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Criminal Code Act 1995

  • - C2005C00107
  • In force - Superseded Version
  • View Series
Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended, taking into account amendments up to Act No. 7 of 2005
An Act relating to the criminal law
Administered by: Attorney-General's
Registered 02 Mar 2005
Start Date 01 Mar 2005
End Date 30 Jun 2005
Table of contents.
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1 Short title [see Note 1]
2 Commencement [see Note 1]
3 The Criminal Code
3A External Territories
3B Offshore installations
4 Definitions
5 Regulations
Schedule—The Criminal Code
Chapter 1—Codification
Division 1
1.1 Codification
Chapter 2—General principles of criminal responsibility
Part 2.1—Purpose and application
Division 2
2.1 Purpose
2.2 Application
2.3 Application of provisions relating to intoxication
Part 2.2—The elements of an offence
Division 3—General
3.1 Elements
3.2 Establishing guilt in respect of offences
Division 4—Physical elements
4.1 Physical elements
4.2 Voluntariness
4.3 Omissions
Division 5—Fault elements
5.1 Fault elements
5.2 Intention
5.3 Knowledge
5.4 Recklessness
5.5 Negligence
5.6 Offences that do not specify fault elements
Division 6—Cases where fault elements are not required
6.1 Strict liability
6.2 Absolute liability
Part 2.3—Circumstances in which there is no criminal responsibility
Division 7—Circumstances involving lack of capacity
7.1 Children under 10
7.2 Children over 10 but under 14
7.3 Mental impairment
Division 8—Intoxication
8.1 Definition—self‑induced intoxication
8.2 Intoxication (offences involving basic intent)
8.3 Intoxication (negligence as fault element)
8.4 Intoxication (relevance to defences)
8.5 Involuntary intoxication
Division 9—Circumstances involving mistake or ignorance
9.1 Mistake or ignorance of fact (fault elements other than negligence)
9.2 Mistake of fact (strict liability)
9.3 Mistake or ignorance of statute law
9.4 Mistake or ignorance of subordinate legislation
9.5 Claim of right
Division 10—Circumstances involving external factors
10.1 Intervening conduct or event
10.2 Duress
10.3 Sudden or extraordinary emergency
10.4 Self‑defence
10.5 Lawful authority
Part 2.4—Extensions of criminal responsibility
Division 11
11.1 Attempt
11.2 Complicity and common purpose
11.3 Innocent agency
11.4 Incitement
11.5 Conspiracy
11.6 References in Acts to offences
Part 2.5—Corporate criminal responsibility
Division 12
12.1 General principles
12.2 Physical elements
12.3 Fault elements other than negligence
12.4 Negligence
12.5 Mistake of fact (strict liability)
12.6 Intervening conduct or event
Part 2.6—Proof of criminal responsibility
Division 13
13.1 Legal burden of proof—prosecution
13.2 Standard of proof—prosecution
13.3 Evidential burden of proof—defence
13.4 Legal burden of proof—defence
13.5 Standard of proof—defence
13.6 Use of averments
Part 2.7—Geographical jurisdiction
Division 14—Standard geographical jurisdiction
14.1 Standard geographical jurisdiction
Division 15—Extended geographical jurisdiction
15.1 Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A
15.2 Extended geographical jurisdiction—category B
15.3 Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C
15.4 Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D
Division 16—Miscellaneous
16.1 Attorney‑General’s consent required for prosecution if alleged conduct occurs wholly in a foreign country in certain circumstances
16.2 When conduct taken to occur partly in Australia
16.3 Meaning of Australia
16.4 Result of conduct
Chapter 4—The integrity and security of the international community and foreign governments
Division 70—Bribery of foreign public officials
70.2 Bribing a foreign public official
70.3 Defence—conduct lawful in foreign public official’s country
70.4 Defence—facilitation payments
70.5 Territorial and nationality requirements
70.6 Saving of other laws
Division 71—Offences against United Nations and associated personnel
71.1 Purpose
71.2 Murder of a UN or associated person
71.3 Manslaughter of a UN or associated person
71.4 Intentionally causing serious harm to a UN or associated person
71.5 Recklessly causing serious harm to a UN or associated person
71.6 Intentionally causing harm to a UN or associated person
71.7 Recklessly causing harm to a UN or associated person
71.8 Unlawful sexual penetration
71.9 Kidnapping a UN or associated person
71.10 Unlawful detention of UN or associated person
71.11 Intentionally causing damage to UN or associated person’s property etc.
71.12 Threatening to commit other offences
71.13 Aggravated offences
71.14 Defence—activities involving serious harm
71.15 Defence—medical or hygienic procedures
71.16 Jurisdictional requirement
71.17 Exclusion of this Division if State/Territory laws provide for corresponding offences
71.18 Double jeopardy
71.19 Saving of other laws
71.20 Bringing proceedings under this Division
71.21 Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings
71.22 Jurisdiction of State courts preserved
71.23 Definitions
Division 72—International terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices
72.1 Purpose
72.2 ADF members not liable for prosecution
72.3 Offences
72.4 Jurisdictional requirement
72.5 Saving of other laws
72.6 Double jeopardy and foreign offences
72.7 Bringing proceedings under this Division
72.8 Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings
72.9 Jurisdiction of State courts preserved
72.10 Definitions
Division 73—People smuggling and related offences
Subdivision A—People smuggling offences
73. 1 Offence of people smuggling
73.2 Aggravated offence of people smuggling (exploitation etc.)
73.3 Aggravated offence of people smuggling (at least 5 people)
73.4 Jurisdictional requirement
73.5 Attorney‑General’s consent required
Subdivision B—Document offences related to people smuggling and unlawful entry into foreign countries
73.6 Meaning of travel or identity document
73.7 Meaning of false travel or identity document
73.8 Making, providing or possessing a false travel or identity document
73.9 Providing or possessing a travel or identity document issued or altered dishonestly or as a result of threats
73.10 Providing or possessing a travel or identity document to be used by a person who is not the rightful user
73.11 Taking possession of or destroying another person’s travel or identity document
73.12 Jurisdictional requirement
Chapter 5—The security of the Commonwealth
Part 5.1—Treason
Division 80—Treason
80.1 Treason
Part 5.2—Offences relating to espionage and similar activities
Division 90—Preliminary
90.1 Definitions
Division 91—Offences relating to espionage and similar activities
91.1 Espionage and similar activities
91.2 Defence—information lawfully available
Division 93—Prosecutions and hearings
93.1 Institution of prosecution
93.2 Hearing in camera etc.
Division 94—Forfeiture
94.1 Forfeiture of articles etc.
Part 5.3—Terrorism
Division 100—Preliminary
100.1 Definitions
100.2 Referring States
100.3 Constitutional basis for the operation of this Part
100.4 Application of provisions
100.5 Application of Acts Interpretation Act 1901
100.6 Concurrent operation intended
100.7 Regulations may modify operation of this Part to deal with interaction between this Part and State and Territory laws
100.8 Approval for changes to or affecting this Part
Division 101—Terrorism
101.1 Terrorist acts
101.2 Providing or receiving training connected with terrorist acts
101.4 Possessing things connected with terrorist acts
101.6 Other acts done in preparation for, or planning, terrorist acts
Division 102—Terrorist organisations
Subdivision A—Definitions
102.1 Definitions
102.1A Reviews by Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD
Subdivision B—Offences
102.2 Directing the activities of a terrorist organisation
102.3 Membership of a terrorist organisation
102.4 Recruiting for a terrorist organisation
102.5 Training a terrorist organisation or receiving training from a terrorist organisation
102.6 Getting funds to or from a terrorist organisation
102.7 Providing support to a terrorist organisation
102.8 Associating with terrorist organisations
Subdivision C—General provisions relating to offences
102.9 Extended geographical jurisdiction for offences
102.10 Alternative verdicts
Division 103—Financing terrorism
103.1 Financing terrorism
Division 106—Transitional provisions
106.1 Saving—regulations made for the purposes of the definition of terrorist organisation
Part 5.4—Harming Australians
Division 104—Harming Australians
104.1 Murder of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia
104.2 Manslaughter of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia
104.3 Intentionally causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia
104.4 Recklessly causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia
104.5 Saving of other laws
104.6 Bringing proceedings under this Division
104.7 Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings
104.8 Geographical jurisdiction
104.9 Meaning of causes death or harm
Chapter 7—The proper administration of Government
Part 7.1—Preliminary
Division 130—Preliminary
130.1 Definitions
130.2 When property belongs to a person
130.3 Dishonesty
130.4 Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact
Part 7.2—Theft and other property offences
Division 131—Theft
131.1 Theft
131.2 Special rules about the meaning of dishonesty
131.3 Appropriation of property
131.4 Theft of land or things forming part of land
131.5 Trust property
131.6 Obligation to deal with property in a particular way
131.7 Property obtained because of fundamental mistake
131.8 Property of a corporation sole
131.9 Property belonging to 2 or more persons
131.10 Intention of permanently depriving a person of property
131.11 General deficiency
Division 132—Other property offences
132.1 Receiving
132.2 Robbery
132.3 Aggravated robbery
132.4 Burglary
132.5 Aggravated burglary
132.6 Making off without payment
132.7 Going equipped for theft or a property offence
132.8 Dishonest taking or retention of property
132.9 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 7.3—Fraudulent conduct
Division 133—Preliminary
133.1 Definitions
Division 134—Obtaining property or a financial advantage by deception
134.1 Obtaining property by deception
134.2 Obtaining a financial advantage by deception
134.3 Geographical jurisdiction
Division 135—Other offences involving fraudulent conduct
135.1 General dishonesty
135.2 Obtaining financial advantage
135.4 Conspiracy to defraud
135.5 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 7.4—False or misleading statements
Division 136—False or misleading statements in applications
136.1 False or misleading statements in applications
Division 137—False or misleading information or documents
137.1 False or misleading information
137.2 False or misleading documents
137.3 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 7.5—Unwarranted demands
Division 138—Preliminary
138.1 Unwarranted demand with menaces
138.2 Menaces
Division 139—Unwarranted demands
139.1 Unwarranted demands of a Commonwealth public official
13 9.2 Unwarranted demands made by a Commonwealth public official
139.3 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 7.6—Bribery and related offences
Division 140—Preliminary
140.1 Definition
140.2 Obtaining
Division 141—Bribery
141.1 Bribery of a Commonwealth public official
Division 142—Offences relating to bribery
142.1 Corrupting benefits given to, or received by, a Commonwealth public official
142.2 Abuse of public office
142.3 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 7.7—Forgery and related offences
Division 143—Preliminary
143.1 Definitions
143.2 False documents
143.3 False Commonwealth documents
143.4 Inducing acceptance of false documents
Division 144—Forgery
144.1 Forgery
Division 145—Offences relating to forgery
145.1 Using forged document
145.2 Possession of forged document
145.3 Possession, making or adaptation of devices etc. for making forgeries
145.4 Falsification of documents etc.
145.5 Giving information derived from false or misleading documents
145.6 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 7.8—Causing harm to, and impersonation and obstruction of, Commonwealth public officials
Division 146—Preliminary
146.1 Definitions
146.2 Causing harm
Division 147—Causing harm to Commonwealth public officials
147.1 Causing harm to a Commonwealth public official etc.
147.2 Threatening to cause harm to a Commonwealth public official etc.
147.3 Geographical jurisdiction
Division 148—Impersonation of Commonwealth public officials
148.1 Impersonation of an official by a non‑official
148.2 Impersonation of an official by another official
148.3 Geographical jurisdiction
Division 149—Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials
149.1 Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials
Part 7.20—Miscellaneous
Division 261—Miscellaneous
261.1 Saving of other laws
261.2 Contempt of court
Chapter 8—Offences against humanity and related offences
Division 268—Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court
Subdivision A—Introductory
268.1 Purpose of Division
268.2 Outline of offences
Subdivision B—Genocide
268.3 Genocide by killing
268.4 Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm
268.5 Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction
268.6 Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births
268.7 Genocide by forcibly transferring children
Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity
268.8 Crime against humanity—murder
268.9 Crime against humanity—extermination
268.10 Crime against humanity—enslavement
268.11 Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population
268.12 Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty
268.13 Crime against humanity—torture
268.14 Crime against humanity—rape
268.15 Crime against humanity—sexual slavery
268.16 Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution
268.17 Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy
268.18 Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation
268.19 Crime against humanity—sexual violence
268.20 Crime against humanity—persecution
268.21 Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons
268.22 Crime against humanity—apartheid
268.23 Crime against humanity—other inhumane act
Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions
268.24 War crime—wilful killing
268.25 War crime—torture
268.26 War crime—inhumane treatment
268.27 War crime—biological experiments
268.28 War crime—wilfully causing great suffering
268.29 War crime—destruction and appropriation of property
268.30 War crime—compelling service in hostile forces
268.31 War crime—denying a fair trial
268.32 War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer
268.33 War crime—unlawful confinement
268.34 War crime—taking hostages
Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict
268.35 War crime—attacking civilians
268.36 War crime—attacking civilian objects
268.37 War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission
268.38 War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage
268.39 War crime—attacking undefended places
268.40 War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat
268.41 War crime—improper use of a flag of truce
268.42 War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party
268.43 War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations
268.44 War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions
268.45 War crime—transfer of population
268.46 War crime—attacking protected objects
268.47 War crime—mutilation
268.48 War crime—medical or scientific experiments
268.49 War crime—treacherously killing or injuring
268.50 War crime—denying quarter
268.51 War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property
268.52 War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions
268.53 War crime—compelling participation in military operations
268.54 War crime—pillaging
268.55 War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons
268.56 War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices
268.57 War crime—employing prohibited bullets
268.58 War crime—outrages upon personal dignity
268.59 War crime—rape
268.60 War crime—sexual slavery
268.61 War crime—enforced prostitution
268.62 War crime—forced pregnancy
268.63 War crime—enforced sterilisation
268.64 War crime—sexual violence
268.65 War crime—using protected persons as shields
268.66 War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions
268.67 War crime—starvation as a method of warfare
268.68 War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children
Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict
268.69 Definition of religious personnel
268.70 War crime—murder
268.71 War crime—mutilation
268.72 War crime—cruel treatment
268.73 War crime—torture
268.74 War crime—outrages upon personal dignity
268.75 War crime—taking hostages
268.76 War crime—sentencing or execution without due process
Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict
268.77 War crime—attacking civilians
268.78 War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions
268.79 War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission
268.80 War crime—attacking protected objects
268.81 War crime—pillaging
268.82 War crime—rape
268.83 War crime—sexual slavery
268.84 War crime—enforced prostitution
268.85 War crime—forced pregnancy
268.86 War crime—enforced sterilisation
268.87 War crime—sexual violence
268.88 War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children
268.89 War crime—displacing civilians
268.90 War crime—treacherously killing or injuring
268.91 War crime—denying quarter
268.92 War crime—mutilation
268.93 War crime—medical or scientific experiments
268.94 War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property
Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions
268.95 War crime—medical procedure
268.96 War crime—removal of blood, tissue or o rgans for transplantation
268.97 War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians
268.98 War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones
268.99 War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians
268.100 War crime—apartheid
268.101 War crime—attacking protected objects
Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court
268.102 Perjury
268.103 Falsifying evidence
268.104 Destroying or concealing evidence
268.105 Deceiving witnesses
268.106 Corrupting witnesses or interpreters
268.107 Threatening witnesses or interpreters
268.108 Preventing witnesses or interpreters
268.109 Preventing production of things in evidence
268.110 Reprisals against witnesses
268.111 Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court
268.112 Perverting the course of justice
268.113 Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court
268.114 Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct
Subdivision K—Miscellaneous
268.115 Responsibility of commanders and other superiors
268.116 Defence of superior orders
268.117 Geographical jurisdiction
268.118 Double jeopardy
268.119 Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court
268.120 Saving of other laws
268.121 Bringing proceedings under this Division
268.122 Attorney‑General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final
268.123 Legal representation
268.124 Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions
Division 270—Slavery, sexual servitude and deceptive recruiting
270.1 Definition of slavery
270.2 Slavery is unlawful
270.3 Slavery offences
270.4 Definition of sexual servitude
270.5 Jurisdictional requirement
270.6 Sexual servitude offences
270.7 Deceptive recruiting for sexual services
270.8 Aggravated offences
270.10 No nationality requirement
270.11 Attorney‑General’s consent required
270.12 Other laws not excluded
270.13 Double jeopardy
270.14 External Territories
Chapter 9—Dangers to the community
Part 9.4—Dangerous weapons
Division 360—Cross‑border firearms trafficking
360.1 Disposal and acquisition of a firearm
360.2 Cross‑border offence of disposal or acquisition of a firearm
360.3 Taking or sending a firearm across borders
360.4 Concurrent operation intended
Part 9.6—Contamination of goods
380.1 Definitions
380.2 Contaminating goods
380.3 Threatening to contaminate goods
380.4 Making false statements about contamination of goods
380.5 Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D
Chapter 10—National infrastructure
Part 10.2—Money laundering
Division 400—Money laundering
400.1 Definitions
400.2 Meaning of dealing with money or other property
400.3 Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000,000 or more
400.4 Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $100,000 or more
400.5 Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $50,000 or more
400.6 Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $10,000 or more
400.7 Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000 or more
400.8 Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property of any value
400.9 Possession etc. of property reasonably suspected of being proceeds of crime etc.
400.10 Mistake of fact as to the value of money or property
400.11 Proof of certain matters relating to kinds of offences not required
400.12 Combining several contraventions in a single charge
400.13 Proof of other offences is not required
400.14 Alternative verdicts
400.15 Geographical jurisdiction
400.16 Saving of other laws
Part 10.5—Postal services
Division 470—Preliminary
470.1 Definitions
470.2 Dishonesty
Division 471—Postal offences
471.1 Theft of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages
471.2 Receiving stolen mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages
471.3 Taking or concealing of mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages
471.4 Dishonest removal of postage stamps or postmarks
471.5 Dishonest use of previously used, defaced or obliterated stamps
471.6 Damaging or destroying mail‑receptacles, articles or postal messages
471.7 Tampering with mail‑receptacles
471.8 Dishonestly obtaining delivery of articles
471.9 Geographical jurisdiction
471.10 Hoaxes—explosives and dangerous substances
471.11 Using a postal or similar service to make a threat
471.12 Using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence
471.13 Causing a dangerous article to be carried by a postal or similar service
471.14 Geographical jurisdiction
471.15 Causing an explosive, or a dangerous or harmful substance, to be carried by post
Division 472—Miscellaneous
472.1 Saving of other laws
472.2 Interpretation of other laws
Part 10.6—Telecommunications Services
Division 473—Preliminary
473.1 Definitions
473.2 Possession or control of data or material in the form of data
473.3 Producing, supplying or obtaining data or material in the form of data
473.4 Determining whether material is offensive
Division 474—Telecommunications offences
Subdivision A—Dishonesty with respect to carriage services
474.1 Dishonesty
474.2 General dishonesty with respect to a carriage service provider
Subdivision B—Interference with telecommunications
474.3 Person acting for a carrier or carriage service provider
474.4 Interception devices
474.5 Wrongful delivery of communications
474.6 Interference with facilities
474.7 Modification etc. of a telecommunications device identifier
474.8 Possession or control of data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier
474.9 Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier
474.10 Copying subscription‑specific secure data
474.11 Po ssession or control of data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier
474.12 Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier
Subdivision C—Offences related to use of telecommunications
474.13 Use of a carriage service
474.14 Using a telecommunications network with intention to commit a serious offence
474.15 Using a carriage service to make a threat
474.16 Using a carriage service for a hoax threat
474.17 Using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence
474.18 Improper use of emergency call service
474.19 Using a carriage service for child pornography material
474.20 Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a carriage service
474.21 Defences in respect of child pornography material
474.22 Using a carriage service for child abuse material
474.23 Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service
474.24 Defences in respect of child abuse material
474.25 Obligations of Internet service providers and Internet content hosts
474.26 Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age
474.27 Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age
474.28 Provisions relating to offences against sections 474.26 and 474.27
474.29 Defences to offences against section 474.26 or 474.27
474.30 Defences for NRS employees and emergency call persons
Division 475—Miscellaneous
475.1 Saving of other laws
475.2 Geographical jurisdiction
Part 10.7—Computer offences
Division 476—Preliminary
476.1 Definitions
476.2 Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment
476.3 Geographical jurisdiction
476.4 Saving of other laws
476.5 Liability for certain acts
Division 477—Serious computer offences
477.1 Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence
477.2 Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment
477.3 Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication
Division 478—Other computer offences
478.1 Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data
478.2 Unauthorised impairment of d ata held on a computer disk etc.
478.3 Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence
478.4 Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence
Part 10.8—Financial information offences
480.1 Definitions
480.2 Dishonesty
480.3 Constitutional application of this Part
480.4 Dishonestly obtaining or dealing in personal financial information
480.5 Possession or control of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information
480.6 Importation of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information
Dictionary
4 Application of amendments
4 Application—Criminal Code amendments
4 Public and independent review of operation of Security Acts relating to terrorism
4 Transitional—pre‑commencement offences
4 Transitional provisions

Criminal Code Act 1995

Act No. 12 of 1995 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 1 March 2005
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 7 of 2005

Section 3AA ceased to have effect and is taken to have been repealed on the day specified in subsection 2.2(2) of the Criminal Code

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be
affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting and Publishing,
Attorney-General’s Department,
Canberra

  

  

  


Contents

1............ Short title [see Note 1]....................................................................... 1

2............ Commencement [see Note 1].............................................................. 1

3............ The Criminal Code.............................................................................. 1

3A......... External Territories............................................................................. 1

3B......... Offshore installations......................................................................... 1

4............ Definitions.......................................................................................... 1

5............ Regulations......................................................................................... 2

Schedule—The Criminal Code                                                                                        3

Chapter 1—Codification                                                                                                      3

Division 1                                                                                                                            3

1.1......... Codification........................................................................................ 3

Chapter 2—General principles of criminal responsibility                                4

Part 2.1—Purpose and application                                                                                4

Division 2                                                                                                                            4

2.1......... Purpose............................................................................................... 4

2.2......... Application......................................................................................... 4

2.3......... Application of provisions relating to intoxication.............................. 4

Part 2.2—The elements of an offence                                                                         5

Division 3—General                                                                                                      5

3.1......... Elements............................................................................................. 5

3.2......... Establishing guilt in respect of offences............................................. 5

Division 4—Physical elements                                                                                6

4.1......... Physical elements............................................................................... 6

4.2......... Voluntariness...................................................................................... 6

4.3......... Omissions........................................................................................... 7

Division 5—Fault elements                                                                                       8

5.1......... Fault elements..................................................................................... 8

5.2......... Intention............................................................................................. 8

5.3......... Knowledge.......................................................................................... 8

5.4......... Recklessness....................................................................................... 8

5.5......... Negligence........................................................................................... 9

5.6......... Offences that do not specify fault elements....................................... 9

Division 6—Cases where fault elements are not required                     10

6.1......... Strict liability.................................................................................... 10

6.2......... Absolute liability.............................................................................. 10

Part 2.3—Circumstances in which there is no criminal responsibility     11

Division 7—Circumstances involving lack of capacity                             11

7.1......... Children under 10............................................................................. 11

7.2......... Children over 10 but under 14.......................................................... 11

7.3......... Mental impairment........................................................................... 11

Division 8—Intoxication                                                                                           13

8.1......... Definition—self-induced intoxication............................................... 13

8.2......... Intoxication (offences involving basic intent)................................... 13

8.3......... Intoxication (negligence as fault element)......................................... 14

8.4......... Intoxication (relevance to defences).................................................. 14

8.5......... Involuntary intoxication................................................................... 15

Division 9—Circumstances involving mistake or ignorance                16

9.1......... Mistake or ignorance of fact (fault elements other than negligence). 16

9.2......... Mistake of fact (strict liability)........................................................ 16

9.3......... Mistake or ignorance of statute law................................................. 17

9.4......... Mistake or ignorance of subordinate legislation............................... 17

9.5......... Claim of right.................................................................................... 18

Division 10—Circumstances involving external factors                          19

10.1....... Intervening conduct or event............................................................ 19

10.2....... Duress............................................................................................... 19

10.3....... Sudden or extraordinary emergency.................................................. 19

10.4....... Self-defence....................................................................................... 20

10.5....... Lawful authority............................................................................... 21

Part 2.4—Extensions of criminal responsibility                                                   22

Division 11                                                                                                                        22

11.1....... Attempt............................................................................................ 22

11.2....... Complicity and common purpose.................................................... 23

11.3....... Innocent agency................................................................................ 24

11.4....... Incitement......................................................................................... 24

11.5....... Conspiracy....................................................................................... 25

11.6....... References in Acts to offences......................................................... 27

Part 2.5—Corporate criminal responsibility                                                          28

Division 12                                                                                                                        28

12.1....... General principles............................................................................. 28

12.2....... Physical elements............................................................................. 28

12.3....... Fault elements other than negligence................................................ 28

12.4....... Negligence......................................................................................... 30

12.5....... Mistake of fact (strict liability)........................................................ 30

12.6....... Intervening conduct or event............................................................ 31

Part 2.6—Proof of criminal responsibility                                                               32

Division 13                                                                                                                        32

13.1....... Legal burden of proof—prosecution................................................ 32

13.2....... Standard of proof—prosecution....................................................... 32

13.3....... Evidential burden of proof—defence................................................ 32

13.4....... Legal burden of proof—defence....................................................... 33

13.5....... Standard of proof—defence.............................................................. 33

13.6....... Use of averments.............................................................................. 33

Part 2.7—Geographical jurisdiction                                                                            34

Division 14—Standard geographical jurisdiction                                         34

14.1....... Standard geographical jurisdiction.................................................... 34

Division 15—Extended geographical jurisdiction                                       37

15.1....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category A.............................. 37

15.2....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category B.............................. 39

15.3....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category C.............................. 42

15.4....... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D.............................. 44

Division 16—Miscellaneous                                                                                   45

16.1....... Attorney-General’s consent required for prosecution if alleged conduct occurs wholly in a foreign country in certain circumstances.................................................................................... 45

16.2....... When conduct taken to occur partly in Australia............................. 45

16.3....... Meaning of Australia........................................................................ 46

16.4....... Result of conduct.............................................................................. 46

Chapter 4The integrity and security of the international community and foreign governments               47

Division 70—Bribery of foreign public officials                                            47

70.1....... Definitions........................................................................................ 47

70.2....... Bribing a foreign public official......................................................... 50

70.3....... Defence—conduct lawful in foreign public official’s country.......... 51

70.4....... Defence—facilitation payments....................................................... 54

70.5....... Territorial and nationality requirements........................................... 56

70.6....... Saving of other laws.......................................................................... 57

Division 71—Offences against United Nations and associated personnel           58

71.1....... Purpose............................................................................................. 58

71.2....... Murder of a UN or associated person.............................................. 58

71.3....... Manslaughter of a UN or associated person.................................... 58

71.4....... Intentionally causing serious harm to a UN or associated person.... 59

71.5....... Recklessly causing serious harm to a UN or associated person....... 59

71.6....... Intentionally causing harm to a UN or associated person................ 60

71.7....... Recklessly causing harm to a UN or associated person................... 60

71.8....... Unlawful sexual penetration............................................................. 61

71.9....... Kidnapping a UN or associated person............................................ 62

71.10..... Unlawful detention of UN or associated person.............................. 63

71.11..... Intentionally causing damage to UN or associated person’s property etc.             63

71.12..... Threatening to commit other offences.............................................. 64

71.13..... Aggravated offences.......................................................................... 64

71.14..... Defence—activities involving serious harm...................................... 65

71.15..... Defence—medical or hygienic procedures........................................ 66

71.16..... Jurisdictional requirement................................................................. 66

71.17..... Exclusion of this Division if State/Territory laws provide for corresponding offences          67

71.18..... Double jeopardy............................................................................... 68

71.19..... Saving of other laws.......................................................................... 68

71.20..... Bringing proceedings under this Division......................................... 68

71.21..... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings................................. 68

71.22..... Jurisdiction of State courts preserved.............................................. 69

71.23..... Definitions........................................................................................ 69

Division 72—International terrorist activities using explosive or lethal devices            71

72.1....... Purpose............................................................................................. 71

72.2....... ADF members not liable for prosecution......................................... 71

72.3....... Offences............................................................................................ 71

72.4....... Jurisdictional requirement................................................................. 72

72.5....... Saving of other laws.......................................................................... 73

72.6....... Double jeopardy and foreign offences.............................................. 73

72.7....... Bringing proceedings under this Division......................................... 74

72.8....... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings................................. 74

72.9....... Jurisdiction of State courts preserved.............................................. 75

72.10..... Definitions........................................................................................ 75

Division 73—People smuggling and related offences                               76

Subdivision A—People smuggling offences                                                         76

73.1....... Offence of people smuggling............................................................ 76

73.2....... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (exploitation etc.)............. 76

73.3....... Aggravated offence of people smuggling (at least 5 people)............ 78

73.4....... Jurisdictional requirement................................................................. 79

73.5....... Attorney-General’s consent required............................................... 79

Subdivision B—Document offences related to people smuggling and unlawful entry into foreign countries               79

73.6....... Meaning of travel or identity document............................................ 79

73.7....... Meaning of false travel or identity document.................................... 80

73.8....... Making, providing or possessing a false travel or identity document 81

73.9....... Providing or possessing a travel or identity document issued or altered dishonestly or as a result of threats        81

73.10..... Providing or possessing a travel or identity document to be used by a person who is not the rightful user          82

73.11..... Taking possession of or destroying another person’s travel or identity document                83

73.12..... Jurisdictional requirement................................................................. 83

Chapter 5—The security of the Commonwealth                                                 84

Part 5.1—Treason                                                                                                                 84

Division 80—Treason                                                                                                 84

80.1....... Treason............................................................................................. 84

Part 5.2—Offences relating to espionage and similar activities                87

Division 90—Preliminary                                                                                          87

90.1....... Definitions........................................................................................ 87

Division 91—Offences relating to espionage and similar activities  89

91.1....... Espionage and similar activities........................................................ 89

91.2....... Defence—information lawfully available......................................... 91

Division 93—Prosecutions and hearings                                                         92

93.1....... Institution of prosecution................................................................. 92

93.2....... Hearing in camera etc........................................................................ 92

Division 94—Forfeiture                                                                                             94

94.1....... Forfeiture of articles etc.................................................................... 94

Part 5.3—Terrorism                                                                                                             95

Division 100—Preliminary                                                                                       95

100.1..... Definitions........................................................................................ 95

100.2..... Referring States................................................................................. 97

100.3..... Constitutional basis for the operation of this Part........................... 98

100.4..... Application of provisions................................................................ 99

100.5..... Application of Acts Interpretation Act 1901................................... 101

100.6..... Concurrent operation intended....................................................... 102

100.7..... Regulations may modify operation of this Part to deal with interaction between this Part and State and Territory laws........................................................................................................ 103

100.8..... Approval for changes to or affecting this Part............................... 103

Division 101—Terrorism                                                                                        104

101.1..... Terrorist acts.................................................................................. 104

101.2..... Providing or receiving training connected with terrorist acts.......... 104

101.4..... Possessing things connected with terrorist acts............................. 105

101.5..... Collecting or making documents likely to facilitate terrorist acts... 106

101.6..... Other acts done in preparation for, or planning, terrorist acts....... 107

Division 102—Terrorist organisations                                                            108

Subdivision A—Definitions                                                                                   108

102.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 108

102.1A.. Reviews by Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD  115

Subdivision B—Offences                                                                                       117

102.2..... Directing the activities of a terrorist organisation........................... 117

102.3..... Membership of a terrorist organisation.......................................... 117

102.4..... Recruiting for a terrorist organisation............................................. 118

102.5..... Training a terrorist organisation or receiving training from a terrorist organisation 118

102.6..... Getting funds to or from a terrorist organisation............................ 119

102.7..... Providing support to a terrorist organisation................................. 120

102.8..... Associating with terrorist organisations......................................... 120

Subdivision C—General provisions relating to offences                                 123

102.9..... Extended geographical jurisdiction for offences.............................. 123

102.10... Alternative verdicts........................................................................ 123

Division 103—Financing terrorism                                                                   124

103.1..... Financing terrorism......................................................................... 124

Division 106—Transitional provisions                                                            125

106.1..... Saving—regulations made for the purposes of the definition of terrorist organisation          125

Part 5.4—Harming Australians                                                                                   126

Division 104—Harming Australians                                                                 126

104.1..... Murder of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia............. 126

104.2..... Manslaughter of an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia... 126

104.3..... Intentionally causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia            127

104.4..... Recklessly causing serious harm to an Australian citizen or a resident of Australia               127

104.5..... Saving of other laws........................................................................ 127

104.6..... Bringing proceedings under this Division....................................... 128

104.7..... Ministerial certificates relating to proceedings............................... 128

104.8..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 128

104.9..... Meaning of causes death or harm................................................... 128

Chapter 7—The proper administration of Government                                129

Part 7.1—Preliminary                                                                                                       129

Division 130—Preliminary                                                                                     129

130.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 129

130.2..... When property belongs to a person............................................... 130

130.3..... Dishonesty..................................................................................... 131

130.4..... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact.... 131

Part 7.2—Theft and other property offences                                                      132

Division 131—Theft                                                                                                  132

131.1..... Theft............................................................................................... 132

131.2..... Special rules about the meaning of dishonesty............................... 132

131.3..... Appropriation of property............................................................ 133

131.4..... Theft of land or things forming part of land................................... 133

131.5..... Trust property............................................................................... 133

131.6..... Obligation to deal with property in a particular way..................... 134

131.7..... Property obtained because of fundamental mistake....................... 134

131.8..... Property of a corporation sole....................................................... 135

131.9..... Property belonging to 2 or more persons....................................... 135

131.10... Intention of permanently depriving a person of property............. 135

131.11... General deficiency.......................................................................... 136

Division 132—Other property offences                                                          137

132.1..... Receiving......................................................................................... 137

132.2..... Robbery.......................................................................................... 140

132.3..... Aggravated robbery........................................................................ 141

132.4..... Burglary.......................................................................................... 142

132.5..... Aggravated burglary........................................................................ 144

132.6..... Making off without payment......................................................... 145

132.7..... Going equipped for theft or a property offence............................. 146

132.8..... Dishonest taking or retention of property..................................... 147

132.9..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 148

Part 7.3—Fraudulent conduct                                                                                       149

Division 133—Preliminary                                                                                     149

133.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 149

Division 134—Obtaining property or a financial advantage by deception            150

134.1..... Obtaining property by deception................................................... 150

134.2..... Obtaining a financial advantage by deception................................. 153

134.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 153

Division 135—Other offences involving fraudulent conduct               154

135.1..... General dishonesty......................................................................... 154

135.2..... Obtaining financial advantage......................................................... 155

135.4..... Conspiracy to defraud.................................................................... 156

135.5..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 158

Part 7.4—False or misleading statements                                                            159

Division 136—False or misleading statements in applications          159

136.1..... False or misleading statements in applications............................... 159

Division 137—False or misleading information or documents           162

137.1..... False or misleading information...................................................... 162

137.2..... False or misleading documents....................................................... 163

137.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 164

Part 7.5—Unwarranted demands                                                                               165

Division 138—Preliminary                                                                                     165

138.1..... Unwarranted demand with menaces............................................... 165

138.2..... Menaces.......................................................................................... 165

Division 139—Unwarranted demands                                                             167

139.1..... Unwarranted demands of a Commonwealth public official............ 167

139.2..... Unwarranted demands made by a Commonwealth public official. 167

139.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 168

Part 7.6—Bribery and related offences                                                                  169

Division 140—Preliminary                                                                                     169

140.1..... Definition........................................................................................ 169

140.2..... Obtaining........................................................................................ 169

Division 141—Bribery                                                                                             170

141.1..... Bribery of a Commonwealth public official................................... 170

Division 142—Offences relating to bribery                                                  172

142.1..... Corrupting benefits given to, or received by, a Commonwealth public official       172

142.2..... Abuse of public office.................................................................... 173

142.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 174

Part 7.7—Forgery and related offences                                                                 175

Division 143—Preliminary                                                                                     175

143.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 175

143.2..... False documents............................................................................. 175

143.3..... False Commonwealth documents................................................... 177

143.4..... Inducing acceptance of false documents......................................... 178

Division 144—Forgery                                                                                             179

144.1..... Forgery........................................................................................... 179

Division 145—Offences relating to forgery                                                  181

145.1..... Using forged document................................................................... 181

145.2..... Possession of forged document...................................................... 182

145.3..... Possession, making or adaptation of devices etc. for making forgeries 184

145.4..... Falsification of documents etc........................................................ 186

145.5..... Giving information derived from false or misleading documents.... 187

145.6..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 188

Part 7.8—Causing harm to, and impersonation and obstruction of, Commonwealth public officials           189

Division 146—Preliminary                                                                                     189

146.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 189

146.2..... Causing harm.................................................................................. 190

Division 147—Causing harm to Commonwealth public officials       191

147.1..... Causing harm to a Commonwealth public official etc.................... 191

147.2..... Threatening to cause harm to a Commonwealth public official etc. 193

147.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 195

Division 148—Impersonation of Commonwealth public officials      196

148.1..... Impersonation of an official by a non-official................................ 196

148.2..... Impersonation of an official by another official............................. 197

148.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 198

Division 149—Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials            199

149.1..... Obstruction of Commonwealth public officials............................. 199

Part 7.20—Miscellaneous                                                                                              201

Division 261—Miscellaneous                                                                              201

261.1..... Saving of other laws........................................................................ 201

261.2..... Contempt of court.......................................................................... 201

261.3..... Ancillary offences........................................................................... 201

Chapter 8Offences against humanity and related offences                   202

Division 268—Genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court                202

Subdivision A—Introductory                                                                                 202

268.1..... Purpose of Division........................................................................ 202

268.2..... Outline of offences......................................................................... 202

Subdivision B—Genocide                                                                                       203

268.3..... Genocide by killing......................................................................... 203

268.4..... Genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm...................... 203

268.5..... Genocide by deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about physical destruction     203

268.6..... Genocide by imposing measures intended to prevent births.......... 204

268.7..... Genocide by forcibly transferring children..................................... 204

Subdivision C—Crimes against humanity                                                         205

268.8..... Crime against humanity—murder................................................... 205

268.9..... Crime against humanity—extermination........................................ 205

268.10... Crime against humanity—enslavement.......................................... 206

268.11... Crime against humanity—deportation or forcible transfer of population               206

268.12... Crime against humanity—imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty      207

268.13... Crime against humanity—torture................................................... 208

268.14... Crime against humanity—rape....................................................... 208

268.15... Crime against humanity—sexual slavery........................................ 210

268.16... Crime against humanity—enforced prostitution............................ 210

268.17... Crime against humanity—forced pregnancy.................................. 212

268.18... Crime against humanity—enforced sterilisation............................. 212

268.19... Crime against humanity—sexual violence...................................... 213

268.20... Crime against humanity—persecution........................................... 214

268.21... Crime against humanity—enforced disappearance of persons....... 215

268.22... Crime against humanity—apartheid............................................... 216

268.23... Crime against humanity—other inhumane act................................ 217

Subdivision D—War crimes that are grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions                                                                                 217

268.24... War crime—wilful killing................................................................ 217

268.25... War crime—torture......................................................................... 218

268.26... War crime—inhumane treatment.................................................... 218

268.27... War crime—biological experiments................................................ 219

268.28... War crime—wilfully causing great suffering................................... 219

268.29... War crime—destruction and appropriation of property................ 220

268.30... War crime—compelling service in hostile forces............................ 220

268.31... War crime—denying a fair trial....................................................... 221

268.32... War crime—unlawful deportation or transfer................................ 222

268.33... War crime—unlawful confinement................................................. 222

268.34... War crime—taking hostages........................................................... 223

Subdivision E—Other serious war crimes that are committed in the course of an international armed conflict         223

268.35... War crime—attacking civilians....................................................... 223

268.36... War crime—attacking civilian objects............................................. 224

268.37... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission         224

268.38... War crime—excessive incidental death, injury or damage.............. 225

268.39... War crime—attacking undefended places....................................... 225

268.40... War crime—killing or injuring a person who is hors de combat..... 226

268.41... War crime—improper use of a flag of truce................................... 226

268.42... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the adverse party         227

268.43... War crime—improper use of a flag, insignia or uniform of the United Nations      227

268.44... War crime—improper use of the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions                228

268.45... War crime—transfer of population................................................ 229

268.46... War crime—attacking protected objects......................................... 229

268.47... War crime—mutilation................................................................... 230

268.48... War crime—medical or scientific experiments................................ 231

268.49... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................................. 231

268.50... War crime—denying quarter........................................................... 232

268.51... War crime—destroying or seizing the enemy’s property.............. 233

268.52... War crime—depriving nationals of the adverse power of rights or actions             233

268.53... War crime—compelling participation in military operations......... 234

268.54... War crime—pillaging...................................................................... 234

268.55... War crime—employing poison or poisoned weapons................... 234

268.56... War crime—employing prohibited gases, liquids, materials or devices 235

268.57... War crime—employing prohibited bullets..................................... 235

268.58... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity.................................. 235

268.59... War crime—rape............................................................................. 236

268.60... War crime—sexual slavery............................................................. 237

268.61... War crime—enforced prostitution.................................................. 238

268.62... War crime—forced pregnancy........................................................ 239

268.63... War crime—enforced sterilisation.................................................. 240

268.64... War crime—sexual violence............................................................ 240

268.65... War crime—using protected persons as shields............................. 242

268.66... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions    242

268.67... War crime—starvation as a method of warfare.............................. 243

268.68... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children..................... 244

Subdivision F—War crimes that are serious violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and are committed in the course of an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict       244

268.69... Definition of religious personnel.................................................... 244

268.70... War crime—murder........................................................................ 245

268.71... War crime—mutilation................................................................... 245

268.72... War crime—cruel treatment............................................................ 247

268.73... War crime—torture......................................................................... 247

268.74... War crime—outrages upon personal dignity.................................. 248

268.75... War crime—taking hostages........................................................... 249

268.76... War crime—sentencing or execution without due process............. 250

Subdivision G—War crimes that are other serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in an armed conflict that is not an international armed conflict                                    252

268.77... War crime—attacking civilians....................................................... 252

268.78... War crime—attacking persons or objects using the distinctive emblems of the Geneva Conventions    252

268.79... War crime—attacking personnel or objects involved in a humanitarian assistance or peacekeeping mission         253

268.80... War crime—attacking protected objects......................................... 254

268.81... War crime—pillaging...................................................................... 254

268.82... War crime—rape............................................................................. 255

268.83... War crime—sexual slavery............................................................. 256

268.84... War crime—enforced prostitution.................................................. 257

268.85... War crime—forced pregnancy........................................................ 258

268.86... War crime—enforced sterilisation.................................................. 259

268.87... War crime—sexual violence............................................................ 259

268.88... War crime—using, conscripting or enlisting children..................... 261

268.89... War crime—displacing civilians...................................................... 262

268.90... War crime—treacherously killing or injuring.................................. 262

268.91... War crime—denying quarter........................................................... 263

268.92... War crime—mutilation................................................................... 263

268.93... War crime—medical or scientific experiments................................ 264

268.94... War crime—destroying or seizing an adversary’s property.......... 265

Subdivision H—War crimes that are grave breaches of Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions       266

268.95... War crime—medical procedure....................................................... 266

268.96... War crime—removal of blood, tissue or organs for transplantation 267

268.97... War crime—attack against works or installations containing dangerous forces resulting in excessive loss of life or injury to civilians....................................................................................... 267

268.98... War crime—attacking undefended places or demilitarized zones... 268

268.99... War crime—unjustifiable delay in the repatriation of prisoners of war or civilians                268

268.100. War crime—apartheid..................................................................... 269

268.101. War crime—attacking protected objects......................................... 269

Subdivision J—Crimes against the administration of the justice of the International Criminal Court         270

268.102. Perjury............................................................................................ 270

268.103. Falsifying evidence......................................................................... 270

268.104. Destroying or concealing evidence.................................................. 271

268.105. Deceiving witnesses........................................................................ 271

268.106. Corrupting witnesses or interpreters.............................................. 272

268.107. Threatening witnesses or interpreters............................................ 272

268.108. Preventing witnesses or interpreters.............................................. 273

268.109. Preventing production of things in evidence................................... 273

268.110. Reprisals against witnesses............................................................ 273

268.111. Reprisals against officials of the International Criminal Court....... 274

268.112. Perverting the course of justice....................................................... 275

268.113. Receipt of a corrupting benefit by an official of the International Criminal Court  275

268.114. Subdivision not to apply to certain conduct.................................. 276

Subdivision K—Miscellaneous                                                                             276

268.115. Responsibility of commanders and other superiors....................... 276

268.116. Defence of superior orders............................................................. 277

268.117. Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 278

268.118. Double jeopardy............................................................................. 278

268.119. Offences related to exercise of jurisdiction of International Criminal Court            278

268.120. Saving of other laws........................................................................ 278

268.121. Bringing proceedings under this Division....................................... 279

268.122. Attorney-General’s decisions in relation to consents to be final... 279

268.123. Legal representation........................................................................ 280

268.124. Proof of application of Geneva Conventions or Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions        280

Division 270—Slavery, sexual servitude and deceptive recruiting 281

270.1..... Definition of slavery....................................................................... 281

270.2..... Slavery is unlawful......................................................................... 281

270.3..... Slavery offences.............................................................................. 281

270.4..... Definition of sexual servitude......................................................... 282

270.5..... Jurisdictional requirement............................................................... 283

270.6..... Sexual servitude offences................................................................ 283

270.7..... Deceptive recruiting for sexual services.......................................... 284

270.8..... Aggravated offences........................................................................ 285

270.9..... Alternative verdict if aggravated offence not proven...................... 285

270.10... No nationality requirement............................................................. 285

270.11... Attorney-General’s consent required............................................. 285

270.12... Other laws not excluded................................................................. 286

270.13... Double jeopardy............................................................................. 286

270.14... External Territories......................................................................... 286

Chapter 9—Dangers to the community                                                                  287

Part 9.4—Dangerous weapons                                                                                    287

Division 360—Cross-border firearms trafficking                                      287

360.1..... Disposal and acquisition of a firearm............................................. 287

360.2..... Cross-border offence of disposal or acquisition of a firearm.......... 287

360.3..... Taking or sending a firearm across borders..................................... 288

360.4..... Concurrent operation intended....................................................... 289

Part 9.6—Contamination of goods                                                                             290

380.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 290

380.2..... Contaminating goods...................................................................... 290

380.3..... Threatening to contaminate goods.................................................. 292

380.4..... Making false statements about contamination of goods................. 294

380.5..... Extended geographical jurisdiction—category D............................ 296

Chapter 10—National infrastructure                                                                       297

Part 10.2—Money laundering                                                                                      297

Division 400—Money laundering                                                                      297

400.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 297

400.2..... Meaning of dealing with money or other property......................... 298

400.3..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000,000 or more               300

400.4..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $100,000 or more  301

400.5..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $50,000 or more    302

400.6..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $10,000 or more    303

400.7..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property worth $1,000 or more      305

400.8..... Dealing in proceeds of crime etc.—money or property of any value 306

400.9..... Possession etc. of property reasonably suspected of being proceeds of crime etc.                307

400.10... Mistake of fact as to the value of money or property................... 308

400.11... Proof of certain matters relating to kinds of offences not required 309

400.12... Combining several contraventions in a single charge...................... 310

400.13... Proof of other offences is not required........................................... 310

400.14... Alternative verdicts........................................................................ 310

400.15... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 311

400.16... Saving of other laws........................................................................ 311

Part 10.5—Postal services                                                                                             312

Division 470—Preliminary                                                                                     312

470.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 312

470.2..... Dishonesty..................................................................................... 314

470.3..... Determination of dishonesty to be a matter for the trier of fact.... 314

Division 471—Postal offences                                                                             315

471.1..... Theft of mail-receptacles, articles or postal messages.................... 315

471.2..... Receiving stolen mail-receptacles, articles or postal messages....... 316

471.3..... Taking or concealing of mail-receptacles, articles or postal messages 318

471.4..... Dishonest removal of postage stamps or postmarks..................... 318

471.5..... Dishonest use of previously used, defaced or obliterated stamps. 318

471.6..... Damaging or destroying mail-receptacles, articles or postal messages 319

471.7..... Tampering with mail-receptacles.................................................... 320

471.8..... Dishonestly obtaining delivery of articles...................................... 320

471.9..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 320

471.10... Hoaxes—explosives and dangerous substances.............................. 320

471.11... Using a postal or similar service to make a threat.......................... 321

471.12... Using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence 322

471.13... Causing a dangerous article to be carried by a postal or similar service.. 322

471.14... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 323

471.15... Causing an explosive, or a dangerous or harmful substance, to be carried by post 323

Division 472—Miscellaneous                                                                              325

472.1..... Saving of other laws........................................................................ 325

472.2..... Interpretation of other laws............................................................ 325

Part 10.6—Telecommunications Services                                                             326

Division 473—Preliminary                                                                                     326

473.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 326

473.2..... Possession or control of data or material in the form of data......... 332

473.3..... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or material in the form of data.. 333

473.4..... Determining whether material is offensive..................................... 333

Division 474—Telecommunications offences                                              334

Subdivision A—Dishonesty with respect to carriage services                       334

474.1..... Dishonesty..................................................................................... 334

474.2..... General dishonesty with respect to a carriage service provider..... 334

Subdivision B—Interference with telecommunications                                   335

474.3..... Person acting for a carrier or carriage service provider................... 335

474.4..... Interception devices........................................................................ 335

474.5..... Wrongful delivery of communications............................................ 336

474.6..... Interference with facilities.............................................................. 337

474.7..... Modification etc. of a telecommunications device identifier.......... 338

474.8..... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier                339

474.9..... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to modify a telecommunications device identifier........................................................................................................ 340

474.10... Copying subscription-specific secure data..................................... 341

474.11... Possession or control of data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier               343

474.12... Producing, supplying or obtaining data or a device with intent to copy an account identifier                344

Subdivision C—Offences related to use of telecommunications                    345

474.13... Use of a carriage service.................................................................. 345

474.14... Using a telecommunications network with intention to commit a serious offence  346

474.15... Using a carriage service to make a threat........................................ 347

474.16... Using a carriage service for a hoax threat........................................ 348

474.17... Using a carriage service to menace, harass or cause offence........... 348

474.18... Improper use of emergency call service.......................................... 348

474.19... Using a carriage service for child pornography material................. 349

474.20... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child pornography material for use through a carriage service........................................................................................................ 350

474.21... Defences in respect of child pornography material........................ 350

474.22... Using a carriage service for child abuse material............................. 352

474.23... Possessing, controlling, producing, supplying or obtaining child abuse material for use through a carriage service........................................................................................................ 353

474.24... Defences in respect of child abuse material.................................... 353

474.25... Obligations of Internet service providers and Internet content hosts 355

474.26... Using a carriage service to procure persons under 16 years of age. 355

474.27... Using a carriage service to “groom” persons under 16 years of age 356

474.28... Provisions relating to offences against sections 474.26 and 474.27 358

474.29... Defences to offences against section 474.26 or 474.27.................. 360

474.30... Defences for NRS employees and emergency call persons............ 361

Division 475—Miscellaneous                                                                              362

475.1..... Saving of other laws........................................................................ 362

475.2..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 362

Part 10.7—Computer offences                                                                                    363

Division 476—Preliminary                                                                                     363

476.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 363

476.2..... Meaning of unauthorised access, modification or impairment....... 364

476.3..... Geographical jurisdiction................................................................ 365

476.4..... Saving of other laws........................................................................ 365

476.5..... Liability for certain acts.................................................................. 365

Division 477—Serious computer offences                                                    368

477.1..... Unauthorised access, modification or impairment with intent to commit a serious offence   368

477.2..... Unauthorised modification of data to cause impairment................ 370

477.3..... Unauthorised impairment of electronic communication................. 371

Division 478—Other computer offences                                                        372

478.1..... Unauthorised access to, or modification of, restricted data............ 372

478.2..... Unauthorised impairment of data held on a computer disk etc...... 372

478.3..... Possession or control of data with intent to commit a computer offence               373

478.4..... Producing, supplying or obtaining data with intent to commit a computer offence                374

Part 10.8—Financial information offences                                                            375

480.1..... Definitions...................................................................................... 375

480.2..... Dishonesty..................................................................................... 376

480.3..... Constitutional application of this Part........................................... 376

480.4..... Dishonestly obtaining or dealing in personal financial information 376

480.5..... Possession or control of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information            376

480.6..... Importation of thing with intent to dishonestly obtain or deal in personal financial information           377

Dictionary                                                                                                                                378

Notes                                                                                                                                          391


An Act relating to the criminal law

1  Short title [see Note 1]

                   This Act may be cited as the Criminal Code Act 1995.

2  Commencement [see Note 1]

             (1)  Subject to subsection (2), this Act commences on a day to be fixed by Proclamation.

             (2)  If this Act does not commence under subsection (1) within the period of 5 years beginning on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent, it commences on the first day after the end of that period.

3  The Criminal Code

             (1)  The Schedule has effect as a law of the Commonwealth.

             (2)  The Schedule may be cited as the Criminal Code.

3A  External Territories

                   The Criminal Code extends to every external Territory.

3B  Offshore installations

                   Unless the contrary intention appears, an installation (within the meaning of the Customs Act 1901) that is deemed by section 5C of the Customs Act 1901 to be part of Australia is also taken to be part of Australia for the purposes of the Criminal Code.

4  Definitions

             (1)  Expressions used in the Code (or in a particular provision of the Code) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of the Code have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary.

             (2)  Definitions in the Code of expressions used in the Code apply to its construction except insofar as the context or subject matter otherwise indicates or requires.

5  Regulations

                   The Governor-General may make regulations prescribing matters:

                     (a)  required or permitted by this Act to be prescribed; or

                     (b)  necessary or convenient to be prescribed for carrying out or giving effect to this Act.


ScheduleThe Criminal Code

Section 3

Chapter 1Codification

  

Division 1 

1.1  Codification

                   The only offences against laws of the Commonwealth are those offences created by, or under the authority of, this Code or any other Act.

Note:          Under subsection 38(1) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, Act means an Act passed by the Parliament of the Commonwealth.


 

Chapter 2General principles of criminal responsibility

Part 2.1Purpose and application

Division 2 

2.1  Purpose

                   The purpose of this Chapter is to codify the general principles of criminal responsibility under laws of the Commonwealth.  It contains all the general principles of criminal responsibility that apply to any offence, irrespective of how the offence is created.

2.2  Application

             (1)  This Chapter applies to all offences against this Code.

             (2)  Subject to section 2.3, this Chapter applies on and after 15 December 2001 to all other offences.

             (3)  Section 11.6 applies to all offences.

2.3  Application of provisions relating to intoxication

                   Subsections 4.2(6) and (7) and Division 8 apply to all offences. For the purpose of interpreting those provisions in connection with an offence, the other provisions of this Chapter may be considered, whether or not those other provisions apply to the offence concerned.


 

Part 2.2The elements of an offence

Division 3General

3.1  Elements

             (1)  An offence consists of physical elements and fault elements.

             (2)  However, the law that creates the offence may provide that there is no fault element for one or more physical elements.

             (3)  The law that creates the offence may provide different fault elements for different physical elements.

3.2  Establishing guilt in respect of offences

                   In order for a person to be found guilty of committing an offence the following must be proved:

                     (a)  the existence of such physical elements as are, under the law creating the offence, relevant to establishing guilt;

                     (b)  in respect of each such physical element for which a fault element is required, one of the fault elements for the physical element.

Note 1:       See Part 2.6 on proof of criminal responsibility.

Note 2:       See Part 2.7 on geographical jurisdiction.


 

Division 4Physical elements

4.1  Physical elements

             (1)  A physical element of an offence may be:

                     (a)  conduct; or

                     (b)  a result of conduct; or

                     (c)  a circumstance in which conduct, or a result of conduct, occurs.

             (2)  In this Code:

conduct means an act, an omission to perform an act or a state of affairs.

engage in conduct means:

                     (a)  do an act; or

                     (b)  omit to perform an act.

4.2  Voluntariness

             (1)  Conduct can only be a physical element if it is voluntary.

             (2)  Conduct is only voluntary if it is a product of the will of the person whose conduct it is.

             (3)  The following are examples of conduct that is not voluntary:

                     (a)  a spasm, convulsion or other unwilled bodily movement;

                     (b)  an act performed during sleep or unconsciousness;

                     (c)  an act performed during impaired consciousness depriving the person of the will to act.

             (4)  An omission to perform an act is only voluntary if the act omitted is one which the person is capable of performing.

             (5)  If the conduct constituting an offence consists only of a state of affairs, the state of affairs is only voluntary if it is one over which the person is capable of exercising control.

             (6)  Evidence of self-induced intoxication cannot be considered in determining whether conduct is voluntary.

             (7)  Intoxication is self-induced unless it came about:

                     (a)  involuntarily; or

                     (b)  as a result of fraud, sudden or extraordinary emergency, accident, reasonable mistake, duress or force.

4.3  Omissions

                   An omission to perform an act can only be a physical element if:

                     (a)  the law creating the offence makes it so; or    

                     (b)  the law creating the offence impliedly provides that the offence is committed by an omission to perform an act that by law there is a duty to perform.


 

Division 5Fault elements

5.1  Fault elements

             (1)  A fault element for a particular physical element may be intention, knowledge, recklessness or negligence.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not prevent a law that creates a particular offence from specifying other fault elements for a physical element of that offence.

5.2  Intention

             (1)  A person has intention with respect to conduct if he or she means to engage in that conduct.

             (2)  A person has intention with respect to a circumstance if he or she believes that it exists or will exist.

             (3)  A person has intention with respect to a result if he or she means to bring it about or is aware that it will occur in the ordinary course of events.

5.3  Knowledge

                   A person has knowledge of a circumstance or a result if he or she is aware that it exists or will exist in the ordinary course of events.

5.4  Recklessness

             (1)  A person is reckless with respect to a circumstance if:

                     (a)  he or she is aware of a substantial risk that the circumstance exists or will exist; and

                     (b)  having regard to the circumstances known to him or her, it is unjustifiable to take the risk.

             (2)  A person is reckless with respect to a result if:

                     (a)  he or she is aware of a substantial risk that the result will occur; and

                     (b)  having regard to the circumstances known to him or her, it is unjustifiable to take the risk.

             (3)  The question whether taking a risk is unjustifiable is one of fact.

             (4)  If recklessness is  a fault element for a physical element of an offence, proof of intention, knowledge or recklessness will satisfy that fault element.

5.5  Negligence

                   A person is negligent with respect to a physical element of an offence if his or her conduct involves:

                     (a)  such a great falling short of the standard of care that a reasonable person would exercise in the circumstances; and

                     (b)  such a high risk that the physical element exists or will exist;

that the conduct merits criminal punishment for the offence.

5.6  Offences that do not specify fault elements

             (1)  If the law creating the offence does not specify a fault element for a physical element that consists only of conduct, intention is the fault element for that physical element.

             (2)  If the law creating the offence does not specify a fault element for a physical element that consists of a circumstance or a result, recklessness is the fault element for that physical element.

Note:          Under subsection 5.4(4), recklessness can be established by proving intention, knowledge or recklessness.


 

Division 6Cases where fault elements are not required

6.1  Strict liability

             (1)  If a law that creates an offence provides that the offence is an offence of strict liability:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for any of the physical elements of the offence; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is available.

             (2)  If a law that creates an offence provides that strict liability applies to a particular physical element of the offence:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for that physical element; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is available in relation to that physical element.

             (3)  The existence of strict liability does not make any other defence unavailable.

6.2  Absolute liability

             (1)  If a law that creates an offence provides that the offence is an offence of absolute liability:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for any of the physical elements of the offence; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is unavailable.

             (2)  If a law that creates an offence provides that absolute liability applies to a particular physical element of the offence:

                     (a)  there are no fault elements for that physical element; and

                     (b)  the defence of mistake of fact under section 9.2 is unavailable in relation to that physical element.

             (3)  The existence of absolute liability does not make any other defence unavailable.


 

Part 2.3Circumstances in which there is no criminal responsibility

Note:       This Part sets out defences that are generally available. Defences that apply to a more limited class of offences are dealt with elsewhere in this Code and in other laws.

Division 7Circumstances involving lack of capacity

7.1  Children under 10

                   A child under 10 years old is not criminally responsible for an offence.

7.2  Children over 10 but under 14

             (1)  A child aged 10 years or more but under 14 years old can only be criminally responsible for an offence if the child knows that his or her conduct is wrong.

             (2)  The question whether a child knows that his or her conduct is wrong is one of fact. The burden of proving this is on the prosecution.

7.3  Mental impairment

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if, at the time of carrying out the conduct constituting the offence, the person was suffering from a mental impairment that had the effect that:

                     (a)  the person did not know the nature and quality of the conduct; or

                     (b)  the person did not know that the conduct was wrong (that is, the person could not reason with a moderate degree of sense and composure about whether the conduct, as perceived by reasonable people, was wrong); or

                     (c)  the person was unable to control the conduct.

             (2)  The question whether the person was suffering from a mental impairment is one of fact.

             (3)  A person is presumed not to have been suffering from such a mental impairment. The presumption is only displaced if it is proved on the balance of probabilities (by the prosecution or the defence) that the person was suffering from such a mental impairment.

             (4)  The prosecution can only rely on this section if the court gives leave.

             (5)  The tribunal of fact must return a special verdict that a person is not guilty of an offence because of mental impairment if and only if it is satisfied that the person is not criminally responsible for the offence only because of a mental impairment.

             (6)  A person cannot rely on a mental impairment to deny voluntariness or the existence of a fault element but may rely on this section to deny criminal responsibility.

             (7)  If the tribunal of fact is satisfied that a person carried out conduct as a result of a delusion caused by a mental impairment, the delusion cannot otherwise be relied on as a defence.

             (8)  In this section:

mental impairment includes senility, intellectual disability, mental illness, brain damage and severe personality disorder.

             (9)  The reference in subsection (8) to mental illness is a reference to an underlying pathological infirmity of the mind, whether of long or short duration and whether permanent or temporary, but does not include a condition that results from the reaction of a healthy mind to extraordinary external stimuli. However, such a condition may be evidence of a mental illness if it involves some abnormality and is prone to recur.


 

Division 8Intoxication

8.1  Definition—self-induced intoxication

                   For the purposes of this Division, intoxication is self-induced unless it came about:

                     (a)  involuntarily; or

                     (b)  as a result of fraud, sudden or extraordinary emergency, accident, reasonable mistake, duress or force.

8.2  Intoxication (offences involving basic intent)

             (1)  Evidence of self-induced intoxication cannot be considered in determining whether a fault element of basic intent existed.

             (2)  A fault element of basic intent is a fault element of intention for a physical element that consists only of conduct.

Note:          A fault element of intention with respect to a circumstance or with respect to a result is not a fault element of basic intent.

             (3)  This section does not prevent evidence of self-induced intoxication being taken into consideration in determining whether conduct was accidental.

             (4)  This section does not prevent evidence of self-induced intoxication being taken into consideration in determining whether a person had a mistaken belief about facts if the person had considered whether or not the facts existed.

             (5)  A person may be regarded as having considered whether or not facts existed if:

                     (a)  he or she had considered, on a previous occasion, whether those facts existed in circumstances surrounding that occasion; and

                     (b)  he or she honestly and reasonably believed that the circumstances surrounding the present occasion were the same, or substantially the same, as those surrounding the previous occasion.

8.3  Intoxication (negligence as fault element)

             (1)  If negligence is a fault element for a particular physical element of an offence, in determining whether that fault element existed in relation to a person who is intoxicated, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person who is not intoxicated.

             (2)  However, if intoxication is not self-induced, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person intoxicated to the same extent as the person concerned.

8.4  Intoxication (relevance to defences)

             (1)  If any part of a defence is based on actual knowledge or belief, evidence of intoxication may be considered in determining whether that knowledge or belief existed.

             (2)  If any part of a defence is based on reasonable belief, in determining whether that reasonable belief existed, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person who is not intoxicated.

             (3)  If a person’s intoxication is not self-induced, in determining whether any part of a defence based on reasonable belief exists, regard must be had to the standard of a reasonable person intoxicated to the same extent as the person concerned.

             (4)  If, in relation to an offence:

                     (a)  each physical element has a fault element of basic intent; and

                     (b)  any part of a defence is based on actual knowledge or belief;

evidence of self-induced intoxication cannot be considered in determining whether that knowledge or belief existed.

             (5)  A fault element of basic intent is a fault element of intention for a physical element that consists only of conduct.

Note:          A fault element of intention with respect to a circumstance or with respect to a result is not a fault element of basic intent.

8.5  Involuntary intoxication

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if the person’s conduct constituting the offence was as a result of intoxication that was not self-induced.


 

Division 9Circumstances involving mistake or ignorance

9.1  Mistake or ignorance of fact (fault elements other than negligence)

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element for which there is a fault element other than negligence if:

                     (a)  at the time of the conduct constituting the physical element, the person is under a mistaken belief about, or is ignorant of, facts; and

                     (b)  the existence of that mistaken belief or ignorance negates any fault element applying to that physical element.

             (2)  In determining whether a person was under a mistaken belief about, or was ignorant of, facts, the tribunal of fact may consider whether the mistaken belief or ignorance was reasonable in the circumstances.

9.2  Mistake of fact (strict liability)

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element for which there is no fault element if:

                     (a)  at or before the time of the conduct constituting the physical element, the person considered whether or not facts existed, and is under a mistaken but reasonable belief about those facts; and

                     (b)  had those facts existed, the conduct would not have constituted an offence.

             (2)  A person may be regarded as having considered whether or not facts existed if:

                     (a)  he or she had considered, on a previous occasion, whether those facts existed in the circumstances surrounding that occasion; and

                     (b)  he or she honestly and reasonably believed that the circumstances surrounding the present occasion were the same, or substantially the same, as those surrounding the previous occasion.

 Note:         Section 6.2 prevents this section applying in situations of absolute liability.

9.3  Mistake or ignorance of statute law

             (1)  A person can be criminally responsible for an offence even if, at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, he or she is mistaken about, or ignorant of, the existence or content of an Act that directly or indirectly creates the offence or directly or indirectly affects the scope or operation of the offence.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply, and the person is not criminally responsible for the offence in those circumstances, if the Act is expressly to the contrary effect.

9.4  Mistake or ignorance of subordinate legislation

             (1)  A person can be criminally responsible for an offence even if, at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, he or she is mistaken about, or ignorant of, the existence or content of the subordinate legislation that directly or indirectly creates the offence or directly or indirectly affects the scope or operation of the offence.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply, and the person is not criminally responsible for the offence in those circumstances, if:

                     (a)  the subordinate legislation is expressly to the contrary effect; or

                     (c)  at the time of the conduct, the subordinate legislation:

                              (i)  has not been made available to the public (by means of the Register under the Legislative Instruments Act 2003 or otherwise); and

                             (ii)  has not otherwise been made available to persons likely to be affected by it in such a way that the person would have become aware of its contents by exercising due diligence.

             (3)  In this section:

available includes available by sale.

subordinate legislation means an instrument of a legislative character made directly or indirectly under an Act, or in force directly or indirectly under an Act.

9.5  Claim of right

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element relating to property if:

                     (a)  at the time of the conduct constituting the offence, the person is under a mistaken belief about a proprietary or possessory right; and

                     (b)  the existence of that right would negate a fault element for any physical element of the offence.

             (2)  A person is not criminally responsible for any other offence arising necessarily out of the exercise of the proprietary or possessory right that he or she mistakenly believes to exist.

             (3)  This section does not negate criminal responsibility for an offence relating to the use of force against a person.


 

Division 10Circumstances involving external factors

10.1  Intervening conduct or event

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence that has a physical element to which absolute liability or strict liability applies if:

                     (a)  the physical element is brought about by another person over whom the person has no control or by a non-human act or event over which the person has no control; and

                     (b)  the person could not reasonably be expected to guard against the bringing about of that physical element.

10.2  Duress

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if he or she carries out the conduct constituting the offence under duress.

             (2)  A person carries out conduct under duress if and only if he or she reasonably believes that:

                     (a)  a threat has been made that will be carried out unless an offence is committed; and

                     (b)  there is no reasonable way that the threat can be rendered ineffective; and

                     (c)  the conduct is a reasonable response to the threat.

             (3)  This section does not apply if the threat is made by or on behalf of a person with whom the person under duress is voluntarily associating for the purpose of carrying out conduct of the kind actually carried out.

10.3  Sudden or extraordinary emergency

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if he or she carries out the conduct constituting the offence in response to circumstances of sudden or extraordinary emergency.

             (2)  This section applies if and only if the person carrying out the conduct reasonably believes that:

                     (a)  circumstances of sudden or extraordinary emergency exist; and

                     (b)  committing the offence is the only reasonable way to deal with the emergency; and

                     (c)  the conduct is a reasonable response to the emergency.

10.4  Self-defence

             (1)  A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if he or she carries out the conduct constituting the offence in self-defence.

             (2)  A person carries out conduct in self-defence if and only if he or she believes the conduct is necessary:

                     (a)  to defend himself or herself or another person; or

                     (b)  to prevent or terminate the unlawful imprisonment of himself or herself or another person; or

                     (c)  to protect property from unlawful appropriation, destruction, damage or interference; or

                     (d)  to prevent criminal trespass to any land or premises; or

                     (e)  to remove from any land or premises a person who is committing criminal trespass;

and the conduct is a reasonable response in the circumstances as he or she perceives them.

             (3)  This section does not apply if the person uses force that involves the intentional infliction of death or really serious injury:

                     (a)  to protect property; or

                     (b)  to prevent criminal trespass; or

                     (c)  to remove a person who is committing criminal trespass.

             (4)  This section does not apply if:

                     (a)  the person is responding to lawful conduct; and

                     (b)  he or she knew that the conduct was lawful.

However, conduct is not lawful merely because the person carrying it out is not criminally responsible for it.

10.5  Lawful authority

                   A person is not criminally responsible for an offence if the conduct constituting the offence is justified or excused by or under a law.


 

Part 2.4Extensions of criminal responsibility

Division 11 

11.1  Attempt

             (1)  A person who attempts to commit an offence is guilty of the offence of attempting to commit that offence and is punishable as if the offence attempted had been committed.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty, the person’s conduct must be more than merely preparatory to the commission of the offence. The question whether conduct is more than merely preparatory to the commission of the offence is one of fact.

             (3)  For the offence of attempting to commit an offence, intention and knowledge are fault elements in relation to each physical element of the offence attempted.

Note:          Under section 3.2, only one of the fault elements of intention or knowledge would need to be established in respect of each physical element of the offence attempted.

          (3A)  Subsection (3) has effect subject to subsection (6A).

             (4)  A person may be found guilty even if:

                     (a)  committing the offence attempted is impossible; or

                     (b)  the person actually committed the offence attempted.

             (5)  A person who is found guilty of attempting to commit an offence cannot be subsequently charged with the completed offence.

             (6)  Any defences, procedures, limitations or qualifying provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of attempting to commit that offence.

          (6A)  Any special liability provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of attempting to commit that offence.

             (7)  It is not an offence to attempt to commit an offence against section 11.2 (complicity and common purpose), section 11.5 (conspiracy to commit an offence) or section 135.4 (conspiracy to defraud).

11.2  Complicity and common purpose

             (1)  A person who aids, abets, counsels or procures the commission of an offence by another person is taken to have committed that offence and is punishable accordingly.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty:

                     (a)  the person’s conduct must have in fact aided, abetted, counselled or procured the commission of the offence by the other person; and

                     (b)  the offence must have been committed by the other person.

             (3)  For the person to be guilty, the person must have intended that:

                     (a)  his or her conduct would aid, abet, counsel or procure the commission of any offence (including its fault elements) of the type the other person committed; or

                     (b)  his or her conduct would aid, abet, counsel or procure the commission of an offence and have been reckless about the commission of the offence (including its fault elements) that the other person in fact committed.

          (3A)  Subsection (3) has effect subject to subsection (6).

             (4)  A person cannot be found guilty of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence if, before the offence was committed, the person:

                     (a)  terminated his or her involvement; and

                     (b)  took all reasonable steps to prevent the commission of the offence.

             (5)  A person may be found guilty of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence even if the principal offender has not been prosecuted or has not been found guilty.

             (6)  Any special liability provisions that apply to an offence apply also to the offence of aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of that offence.

             (7)  If the trier of fact is satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that a person either:

                     (a)  is guilty of a particular offence otherwise than because of the operation of subsection (1); or

                     (b)  is guilty of that offence because of the operation of subsection (1);

but is not able to determine which, the trier of fact may nonetheless find the person guilty of that offence.

11.3  Innocent agency

                   A person who:

                     (a)  has, in relation to each physical element of an offence, a fault element applicable to that physical element; and

                     (b)  procures conduct of another person that (whether or not together with conduct of the procurer) would have constituted an offence on the part of the procurer if the procurer had engaged in it;

is taken to have committed that offence and is punishable accordingly.

11.4  Incitement

             (1)  A person who urges the commission of an offence is guilty of the offence of incitement.

             (2)  For the person to be guilty, the person must intend that the offence incited be committed.