taking paid annual leave at the rate of pay required by section 90, an employee may take twice as much leave at half that rate of pay; or

(b)    that specify when payment under section 90 for paid annual leave must be made.

Note 2:       Supplementary terms permitted by paragraph (b) include (for example) terms:

(a)    that increase the amount of paid annual leave to which an employee is entitled beyond the number of weeks that applies under section 87; or

(b)    that provide for an employee to be paid for taking a period of paid annual leave or paid/personal carer’s leave at a rate of pay that is higher than the employee’s base rate of pay (which is the rate required by sections 90 and 99).

Note 3:       Terms that would not be permitted by paragraph (a) or (b) include (for example) terms requiring an employee to give more notice of the taking of unpaid parental leave than is required by section 74.

Enterprise agreements may include terms that have the same effect as provisions of the National Employment Standards

             (5)  An enterprise agreement may include terms that have the same (or substantially the same) effect as provisions of the National Employment Standards, whether or not ancillary or supplementary terms are included as referred to in subsection (4).

Effect of terms that give an employee the same entitlement as under the National Employment Standards

             (6)  To avoid doubt, if a modern award includes terms permitted by subsection (4), or an enterprise agreement includes terms permitted by subsection (4) or (5), then, to the extent that the terms give an employee an entitlement (the award or agreement entitlement) that is the same as an entitlement (the NES entitlement) of the employee under the National Employment Standards:

                     (a)  those terms operate in parallel with the employee’s NES entitlement, but not so as to give the employee a double benefit; and

                     (b)  the provisions of the National Employment Standards relating to the NES entitlement apply, as a minimum standard, to the award or agreement entitlement.

Note:          For example, if the award or agreement entitlement is to 6 weeks of paid annual leave per year, the provisions of the National Employment Standards relating to the accrual and taking of paid annual leave will apply, as a minimum standard, to 4 weeks of that leave.

Terms permitted by subsection (4) or (5) do not contravene subsection (1)

             (7)  To the extent that a term of a modern award or enterprise agreement is permitted by subsection (4) or (5), the term does not contravene subsection (1).

Note:          A term of a modern award has no effect to the extent that it contravenes this section (see section 56). An enterprise agreement that includes a term that contravenes this section must not be approved (see section 186) and a term of an enterprise agreement has no effect to the extent that it contravenes this section (see section 56).

56  Terms of a modern award or enterprise agreement contravening section 55 have no effect

                   A term of a modern award or enterprise agreement has no effect to the extent that it contravenes section 55.

Subdivision BInteraction between modern awards and enterprise agreements

57  Interaction between modern awards and enterprise agreements

             (1)  A modern award does not apply to an employee in relation to particular employment at a time when an enterprise agreement applies to the employee in relation to that employment.

             (2)  If a modern award does not apply to an employee in relation to particular employment because of subsection (1), the award does not apply to an employer, or an employee organisation, in relation to the employee.

57A  Designated outworker terms of a modern award continue to apply

             (1)  This section applies if, at a particular time:

                     (a)  an enterprise agreement applies to an employer; and

                     (b)  a modern award covers the employer (whether the modern award covers the employer in the employer’s capacity as an employer or an outworker entity); and

                     (c)  the modern award includes one or more designated outworker terms.

             (2)  Despite section 57, the designated outworker terms of the modern award apply at that time to the following:

                     (a)  the employer;

                     (b)  each employee who is both:

                              (i)  a person to whom the enterprise agreement applies; and

                             (ii)  a person who is covered by the modern award;

                     (c)  each employee organisation that is covered by the modern award.

             (3)  To avoid doubt:

                     (a)  designated outworker terms of a modern award can apply to an employer under subsection (2) even if none of the employees of the employer is an outworker; and

                     (b)  to the extent to which designated outworker terms of a modern award apply to an employer, an employee or an employee organisation because of subsection (2), the modern award applies to the employer, employee or organisation.

Subdivision CInteraction between one or more enterprise agreements

58  Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee

Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee

             (1)  Only one enterprise agreement can apply to an employee at a particular time.

General rule—later agreement does not apply until earlier agreement passes its nominal expiry date

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  an enterprise agreement (the earlier agreement) applies to an employee in relation to particular employment; and

                     (b)  another enterprise agreement (the later agreement) that covers the employee in relation to the same employment comes into operation; and

                     (c)  subsection (3) (which deals with a single‑enterprise agreement replacing a multi‑enterprise agreement) does not apply;

then:

                     (d)  if the earlier agreement has not passed its nominal expiry date:

                              (i)  the later agreement cannot apply to the employee in relation to that employment until the earlier agreement passes its nominal expiry date; and

                             (ii)  the earlier agreement ceases to apply to the employee in relation to that employment when the earlier agreement passes its nominal expiry date, and can never so apply again; or

                     (e)  if the earlier agreement has passed its nominal expiry date—the earlier agreement ceases to apply to the employee when the later agreement comes into operation, and can never so apply again.

Special rule—single‑enterprise agreement replaces multi‑enterprise agreement

             (3)  Despite subsection (2), if:

                     (a)  a multi‑enterprise agreement applies to an employee in relation to particular employment; and

                     (b)  a single‑enterprise agreement that covers the employee in relation to the same employment comes into operation;

the multi‑enterprise agreement ceases to apply to the employee in relation to that employment when the single‑enterprise agreement comes into operation, and can never so apply again.


 

Part 2‑2The National Employment Standards

Division 1Introduction

59  Guide to this Part

This Part contains the National Employment Standards.

Division 2 identifies the National Employment Standards, the detail of which is set out in Divisions 3 to 12.

Division 13 contains miscellaneous provisions relating to the National Employment Standards.

The National Employment Standards are minimum standards that apply to the employment of national system employees. Part 2‑1 (which deals with the core provisions for this Chapter) contains the obligation for employers to comply with the National Employment Standards (see section 44).

The National Employment Standards also underpin what can be included in modern awards and enterprise agreements. Part 2‑1 provides that the National Employment Standards cannot be excluded by modern awards or enterprise agreements, and contains other provisions about the interaction between the National Employment Standards and modern awards or enterprise agreements (see sections 55 and 56).

Divisions 2 and 3 of Part 6‑3 extend the operation of the parental leave and notice of termination provisions of the National Employment Standards to employees who are not national system employees.

60  Meanings of employee and employer

                   In this Part, employee means a national system employee, and employer means a national system employer.


 

Division 2The National Employment Standards

61  The National Employment Standards are minimum standards applying to employment of employees

             (1)  This Part sets minimum standards that apply to the employment of employees which cannot be displaced, even if an enterprise agreement includes terms of the kind referred to in subsection 55(5).

Note:          Subsection 55(5) allows enterprise agreements to include terms that have the same (or substantially the same) effect as provisions of the National Employment Standards.

             (2)  The minimum standards relate to the following matters:

                     (a)  maximum weekly hours (Division 3);

                     (b)  requests for flexible working arrangements (Division 4);

                     (c)  parental leave and related entitlements (Division 5);

                     (d)  annual leave (Division 6);

                     (e)  personal/carer’s leave and compassionate leave (Division 7);

                      (f)  community service leave (Division 8);

                     (g)  long service leave (Division 9);

                     (h)  public holidays (Division 10);

                      (i)  notice of termination and redundancy pay (Division 11);

                      (j)  Fair Work Information Statement (Division 12).

             (3)  Divisions 3 to 12 constitute the National Employment Standards.


 

Division 3Maximum weekly hours

62  Maximum weekly hours

Maximum weekly hours of work

             (1)  An employer must not request or require an employee to work more than the following number of hours in a week unless the additional hours are reasonable:

                     (a)  for a full‑time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s ordinary hours of work in a week.

Employee may refuse to work unreasonable additional hours

             (2)  The employee may refuse to work additional hours (beyond those referred to in paragraph (1)(a) or (b)) if they are unreasonable.

Determining whether additional hours are reasonable

             (3)  In determining whether additional hours are reasonable or unreasonable for the purposes of subsections (1) and (2), the following must be taken into account:

                     (a)  any risk to employee health and safety from working the additional hours;

                     (b)  the employee’s personal circumstances, including family responsibilities;

                     (c)  the needs of the workplace or enterprise in which the employee is employed;

                     (d)  whether the employee is entitled to receive overtime payments, penalty rates or other compensation for, or a level of remuneration that reflects an expectation of, working additional hours;

                     (e)  any notice given by the employer of any request or requirement to work the additional hours;

                      (f)  any notice given by the employee of his or her intention to refuse to work the additional hours;

                     (g)  the usual patterns of work in the industry, or the part of an industry, in which the employee works;

                     (h)  the nature of the employee’s role, and the employee’s level of responsibility;

                      (i)  whether the additional hours are in accordance with averaging terms included under section 63 in a modern award or enterprise agreement that applies to the employee, or with an averaging arrangement agreed to by the employer and employee under section 64;

                      (j)  any other relevant matter.

Authorised leave or absence treated as hours worked

             (4)  For the purposes of subsection (1), the hours an employee works in a week are taken to include any hours of leave, or absence, whether paid or unpaid, that the employee takes in the week and that are authorised:

                     (a)  by the employee’s employer; or

                     (b)  by or under a term or condition of the employee’s employment; or

                     (c)  by or under a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory, or an instrument in force under such a law.

63  Modern awards and enterprise agreements may provide for averaging of hours of work

                   A modern award or enterprise agreement may include terms providing for the averaging of hours of work over a specified period. The average weekly hours over the period must not exceed:

                     (a)  for a full‑time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s ordinary hours of work in a week.

Note:          Hours in excess of the hours referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) that are worked in a week in accordance with averaging terms in a modern award or enterprise agreement will be treated as additional hours for the purpose of section 62, but the averaging terms will be relevant in determining whether the additional hours are reasonable (see paragraph 62(3)(i)).

64  Averaging of hours of work for award/agreement free employees

                   An employer and an award/agreement free employee may agree in writing to an averaging arrangement under which hours of work over a specified period of not more than 26 weeks are averaged. The average weekly hours over the specified period must not exceed:

                     (a)  for a full‑time employee—38 hours; or

                     (b)  for an employee who is not a full‑time employee—the lesser of:

                              (i)  38 hours; and

                             (ii)  the employee’s ordinary hours of work in a week.

Note:          Hours in excess of the hours referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) that are worked in a week in accordance with an agreed averaging arrangement will be treated as additional hours for the purpose of section 62, but the averaging arrangement will be relevant in determining whether the additional hours are reasonable (see paragraph 62(3)(i)).


 

Division 4Requests for flexible working arrangements

65  Requests for flexible working arrangements

Employee may request change in working arrangements

             (1)  An employee who is a parent, or has responsibility for the care, of a child may request the employer for a change in working arrangements to assist the employee to care for the child if the child:

                     (a)  is under school age; or

                     (b)  is under 18 and has a disability.

Note:          Examples of changes in working arrangements include changes in hours of work, changes in patterns of work and changes in location of work.

             (2)  The employee is not entitled to make the request unless:

                     (a)  for an employee other than a casual employee—the employee has completed at least 12 months of continuous service with the employer immediately before making the request; or

                     (b)  for a casual employee—the employee:

                              (i)  is a long term casual employee of the employer immediately before making the request; and

                             (ii)  has a reasonable expectation of continuing employment by the employer on a regular and systematic basis.

Formal requirements

             (3)  The request must:

                     (a)  be in writing; and

                     (b)  set out details of the change sought and of the reasons for the change.

Agreeing to the request

             (4)  The employer must give the employee a written response to the request within 21 days, stating whether the employer grants or refuses the request.

             (5)  The employer may refuse the request only on reasonable business grounds.

             (6)  If the employer refuses the request, the written response under subsection (4) must include details of the reasons for the refusal.

66  State and Territory laws that are not excluded

                   This Act is not intended to apply to the exclusion of laws of a State or Territory that provide employee entitlements in relation to flexible working arrangements, to the extent that those entitlements are more beneficial to employees than the entitlements under this Division.


 

Division 5Parental leave and related entitlements

Subdivision AGeneral

67  General rule—employee must have completed at least 12 months of service

Employees other than casual employees

             (1)  An employee, other than a casual employee, is not entitled to leave under this Division (other than unpaid pre‑adoption leave) unless the employee has, or will have, completed at least 12 months of continuous service with the employer immediately before the date that applies under subsection (3).

Casual employees

             (2)  A casual employee, is not entitled to leave (other than unpaid pre‑adoption leave) under this Division unless:

                     (a)  the employee is, or will be, a long term casual employee of the employer immediately before the date that applies under subsection (3); and

                     (b)  but for:

                              (i)  the birth or expected birth of the child; or

                             (ii)  the placement or the expected placement of the child; or

                            (iii)  if the employee is taking a period of unpaid parental leave that starts under subsection 71(6) or paragraph 72(3)(b) or 72(4)(b)—the taking of the leave;

                            the employee would have a reasonable expectation of continuing employment by the employer on a regular and systematic basis.

Date at which employee must have completed 12 months of service

             (3)  For the purpose of subsections (1) and (2), the date that applies is:

                     (a)  unless paragraph (b) or (c) applies:

                              (i)  if the leave is birth‑related leave—the date of birth, or the expected date of birth, of the child; or

                             (ii)  if the leave is adoption‑related leave—the day of placement, or the expected day of placement, of the child; or

                     (b)  for an employee taking a period of unpaid parental leave that is to start within 12 months after the birth or placement of the child under subsection 71(6)—the date on which the employee’s period of leave is to start; or

                     (c)  for a member of an employee couple taking a period of unpaid parental leave that is to start under paragraph 72(3)(b) or 72(4)(b) after the period of unpaid parental leave of the other member of the employee couple—the date on which the employee’s period of leave is to start.

Meaning of birth‑related leave

             (4)  Birth‑related leave means leave of either of the following kinds:

                     (a)  unpaid parental leave taken in association with the birth of a child (see section 70);

                     (b)  unpaid special maternity leave (see section 80).

Meaning of adoption‑related leave

             (5)  Adoption‑related leave means leave of either of the following kinds:

                     (a)  unpaid parental leave taken in association with the placement of a child for adoption (see section 70);

                     (b)  unpaid pre‑adoption leave (see section 85).

Meaning of day of placement

             (6)  The day of placement, in relation to the adoption of a child by an employee, means the earlier of the following days:

                     (a)  the day on which the employee first takes custody of the child for the adoption;

                     (b)  the day on which the employee starts any travel that is reasonably necessary to take custody of the child for the adoption.

68  General rule for adoption‑related leave—child must be under 16 etc.

                   An employee is not entitled to adoption‑related leave unless the child that is, or is to be, placed with the employee for adoption:

                     (a)  is, or will be, under 16 as at the day of placement, or the expected day of placement, of the child; and

                     (b)  has not, or will not have, lived continuously with the employee for a period of 6 months or more as at the day of placement, or the expected day of placement, of the child; and

                     (c)  is not (otherwise than because of the adoption) a child of the employee or the employee’s spouse or de facto partner.

69  Transfer of employment situations in which employee is entitled to continue on leave etc.

             (1)  If:

                     (a)  there is a transfer of employment in relation to an employee; and

                     (b)  the employee has already started a period of leave under this Division when his or her employment with the first employer ends;

the employee is entitled to continue on that leave for the rest of that period.

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  there is a transfer of employment in relation to an employee; and

                     (b)  the employee has, in relation to the first employer, already taken a step that is required or permitted by a provision of this Division in relation to taking a period of leave;

the employee is taken to have taken the step in relation to the second employer.

Note:          Steps covered by this subsection include (for example) giving the first employer notice under subsection 74(1), confirmation or advice under subsection 74(4) or evidence under subsection 74(5).

Subdivision BParental leave

70  Entitlement to unpaid parental leave

                   An employee is entitled to 12 months of unpaid parental leave if:

                     (a)  the leave is associated with:

                              (i)  the birth of a child of the employee or the employee’s spouse or de facto partner; or

                             (ii)  the placement of a child with the employee for adoption; and

                     (b)  the employee has or will have a responsibility for the care of the child.

Note 1:       Entitlement is also affected by section 67 (which deals with length of the employee’s service) and, for adoption, section 68 (which deals with the age etc. of the adopted child).

Note 2:       The 12 months is reduced by the amount of any unpaid special maternity leave the employee has taken (see subsection 80(7)).

71  The period of leave—other than for members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave

Application of this section

             (1)  This section applies to an employee who intends to take unpaid parental leave if:

                     (a)  the employee is not a member of an employee couple; or

                     (b)  the employee is a member of an employee couple, but the other member of the couple does not intend to take unpaid parental leave.

Leave must be taken in single continuous period

             (2)  The employee must take the leave in a single continuous period.

Note:          An employee may take a form of paid leave at the same time as he or she is on unpaid parental leave (see section 79).

When birth‑related leave must start

             (3)  If the leave is birth‑related leave for a female employee who is pregnant with, or gives birth to, the child, the period of leave may start up to 6 weeks before the expected date of birth of the child, but must not start later than the date of birth of the child.

             (4)  If the leave is birth‑related leave but subsection (3) does not apply, the period of leave must start on the date of birth of the child.

When adoption‑related leave must start

             (5)  If the leave is adoption‑related leave, the period of leave must start on the day of placement of the child.

Leave may start later for employees whose spouse or de facto partner is not an employee

             (6)  Despite subsections (3) to (5), the period of leave may start at any time within 12 months after the date of birth or day of placement of the child if:

                     (a)  the employee has a spouse or de facto partner who is not an employee; and

                     (b)  the spouse or de facto partner has a responsibility for the care of the child for the period between the date of birth or day of placement of the child and the start date of the leave.

Note:          An employee whose leave starts under subsection (6) is still entitled under section 76 to request an extension of the period of leave beyond his or her available parental leave period. However, the period of leave may not be extended beyond 24 months after the date of birth or day of placement of the child (see subsection 76(7)).

72  The period of leave—members of an employee couple who each intend to take leave

Application of this section

             (1)  This section applies to an employee couple if each of the employees intends to take unpaid parental leave.

Leave must be taken in single continuous period

             (2)  Each employee must take the leave in a single continuous period.

Note:          An employee may take a form of paid leave at the same time as he or she is on unpaid parental leave (see section 79).

When birth‑related leave must start

             (3)  If the leave is birth‑related leave:

                     (a)  one employee’s period of leave must start first, in accordance with the following rules:

                              (i)  if the member of the employee couple whose period of leave starts first is a female employee who is pregnant with, or gives birth to, the child—the period of leave may start up to 6 weeks before the expected date of birth of the child, but must not start later than the date of birth of the child;

                             (ii)  if subparagraph (i) does not apply—the period of leave must start on the date of birth of the child; and

                     (b)  the other employee’s period of leave must start immediately after the end of the first employee’s period of leave (or that period as extended under section 75 or 76).

When adoption‑related leave must start

             (4)  If the leave is adoption‑related leave:

                     (a)  one employee’s period of leave must start on the day of placement of the child; and

                     (b)  the other employee’s period of leave must start immediately after the end of the first employee’s period of leave (or that period as extended under section 75 or 76).

Limited entitlement to take concurrent leave

             (5)  If one of the employees takes a period (the first employee’s period of leave) of unpaid parental leave in accordance with paragraph (3)(a) or (4)(a), the other employee may take a period of unpaid parental leave (the concurrent leave) during the first employee’s period of leave, if the concurrent leave complies with the following requirements:

                     (a)  the concurrent leave must be for a period of 3 weeks or less;

                     (b)  unless the employer agrees as referred to in paragraph (c), the concurrent leave must not start before, and must not end more than 3 weeks after:

                              (i)  if the leave is birth‑related leave—the date of birth of the child; or

                             (ii)  if the leave is adoption‑related leave—the day of placement of the child;

                     (c)  if the employer agrees, the concurrent leave may (subject to paragraph (a)):

                              (i)  start earlier than is permitted by paragraph (b); or

                             (ii)  end up to 3 weeks later than is permitted by paragraph (b).

             (6)  Concurrent leave taken by an employee:

                     (a)  is an exception to the rule that the employee must take his or her leave in a single continuous period (see subsection (2)); and

                     (b)  is an exception to the rules about when the employee’s period of unpaid parental leave must start (see subsection (3) or (4)).

Note:          The concurrent leave is unpaid parental leave and so comes out of the employee’s entitlement to 12 months of unpaid parental leave under section 70.

73  Pregnant employee may be required to take unpaid parental leave within 6 weeks before the birth

Employer may ask employee to provide a medical certificate

             (1)  If a pregnant employee who is entitled to unpaid parental leave (whether or not she has complied with section 74) continues to work during the 6 week period before the expected date of birth of the child, the employer may ask the employee to give the employer a medical certificate containing the following statements (as applicable):

                     (a)  a statement of whether the employee is fit for work;

                     (b)  if the employee is fit for work—a statement of whether it is inadvisable for the employee to continue in her present position during a stated period because of:

                              (i)  illness, or risks, arising out of the employee’s pregnancy; or

                             (ii)  hazards connected with the position.

Note:          Personal information given to an employer under this subsection may be regulated under the Privacy Act 1988.

Employer may require employee to take unpaid parental leave

             (2)  The employer may require the employee to take a period of unpaid parental leave (the period of leave) as soon as practicable if:

                     (a)  the employee does not give the employer the requested certificate within 7 days after the request; or

                     (b)  within 7 days after the request, the employee gives the employer a medical certificate stating that the employee is not fit for work; or

                     (c)  the following subparagraphs are satisfied:

                              (i)  within 7 days after the request, the employee gives the employer a medical certificate stating that the employee is fit for work, but that it is inadvisable for the employee to continue in her present position for a stated period for a reason referred to in subparagraph (1)(b)(i) or (ii);

                             (ii)  section 81 does not apply to the employee.

Note:          If the medical certificate contains a statement as referred to in subparagraph (c)(i) and section 81 applies to the employee, the employee is entitled under that section to be transferred to a safe job, or to paid no safe job leave.

When the period of leave must end

             (3)  The period of leave must not end later than the earlier of the following:

                     (a)  the end of the pregnancy;

                     (b)  if the employee has given the employer notice of the taking of a period of leave connected with the birth of the child (whether it is unpaid parental leave or some other kind of leave)—the start date of that leave.

Special rules about the period of leave

             (4)  The period of leave:

                     (a)  is an exception to the rule that the employee must take her unpaid parental leave in a single continuous period (see subsection 71(2) or 72(2)); and

                     (b)  is an exception to the rules about when the employee’s period of unpaid parental leave must start (see subsections 71(3) and (6), or subsection 72(3)).

Note:          The period of leave is unpaid parental leave and so comes out of the employee’s entitlement to 12 months of unpaid parental leave under section 70.

             (5)  The employee is not required to comply with section 74 in relation to the period of leave.

74  Notice and evidence requirements

Notice