Federal Register of Legislation - Australian Government

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Measures as amended, taking into account amendments up to National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure Variation, 2003
This instrument formulates national standards for ambient air quality for six criteria pollutants.
Administered by: Environment
Registered 14 Sep 2010
Start Date 02 Jun 2003
End Date 02 Feb 2016

National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure

as amended

made under section 20 of the

National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 (Cwlth), National Environment Protection Council (New South Wales) Act 1995 (NSW), National Environment Protection Council (Victoria) Act 1995 (Vic), National Environment Protection Council (Queensland) Act 1994 (Qld), National Environment Protection Council (Western Australia) Act 1996 (WA), National Environment Protection Council (South Australia) Act 1995 (SA), National Environment Protection Council (Tasmania) Act 1995 (Tas), National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 (ACT) and the National Environment Protection Council (Northern Territory) Act 1994 (NT)

This compilation was prepared on 7 July 2003
taking into account amendments up to Variation 2003

Prepared by the Office of Legislative Drafting,
Attorney-General’s Department, Canberra


Contents

Introductory Note                                                                                                      3

Part                       Preliminary

                        1     Citation [see Note 1]                                                                            3

                        2     Definitions                                                                                           3

                        3     Application                                                                                          5

Part 2                    National environment protection goal

                        4     Purpose of Part                                                                                   6

                        5     Desired environmental outcome                                                            6

                        6     National environment protection goal                                                     6

Part 3                    National environment protection standards

                        7     Purpose of Part                                                                                   7

                        8     National environment protection standards                                             7

Part 4                    National environment protection protocol

                        9     Purpose of Part                                                                                   8

                       10     Monitoring plans                                                                                  8

                       11     Methods of measuring and assessing concentration of pollutants             8

                       12     Accreditation of performance monitoring                                                8

                       13     Location of performance monitoring stations                                           8

                       14     Number of performance monitoring stations                                            9

                       15     Trend stations                                                                                     9

                       16     Monitoring methods                                                                             9

                       17     Evaluation of performance against standards and goal                           10

                       18     Reporting                                                                                          10

Schedule 1             Pollutants                                                                                        12

Schedule 2             Standards and Goal                                                                        13

Schedule 3             Australian Standards Methods for Pollutant Monitoring                  15

Schedule 4             Protocol for Monitoring PM2.5                                                           16

                        1     Location of monitoring for PM2.5                                                           16

                        2     Number of performance monitoring stations for PM2.5                             16

                        3     Monitoring methods for PM2.5                                                              16

                        4     Evaluation of monitoring for PM2.5                                                         17

                        5     Reporting                                                                                          17

Schedule 5             PM2.5 Equivalence Program                                                             19

Notes                                                                                                                              20

 

 


Introductory Note

Section 14 of the National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 and the equivalent provision of the corresponding Act of each participating State and Territory provides for the making of measures by the National Environment Protection Council and the matters to which they may relate.  This Measure relates to ambient air quality (section 14 (1) (a)). 

 

The Measure is to be implemented by the laws and other arrangements participating jurisdictions consider necessary: see section 7 of the Commonwealth Act and the equivalent provision of the corresponding Act of each participating State and Territory.

Part 1                 Preliminary

  

1              Citation [see Note 1]

                This Measure may be cited as the National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure.

Note   This Measure commences on gazettal: see National Environment Protection Council Act 1994, s 21 and Acts Interpretation Act 1901, s 48 as applied by s 46A.

2              Definitions

         (1)   This clause defines particular words and expressions used in this Measure.

         (2)   The words and expressions indicated by an asterisk are defined in the Commonwealth Act and are included for information only to assist readers of the Measure. Minor changes from the definitions in the Commonwealth Act are indicated by square brackets ([ ]).

         (3)   In this Measure:

Advisory Reporting Standard means a health-based standard to assess the results of monitoring for particles as PM2.5.  These standards do not have a timeframe for compliance associated with them.

*Agreement means the agreement made on 1 May 1992 between the Commonwealth, the States, the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and the Australian Local Government Association, a copy of which is set out in the Schedule [to the Commonwealth Act].

ambient air means the external air environment, it does not include the air environment inside buildings or structures.

Commonwealth Act means the National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 of the Commonwealth.

Continuous direct mass measurement technique means a method for continuously monitoring suspended particulate matter changes of particles in ambient air, providing near real time measurement of mean particle concentration.

Council means the National Environment Protection Council established by section 8 of the Commonwealth Act and the equivalent provision of the corresponding Act of each participating State and Territory.

Fire management means all activities associated with the management of fire prone land, including the use of fire to meet land management goals and objectives.

Manual gravimetric method means a manual method for sampling particles by drawing air through a filter and determining the mass by weighing the filters.

monitoring station means a facility for measuring the concentration of one or more pollutants in the ambient air in a region or sub-region.

*national environment protection goal means a goal:

                (a)    that relates to desired environmental outcomes; and

               (b)    that guides the formulation of strategies for the management of human     activities that may affect the environment.

*national environment protection protocol means a protocol that relates to the process to be followed in measuring environmental characteristics to determine:

                (a)    whether a particular standard or goal is being met or achieved; or

               (b)    the extent of the difference between the measured characteristic of the environment and a particular standard or a particular goal.

*national environment protection standard means a standard that consists of quantifiable characteristics of the environment against which environmental quality can be assessed.

*participating jurisdiction means the Commonwealth, a participating State or a participating Territory.

*participating State means a State:

                (a)    that is a party to the Agreement; and

               (b)    in which an Act that corresponds to [the Commonwealth] Act is in force in accordance with the Agreement.

*participating Territory means a Territory:

                (a)    that is a party to the Agreement; and

               (b)    in which an Act that corresponds to [the Commonwealth] Act is in force in accordance with the Agreement.

particles as PM10 means particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometres or less.

Particles as PM2.5 means particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometres or less.

performance monitoring station means a monitoring station used to measure achievement against the goal.

pollutant means a pollutant mentioned in Schedule 1.

ppm means parts per million by volume.

principal Measure means the National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure.

Reference method means the monitoring method used for collection of data that can be compared to the Advisory Reporting Standards.

region means an area within a boundary surrounding population centres as determined by the relevant participating jurisdiction.

sub-region means a populated area within a region whose air quality differs from other areas in the region due to the topography, meteorology and sources of pollutants.

TEOM means tapered element oscillating microbalance.

µg/m3 means microgram per cubic metre referenced to a temperature of 0 degrees Celsius and an absolute pressure of 101.325 kilopascals.

3              Application

                Participating jurisdictions must:

                (a)    for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidants (as ozone), sulfur dioxide, lead and particles as PM10 establish monitoring procedures and commence assessment and reporting in accordance with the Protocol in this Measure, within 3 years after its commencement;

               (b)    for particles as PM2.5 undertake monitoring and reporting in accordance with Schedule 4 and Schedule 5 in this Measure.

Part 2                 National environment protection goal

4              Purpose of Part

                The purpose of this Part is to set out a goal:

                (a)    that relates to the desired environmental outcomes; and

               (b)    that guides the formulation of strategies for the management of human activities that may affect the environment.

5              Desired environmental outcome

                The desired environmental outcome of this Measure is ambient air quality that allows for the adequate protection of human health and well-being.

6              National environment protection goal

                The National Environment Protection Goal of this Measure is:

                (a)    for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidants (as ozone), sulfur dioxide, lead and particles as PM10 to achieve the National Environment Protection Standards as assessed in accordance with the monitoring protocol (Part 4) within ten years from commencement to the extent specified in Schedule 2 column 5; and

               (b)    for particles as PM2.5 to gather sufficient data to facilitate a review of the Advisory Reporting Standards as part of the review of this Measure scheduled to commence in 2005.

Part 3                 National environment protection standards

7              Purpose of Part

                The purpose of this Part is to set standards that consist of quantifiable characteristics of the air against which ambient air quality can be assessed.

8              National environment protection standards

         (1)   The national environment protection standards of this Measure are the standards set out in Schedule 2.

         (2)   For:

                (a)    each pollutant mentioned in table 1 of Schedule 2, the standard for an averaging period mentioned in the Schedule is the concentration in column 4 of table 1 of Schedule 2;

               (b)    particles as PM2.5, the Advisory Reporting Standard for an averaging period mentioned in the Schedule is the concentration in column 3 of table 2 of Schedule 2.

Part 4                 National environment protection protocol

9              Purpose of Part

                The purpose of this Part is to set out the processes to be followed in measuring the concentration of pollutants in the air to determine:

                (a)    whether the standards of this Measure are being met; or

               (b)    the extent of the difference between the measured concentration of pollutants in the air and the standards.

10            Monitoring plans 

         (1)   Each participating jurisdiction must ensure that a monitoring plan consistent with this Part is prepared setting out how the jurisdiction proposes to monitor air quality for the purposes of this Measure.

         (2)   Each monitoring plan must be submitted to Council.

11            Methods of measuring and assessing concentration of pollutants

                For the purpose of evaluating performance against the standards the concentration of pollutants in the air:

                (a)    is to be measured at performance monitoring stations; or

Note   Because the concentrations of different pollutants vary across a region, it would not be necessary or appropriate to co-locate the measuring instrumentation for all pollutants at each performance monitoring station.

               (b)    is to be assessed by other means that provide information equivalent to measurements which would otherwise occur at a performance monitoring station.

Note   These methods could include, for example, the use of emission inventories, windfield and dispersion modelling, and comparisons with other regions.

12            Accreditation of performance monitoring

         (1)   Subject to subclause (2) the operator of a performance monitoring station must be accredited by the National Association of Testing Authorities.

         (2)   The operator may apply an equivalent system for ensuring adequate monitoring, quality assurance, and validation procedures.

13            Location of performance monitoring stations

         (1)   To the extent practicable, performance monitoring stations should be sited in accordance with the requirements for Australian Standard AS2922-1987 (Ambient Air-Guide for Siting of Sampling Units).  Any variations from AS2922-1987 must be notified to Council for use in assessing reports.

         (2)   Performance monitoring station(s) must be located in a manner such that they contribute to obtaining a representative measure of the air quality likely to be experienced by the general population in the region or sub-region.

         (3)   A performance monitoring station should be operated in the same location for at least 5 years unless the integrity of the measurements is affected by unforeseen circumstances.

14            Number of performance monitoring stations

         (1)   Subject to subclauses (2) and (3) below, the number of performance monitoring stations for a region with a population of 25,000 people or more must be the next whole number above the number calculated in accordance with the formula:

where P is the population of the region (in millions).

         (2)   Additional performance monitoring stations may be needed where pollutant levels are influenced by local characteristics such as topography, weather or emission sources.

         (3)   Fewer performance monitoring stations may be needed where it can be demonstrated that pollutant levels are reasonably expected to be consistently lower than the standards mentioned in this Measure.

15            Trend stations

         (1)   A number of performance monitoring stations in each participating State and participating Territory must be nominated as trend stations.

         (2)   The number of performance monitoring stations to be nominated as trend stations must be sufficient to monitor and assess long term changes in ambient air quality in different parts of the jurisdiction.

         (3)   A trend station must be operated in the same location for one or more decades.

16            Monitoring methods

         (1)   Subject to subclauses (2) and (3) the Australian Standard Methods set out in Schedule 3 should be used for monitoring pollutants in the air.

         (2)   Where an Australian Standard Method has not yet been developed for a monitoring method, appropriate internationally recognised methods or standards may be used that provide equivalent information for assessment purposes.

         (3)   Other monitoring methods may be used if:

                (a)    calibration and validation studies show:

                          (i)    the accuracy and precision of the other method; and

                         (ii)    the method can be compared with the relevant Australian Standard Method; and

               (b)    the equipment used is calibrated to the standard required by the equipment manufacturer; and

                (c)    the equipment provides equivalent information for assessment purposes.

17            Evaluation of performance against standards and goal

         (1)   Each participating jurisdiction must evaluate its annual performance as set out in this clause.

         (2)   For each performance monitoring station in the jurisdiction or assessment in accordance with subclause 11 (b) there must be:

                (a)    a determination of the exposed population in the region or sub-region represented by the station; and

               (b)    an evaluation of performance against the standards and goal of this Measure as:

                          (i)    meeting; or

                         (ii)    not meeting; or

                         (iii)    not demonstrated.

         (3)   Jurisdictions may provide an evaluation of a region as a whole against the standards using appropriate methodologies that provide equivalent information for assessment purposes.

         (4)   Performance must be evaluated as ‘not demonstrated’ if there has been no monitoring or no assessment by an approved alternative method as provided in clause (11).

18            Reporting

         (1)   Each participating jurisdiction must submit a report on its compliance with the Measure in an approved form to Council by the 30 June next following each reporting year.

         (2)   In this clause reporting year means a year ending on 31 December.

                The report must include:

                (a)    the evaluations and assessments mentioned in clause 17; and

               (b)    an analysis of the extent to which the standards of this Measure are, or are not, met in the jurisdiction; and

                (c)    a statement of the progress made towards achieving the goal.

         (3)   The description of the circumstances which led to exceedences, including the influence of natural events and fire management, must be reported to the extent that such information can be determined.

         (4)   A report for a pollutant must include the percentage of data available in the reporting period.


Schedule 1        Pollutants

  

 

Carbon monoxide

Nitrogen dioxide

Photochemical Oxidants (as Ozone)

Sulfur dioxide

Lead

Particles

 

Schedule 2        Standards and Goal

  

Table 1: Standards and Goal for Pollutants other than Particles as PM2.5

 

Column 1

Item

Column 2

Pollutant

Column 3

Averaging period

Column 4

Maximum concentration

Column 5

Goal within 10 years Maximum allowable exceedences

1

Carbon monoxide

8 hours

9.0 ppm

1 day a year

2

Nitrogen dioxide

1 hour

1 year

0.12 ppm

0.03 ppm

1 day a year

none

3

Photochemical oxidants (as ozone)

1 hour

4 hours

0.10 ppm

0.08 ppm

1 day a year

1 day a year

4

Sulfur dioxide

1 hour

1 day

1 year

0.20 ppm

0.08 ppm

0.02 ppm

1 day a year

1 day a year

none

5

Lead

1 year

0.50 µg/m3

none

6

Particles as PM10

1 day

50 µg/m3

5 days a year

 

Table 2: Advisory Reporting Standards and Goal for Particles as PM2.5

 

Column 1

Pollutant

Column 2

Averaging Period

Column 3

Maximum Concentration

Column 4

Goal

 

Particles as PM2.5

 

 

1 day

 

1 year

 

25 µg/m3

 

8 µg/m3

Goal is to gather sufficient data nationally to facilitate a review of the Advisory Reporting Standards as part of the review of this Measure scheduled to commence in 2005

                For the purposes of this Measure the following definitions shall apply:

         (1)   Lead sampling must be carried out for a period of 24 hours at least every sixth day.

         (2)   Measurement of lead must be carried out on Total Suspended Particles (TSP) or its equivalent.

         (3)   In Column 3, the averaging periods are defined as follows:

·              1 hour      clock hour average

·              4 hour      rolling 4 hour average based on 1 hour averages

·              8 hour      rolling 8 hour average based on 1 hour averages

·              1 day        calendar day average

·              1 year       calendar year average

         (4)   In Column 5, the time periods are defined as follows:

·              day           calendar day during which the associated standard is exceeded

·              year          calendar year.

         (5)   All averaging periods of 8 hours or less must be referenced by the end time of the averaging period.  This determines the calendar day to which the averaging periods are assigned.

         (6)   For the purposes of calculating and reporting 4 and 8 hour averages, the first rolling average in a calendar day ends at 1.00 am, and includes hours from the previous calendar day.

         (7)   The concentrations in Column 4, are the arithmetic mean concentrations.

Schedule 3        Australian Standards Methods for Pollutant Monitoring

  

 

Pollutant

Method title

Method number

Carbon monoxide

Determination of Carbon Monoxide-Direct Reading Instrumental Method

AS3580.7.1-1992

Nitrogen dioxide

Determination of Oxides of Nitrogen-Chemiluminescence Method

AS3580.5.1-1993

Photochemical oxidants (as ozone)

Determination of Ozone-Direct Reading Instrumental Method

AS3580.6.1-1990

Sulfur dioxide

Determination of Sulfur Dioxide-Direct Reading Instrumental Method

AS3580.4.1-1990

Lead

Determination of Particulate Lead-High Volume Sampler Gravimetric Collection-Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method

Determination of Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) - High Volume Sampler Gravimetric Method

AS2800-1985

 

AS2724.3-1984

Particles as PM10

Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter-PM10 High Volume Sampler with Size Selective Inlet-Gravimetric Method

Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter- PM10 Dichotomous Sampler-Gravimetric Method

AS3580.9.6-1990

 

AS3580.9.7-1990


Schedule 4        Protocol for Monitoring PM2.5

  

Note    Clauses 11 to 18 of the Measure are not to be applied to PM2.5.  This Schedule sets out all applicable requirements for PM2.5.

1              Location of monitoring for PM2.5

                Measurement and assessment of the concentration of PM2.5 in the air is to be undertaken at existing or planned performance monitoring stations specified for particles as PM10 under this Measure as selected by participating jurisdictions.

2              Number of performance monitoring stations for PM2.5

         (1)   Each participating jurisdiction will establish at least one monitoring location for PM2.5 and commence monitoring in accordance with the Table below.

 

Dates for Commencement of PM2.5 Monitoring in
Participating Jurisdictions

 

Jurisdiction

Commencement Date

New South Wales

1 January 2004

Victoria

1 January 2004

Queensland

1 January 2004

Western Australia

1 January 2004

South Australia

1 January 2004

Tasmania

1 July 2004*

Australian Capital Territory

1 July 2004*

Northern Territory

1 July 2004*

 

* These jurisdictions must commence monitoring on 1 July 2004 if resources are available and, if not, as soon as resources become available to ensure sufficient data are collected to inform the review of this Measure scheduled to commence in 2005.

         (2)   Jurisdictions are encouraged to introduce monitoring for PM2.5 at as many performance monitoring stations for PM10 as practicable.  The extent of such monitoring may vary depending on the requirements and resources of the jurisdiction.

3              Monitoring methods for PM2.5

         (1)   The reference methods for monitoring particles as PM2.5 are reference, Class 1 and Class 2 equivalent manual gravimetric methods designated in the USEPA Federal Reference Method (USEPA reference method; US Code of Federal Regulations Title 40 Part 50 Appendix L Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere).

         (2)   Continuous direct mass methods using a tapered element oscillating microbalance may also be used in addition to the reference method, however the values obtained by using these methods cannot be used for comparison with the Advisory Reporting Standards until the outcomes of the PM2.5 Equivalence Program (Schedule 5) have been formally included in the Principal Measure.

         (3)   To enable the development of equivalent methods for monitoring PM2.5 as part of the review of this Measure scheduled to commence in 2005, collocation of continuous direct mass monitors and reference samplers must be undertaken at a limited number of sites in accordance with Schedule 5.

         (4)   Participating jurisdictions must reach agreement on the collocation of samplers to ensure that, nationally, a minimum of nine locations house collocated samplers and annual reporting to Council must include information on the collocation of samplers. 

4              Evaluation of monitoring for PM2.5

         (1)   Each participating jurisdiction must evaluate its monitoring results for PM2.5 in accordance with this clause.

         (2)   For each PM2.5 performance monitoring station in the jurisdiction there must be:

                (a)    a determination of the exposed population in the region or sub-region monitored by the station; and

               (b)    a report on whether the PM2.5 Advisory Reporting Standards of this Measure, as measured by the reference method, have been met.

5              Reporting

         (1)   Each participating jurisdiction must submit a report on PM2.5 monitoring and data assessment in accordance with this clause to Council by the 30 June next following each reporting year.

         (2)   In this clause reporting year means a year ending on 31 December.

         (3)   The first report to Council will be for the 2003 reporting year for data currently being collected by jurisdictions.

         (4)   The report must include:

                (a)    an evaluation and assessment of all PM2.5 data collected by the reference method;

               (b)    the evaluations and assessments outlined in clause 4 of this Schedule;

                (c)    the number of times the monitored values (by the reference method) are greater than the Advisory Reporting Standards of this Measure;

               (d)    all other PM2.5 data collected by other acceptable methods as outlined in this Schedule; and

                (e)    the maximum 24-hour concentration of PM2.5 in each jurisdiction collected by any method specified in Schedule 4 of this Variation.

         (5)   A description of the circumstances that led to monitored values (by the reference method) being greater than the Advisory Reporting Standards including the influence of natural events and fire management, must be reported to the extent that such information can be determined.

         (6)   The report must include the percentage of data available in the reporting period.


Schedule 5        PM2.5 Equivalence Program

  

         (1)   Jurisdictions must undertake monitoring with collocated instruments for the purpose of determining equivalent methods for monitoring PM2.5 in accordance with the Table in this Schedule and the requirements specified in the Technical Paper on Monitoring and Reporting for Particles as PM2.5.

         (2)   At locations where reference method samplers are to be used, there is no requirement for equivalence studies to be undertaken, except where such locations have been designated as collocation sites.

         (3)   If alternative PM2.5 monitoring methods are used, equivalence between the reference method and the alternative method must be demonstrated by collocation of samplers over a three-year period.

         (4)   For jurisdictions undertaking equivalence monitoring, there must be at least one collocation site with a reference sampler run on a daily basis (preferred) or on a 1-in-3 day operation (minimum requirement).

         (5)   Data availability must exceed 75% and it is recommended that higher data recovery be achieved during seasons with expected elevated particle loadings.

         (6)   To ensure national consistency with regard to the collection of PM2.5 data, monitoring must be done in accordance with procedures specified in the Technical Paper on Monitoring and Reporting for Particles as PM2.5.

 

Sites Proposed for the Equivalence Program

 

Jurisdiction

Site

Sampling
Frequency
(reference
sampler)

Sampling Period

Alternative Method

Commencement Date

New South Wales

Earlwood

Richmond

1 in 3 days

1 in 3 days

3 years

3 years

PM2.5 TEOM

1 January 2004

Victoria

Alphington

Mooroolbark

1 in 3 days

1 in 3 days

3 years

3 years

PM2.5 TEOM

1 January 2004

Queensland

Springwood

Rocklea

1 in 3 days

1 in 3 days

3 years

3 years

PM2.5 TEOM

1 January 2004

Western Australia

Duncraig

1 in 3 days

3 years

PM2.5 TEOM

1 January 2004

South Australia

Netley

1 in 3 days

3 years

PM2.5 TEOM

1 January 2004

Tasmania

Launceston

1 in 3 days

3 years

PM2.5 TEOM

1 July  2004

 


Notes to the National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure

Note 1

The National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure (in force under section 20 of the National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 (Cwlth), National Environment Protection Council (New South Wales) Act 1995 (NSW), National Environment Protection Council (Victoria) Act 1995 (Vic), National Environment Protection Council (Queensland) Act 1994 (Qld), National Environment Protection Council (Western Australia) Act 1996 (WA), National Environment Protection Council (South Australia) Act 1995 (SA), National Environment Protection Council (Tasmania) Act 1995 (Tas), National Environment Protection Council Act 1994 (ACT) and the National Environment Protection Council (Northern Territory) Act 1994 (NT)) as shown in this compilation is amended as indicated in the Tables below.

Table of Instruments

Title

Date of notification
in Gazette

Date of
commencement

Application, saving or
transitional provisions

National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure

8 July 1998 (see c. 1 and Gazette 1998, No. GN27)

8 July 1998

 

National Environment Protection (Ambient Air Quality) Measure Variation, 2003

2 June2003 (see c. 1 and Gazette 2003, No. S190)

2 June 2003

Table of Amendments

ad. = added or inserted      am. = amended      rep. = repealed      rs. = repealed and substituted

Provision affected

How affected

C. 2.........................................

am. Variation 2003

C. 3.........................................

am. Variation 2003

C. 6.........................................

am. Variation 2003

C. 8.........................................

am. Variation 2003

Schedule 2............................

am. Variation 2003

Schedule 4............................

ad. Variation 2003

Schedule 5............................

ad. Variation 2003