Navigation Act 1912

Act No. 4 of 1913 as amended

This compilation was prepared on 16 October 2008
taking into account amendments up to Act No. 94 of 2008

Volume 2 includes: Table of Contents
Schedule 1

The text of any of those amendments not in force
on that date is appended in the Notes section

The operation of amendments that have been incorporated may be
affected by application provisions that are set out in the Notes section

 

 

 

Contents

Schedule 1—International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974             

ARTICLE I

ARTICLE II

ARTICLE III

ARTICLE IV

ARTICLE V

ARTICLE VI

ARTICLE VII

ARTICLE VIII

ARTICLE IX

ARTICLE X

ARTICLE XI

ARTICLE XII

ARTICLE XIII

ANNEX 

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

PART A—APPLICATION, DEFINITIONS, ETC.

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

PART B—SURVEYS AND CERTIFICATES

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

Regulation 14

Regulation 15

Regulation 16

Regulation 17

Regulation 18

Regulation 19

Regulation 20

PART C—CASUALTIES

Regulation 21

CHAPTER II–1

CONSTRUCTION—SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY, MACHINERY AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

PART A—GENERAL

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

PART B—SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

Regulation 14

Regulation 15

Regulation 16

Regulation 17

Regulation 18

Regulation 19

Regulation 20

Regulation 21

Regulation 22

PART C—MACHINERY AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

Regulation 23

Regulation 24

Regulation 25

Regulation 26

Regulation 27

Regulation 28

Regulation 29

Regulation 30

Regulation 31

Regulation 32

CHAPTER II–2

CONSTRUCTION—FIRE PROTECTION, FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINCTION

PART A—GENERAL

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

Regulation 14

Regulation 15

Regulation 16

PART B—FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR PASSENGER SHIPS CARRYING MORE THAN 36 PASSENGERS

Regulation 17

Regulation 18

Regulation 19

Regulation 20

Regulation 21

Regulation 22

Regulation 23

Regulation 24

Regulation 25

Regulation 26

Regulation 27

Regulation 28

Regulation 29

Regulation 30

Regulation 31

Regulation 32

Regulation 33

Regulation 34

PART C—FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR PASSENGER SHIPS CARRYING NOT MORE THAN 36 PASSENGERS

Regulation 35

Regulation 36

Regulation 37

Regulation 38

Regulation 39

Regulation 40

Regulation 41

Regulation 42

Regulation 43

Regulation 44

Regulation 45

Regulation 46

Regulation 47

Regulation 48

Regulation 49

Regulation 50

PART D—FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR CARGO SHIPS

Regulation 51

Regulation 52

Regulation 53

Regulation 54

PART E—FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR TANKERS

Regulation 55

Regulation 56

Regulation 57

Regulation 58

Regulation 59

Regulation 60

Regulation 61

Regulation 62

Regulation 63

Regulation 64

PART F—SPECIAL FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR EXISTING
PASSENGER SHIPS

Regulation 65

Regulation 66

Regulation 67

Regulation 68

Regulation 69

Regulation 70

Regulation 71

Regulation 72

Regulation 73

Regulation 74

Regulation 75

Regulations 76

Regulation 77

Regulation 78

Regulation 79

Regulation 80

Regulation 81

Regulation 82

Regulation 83

Regulation 84

Regulation 85

CHAPTER III

LIFESAVING APPLIANCES, ETC.

Regulation 1

PART A—GENERAL

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

Regulation 14

Regulation 15

Regulation 16

Regulation 17

Regulation 18

Regulation 19

Regulation 20

Regulation 21

Regulation 22

Regulation 23

Regulation 24

Regulation 25

Regulation 26

PART B—PASSENGER SHIPS ONLY

Regulation 27

Regulation 28

Regulation 29

Regulation 30

Regulation 31

Regulation 32

Regulation 33

Regulation 34

PART C—CARGO SHIPS ONLY

Regulation 35

Regulation 36

Regulation 37

Regulation 38

CHAPTER IV

RADIOTELEGRAPHY AND RADIOTELEPHONY

PART A—APPLICATION AND DEFINITIONS

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

PART B—WATCHES

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

PART C—TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

Regulation 14

Regulation 15

Regulation 16

Regulation 17

Regulation 18

PART D—RADIO LOGS

Regulation 19

CHAPTER V

SAFETY OF NAVIGATION

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

Regulation 14

Regulation 15

Regulation 16

Regulation 17

Regulation 18

Regulation 19

Regulation 20

Regulation 21

CHAPTER VI

CARRIAGE OF GRAIN

PART A—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

Regulation 13

PART B—CALCULATION OF ASSUMED HEELING MOMENTS

SECTION I—DESCRIPTION OF THE ASSUMED VOIDS AND METHOD OF CALCULATING INTACT STABILITY

SECTION II—ASSUMED VOLUMETRIC HEELING MOMENT OF A FILLED COMPARTMENT

SECTION III—ASSUMED VOLUMETRIC HEELING MOMENT OF FEEDERS AND TRUNKS

SECTION IV—ASSUMED VOLUMETRIC HEELING MOMENT OF PARTLY FILLED COMPARTMENTS

SECTION V—ALTERNATIVE LOADING ARRANGEMENTS FOR EXISTING SHIPS

PART C—GRAIN FITTINGS AND SECURING

SECTION I—STRENGTH OF GRAIN FITTINGS

SECTION II—SECURING OF PARTLY FILLED COMPARTMENTS

CHAPTER VII

CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

CHAPTER VIII

NUCLEAR SHIPS

Regulation 1

Regulation 2

Regulation 3

Regulation 4

Regulation 5

Regulation 6

Regulation 7

Regulation 8

Regulation 9

Regulation 10

Regulation 11

Regulation 12

APPENDIX

Schedule 1International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974

Subsection 187A(1)

ARTICLE I

General Obligations under the Convention

(a) The Contracting Governments undertake to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention and the Annex thereto, which shall constitute an integral part of the present Convention. Every reference to the present Convention constitutes at the same time a reference to the Annex.

(b) The Contracting Governments undertake to promulgate all laws, decrees, orders and regulations and to take all other steps which may be necessary to give the present Convention full and complete effect, so as to ensure that, from the point of view of safety of life, a ship is fit for the service for which it is intended.

ARTICLE II

Application

The present Convention shall apply to ships entitled to fly the flag of States the Governments of which are Contracting Governments.

ARTICLE III

Laws, Regulations

The Contracting Governments undertake to communicate to and deposit with the SecretaryGeneral of the InterGovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (hereinafter referred to as “the Organization”):

 (a) a list of nongovernmental agencies which are authorized to act in their behalf in the administration of measures for safety of life at sea for circulation to the Contracting Governments for the information of their officers;

 (b) the text of laws, decrees, orders and regulations which shall have been promulgated on the various matters within the scope of the present Convention;

 (c) a sufficient number of specimens of their Certificates issued under the provisions of the present Convention for circulation to the Contracting Governments for the information of their officers.

ARTICLE IV

Cases of Force Majeure

(a) A ship, which is not subject to the provisions of the present Convention at the time of its departure on any voyage, shall not become subject to the provisions of the present Convention on account of any deviation from its intended voyage due to stress of weather or any other cause of force majeure.

(b) Persons who are on board a ship by reason of force majeure or in consequence of the obligation laid upon the master to carry shipwrecked or other persons shall not be taken into account for the purpose of ascertaining the application to a ship of any provisions of the present Convention.

ARTICLE V

Carriage of Persons in Emergency

(a) For the purpose of evacuating persons in order to avoid a threat to the security of their lives a Contracting Government may permit the carriage of a larger number of persons in its ships than is otherwise permissible under the present Convention.

(b) Such permission shall not deprive other Contracting Governments of any right of control under the present Convention over such ships which come within their ports.

(c) Notice of any such permission, together with a statement of the circumstances, shall be sent to the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization by the Contracting Government granting such permission.

ARTICLE VI

Prior Treaties and Conventions

(a) As between the Contracting Governments, the present Convention replaces and abrogates the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea which was signed in London on 17 June 1960.

(b) All other treaties, conventions and arrangements relating to safety of life at sea, or matters appertaining thereto, at present in force between Governments parties to the present Convention shall continue to have full and complete effect during the terms thereof as regards:

 (i) ships to which the present Convention does not apply;

 (ii) ships to which the present Convention applies, in respect of matters for which it has not expressly provided.

(c) To the extent, however, that such treaties, conventions or arrangements conflict with the provisions of the present Convention, the provisions of the present Convention shall prevail.

(d) All matters which are not expressly provided for in the present Convention remain subject to the legislation of the Contracting Governments.

ARTICLE VII

Special Rules drawn up by Agreement

When in accordance with the present Convention special rules are drawn up by agreement between all or some of the Contracting Governments, such rules shall be communicated to the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization for circulation to all Contracting Governments.

ARTICLE VIII

Amendments

(a) The present Convention may be amended by either of the procedures specified in the following paragraphs.

(b) Amendments after consideration within the Organization:

 (i) Any amendment proposed by a Contracting Government shall be submitted to the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization, who shall then circulate it to all Members of the Organization and all Contracting Governments at least six months prior to its consideration.

 (ii) Any amendment proposed and circulated as above shall be referred to the Maritime Safety Committee of the Organization for consideration.

(iii) Contracting Governments of States, whether or not Members of the Organization, shall be entitled to participate in the proceedings of the Maritime Safety Committee for the consideration and adoption of amendments.

(iv) Amendments shall be adopted by a twothirds majority of the Contracting Governments present and voting in the Maritime Safety Committee expanded as provided for in subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph (hereinafter referred to as “the expanded Maritime Safety Committee”) on condition that at least onethird of the Contracting Governments shall be present at the time of voting.

 (v) Amendments adopted in accordance with subparagraph (iv) of this paragraph shall be communicated by the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization to all Contracting Governments for acceptance.

(vi) (1) An amendment to an Article of the Convention or to Chapter I of the Annex shall be deemed to have been accepted on the date on which it is accepted by twothirds of the Contracting Governments.

 (2) An amendment to the Annex other than Chapter I shall be deemed to have been accepted:

 (aa) at the end of two years from the date on which it is communicated to Contracting Governments for acceptance; or

 (bb) at the end of a different period, which shall not be less than one year, if so determined at the time of its adoption by a twothirds majority of the Contracting Governments present and voting in the expanded Maritime Safety Committee.

 However, if within the specified period either more than onethird of Contracting Governments, or Contracting Governments the combined merchant fleets of which constitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant fleet, notify the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization that they object to the amendment, it shall be deemed not to have been accepted.

 (vii) (1) An amendment to an Article of the Convention or to Chapter I of the Annex shall enter into force with respect to those Contracting Governments which have accepted it, six months after the date on which it is deemed to have been accepted, and with respect to each Contracting Government which accepts it after that date, six months after the date of that Contracting Government’s acceptance.

 (2) An amendment to the Annex other than Chapter I shall enter into force with respect to all Contracting Governments, except those which have objected to the amendment under subparagraph (vi)(2) of this paragraph and which have not withdrawn such objections, six months after the date on which it is deemed to have been accepted. However, before the date set for entry into force, any Contracting Government may give notice to the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization that it exempts itself from giving effect to that amendment for a period not longer than one year from the date of its entry into force, or for such longer period as may be determined by a twothirds majority of the Contracting Governments present and voting in the expanded Maritime Safety Committee at the time of the adoption of the amendment.

(c) Amendment by a Conference:

 (i) Upon the request of a Contracting Government concurred in by at least onethird of the Contracting Governments, the Organization shall convene a Conference of Contracting Governments to consider amendments to the present Convention.

 (ii) Every amendment adopted by such a Conference by a twothirds majority of the Contracting Governments present and voting shall be communicated by the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization to all Contracting Governments for acceptance.

 (iii) Unless the Conference decides otherwise, the amendment shall be deemed to have been accepted and shall enter into force in accordance with the procedures specified in subparagraphs (b)(vi) and (b)(vii) respectively of this Article, provided that references in these paragraphs to the expanded Maritime Safety Committee shall be taken to mean references to the Conference.

(d) (i) A Contracting Government which has accepted an amendment to the Annex which has entered into force shall not be obliged to extend the benefit of the present Convention in respect of the certificates issued to a ship entitled to fly the flag of a State the Government of which, pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (b)(vi)(2) of this Article, has objected to the amendment and has not withdrawn such an objection, but only to the extent that such certificates relate to matters covered by the amendment in question.

 (ii) A Contracting Government which has accepted an amendment to the Annex which has entered into force shall extend the benefit of the present Convention in respect of the certificates issued to a ship entitled to fly the flag of a State the Government of which, pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (b)(vii)(2) of this Article, has notified the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization that it exempts itself from giving effect to the amendment.

(e) Unless expressly provided otherwise, any amendment to the present Convention made under this Article, which relates to the structure of a ship, shall apply only to ships the keels of which are laid or which are at a similar stage of construction, on or after the date on which the amendment enters into force.

(f) Any declaration of acceptance of, or objection to, an amendment or any notice given under subparagraph (b)(vii)(2) of this Article shall be submitted in writing to the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization, who shall inform all Contracting Governments of any such submission and the date of its receipt.

(g) The SecretaryGeneral of the Organization shall inform all Contracting Governments of any amendments which enter into force under this Article, together with the date on which each such amendment enters into force.

ARTICLE IX

Signature, Ratification, Acceptance, Approval and Accession

(a) The present Convention shall remain open for signature at the Headquarters of the Organization from 1 November 1974 until 1 July 1975 and shall thereafter remain open for accession. States may become parties to the present Convention by:

 (i) signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval; or

 (ii) signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval; or

 (iii) accession.

(b) Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument to that effect with the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization.

(c) The SecretaryGeneral of the Organization shall inform the Governments of all States which have signed the present Convention or acceded to it of any signature or of the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession and the date of its deposit.

ARTICLE X

Entry into Force

(a) The present Convention shall enter into force twelve months after the date on which not less than twentyfive States, the combined merchant fleets of which constitute not less than fifty per cent of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant shipping, have become parties to it in accordance with Article IX.

(b) Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited after the date on which the present Convention enters into force shall take effect three months after the date of deposit.

(c) After the date on which an amendment to the present Convention is deemed to have been accepted under Article VIII, any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited shall apply to the Convention as amended.

ARTICLE XI

Denunciation

(a) The present Convention may be denounced by any Contracting Government at any time after the expiry of five years from the date on which the Convention enters into force for that Government.

(b) Denunciation shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of denunciation with the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization who shall notify all the other Contracting Governments of any instrument of denunciation received and of the date of its receipt as well as the date on which such denunciation takes effect.

(c) A denunciation shall take effect one year, or such longer period as may be specified in the instrument of denunciation, after its receipt by the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization.

ARTICLE XII

Deposit and Registration

(a) The present Convention shall be deposited with the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization who shall transmit certified true copies thereof to the Governments of all States which have signed the present Convention or acceded to it.

(b) As soon as the present Convention enters into force, the text shall be transmitted by the SecretaryGeneral of the Organization to the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations for registration and publication, in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

ARTICLE XIII

Languages

The present Convention is established in a single copy in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each text being equally authentic. Official translations in the Arabic, German and Italian languages shall be prepared and deposited with the signed original.


ANNEX

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

PART AAPPLICATION, DEFINITIONS, ETC.

Regulation 1

Application

(a) Unless expressly provided otherwise, the present Regulations apply only to ships engaged on international voyages.

(b) The classes of ships to which each Chapter applies are more precisely defined, and the extent of the application is shown, in each Chapter.

Regulation 2

Definitions

For the purpose of the present Regulations, unless expressly provided otherwise:

(a) “Regulations” means the Regulations contained in the Annex to the present Convention.

(b) “Administration” means the Government of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly.

(c) “Approved” means approved by the Administration.

(d) “International voyage” means a voyage from a country to which the present Convention applies to a port outside such country, or conversely.

(e) A passenger is every person other than:

(i) the master and the members of the crew or other persons employed or engaged in any capacity on board a ship on the business of that ship; and

(ii) a child under one year of age.

(f) A passenger ship is a ship which carries more than twelve passengers.

(g) A cargo ship is any ship which is not a passenger ship.

(h) A tanker is a cargo ship constructed or adapted for the carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes of an inflammable nature.

(i) A fishing vessel is a vessel used for catching fish, whales, seals, walrus or other living resources of the sea.

(j) A nuclear ship is a ship provided with a nuclear power plant.

(k) “New ship” means a ship the keel of which is laid or which is at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the present Convention.

(l) “Existing ship” means a ship which is not a new ship.

(m) A mile is 1,852 metres or 6,080 feet.

Regulation 3

Exceptions

(a) The present Regulations, unless expressly provided otherwise, do not apply to:

 (i) Ships of war and troopships.

 (ii) Cargo ships of less than 500 tons gross tonnage.

 (iii) Ships not propelled by mechanical means.

 (iv) Wooden ships of primitive build.

 (v) Pleasure yachts not engaged in trade.

 (vi) Fishing vessels.

(b) Except as expressly provided in Chapter V, nothing herein shall apply to ships solely navigating the Great Lakes of North America and the River St. Lawrence as far east as a straight line drawn from Cap des Rosiers to West Point, Anticosti Island and, on the north side of Anticosti Island, the 63rd Meridian.

Regulation 4

Exemptions

(a) A ship which is not normally engaged on international voyages but which, in exceptional circumstances, is required to undertake a single international voyage may be exempted by the Administration from any of the requirements of the present Regulations provided that it complies with safety requirements which are adequate in the opinion of the Administration for the voyage which is to be undertaken by the ship.

(b) The Administration may exempt any ship which embodies features of a novel kind from any of the provisions of Chapters II–1, II–2, III and IV of these Regulations the application of which might seriously impede research into the development of such features and their incorporation in ships engaged on international voyages. Any such ship shall, however, comply with safety requirements which, in the opinion of that Administration, are adequate for the service for which it is intended and are such as to ensure the overall safety of the ship and which are acceptable to the Governments of the States to be visited by the ship. The Administration which allows any such exemption shall communicate to the Organization particulars of same and the reasons therefor which the Organization shall circulate to the Contracting Governments for their information.

Regulation 5

Equivalents

(a) Where the present Regulations require that a particular fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, shall be fitted or carried in a ship, or that any particular provision shall be made, the Administration may allow any other fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, to be fitted or carried, or any other provision to be made in that ship, if it is satisfied by trial thereof or otherwise that such fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, or provision, is at least as effective as that required by the present Regulations.

(b) Any Administration which so allows, in substitution, a fitting, material, appliance or apparatus, or type thereof, or provision, shall communicate to the Organization particulars thereof together with a report on any trials made and the Organization shall circulate such particulars to other Contracting Governments for the information of their officers.

PART BSURVEYS AND CERTIFICATES

Regulation 6

Inspection and Survey

The inspection and survey of ships, so far as regards the enforcement of the provisions of the present Regulations and the granting of exemptions therefrom, shall be carried out by officers of the country in which the ship is registered, provided that the Government of each country may entrust the inspection and survey either to surveyors nominated for the purpose or to organizations recognized by it. In every case the Government concerned fully guarantees the completeness and efficiency of the inspection and survey.

Regulation 7

Surveys of Passenger Ships

(a) A passenger ship shall be subjected to the surveys specified below:

 (i) A survey before the ship is put in service.

 (ii) A periodical survey once every twelve months.

 (iii) Additional surveys, as occasion arises.

(b) The surveys referred to above shall be carried out as follows:

 (i) The survey before the ship is put in service shall include a complete inspection of its structure, machinery and equipment, including the outside of the ship’s bottom and the inside and outside of the boilers. This survey shall be such as to ensure that the arrangements, material, and scantlings of the structure, boilers and other pressure vessels and their appurtenances, main and auxiliary machinery, electrical installation, radio installation, radiotelegraph installations in motor lifeboats, portable radio apparatus for survival craft, lifesaving appliances, fire protection, fire detecting and extinguishing appliances, radar, echosounding device, gyrocompass, pilot ladders, mechanical pilot hoists and other equipment, fully comply with the requirements of the present Convention, and of the laws, decrees, orders and regulations promulgated as a result thereof by the Administration for ships of the service for which it is intended. The survey shall also be such as to ensure that the workmanship of all parts of the ship and its equipment is in all respects satisfactory, and that the ship is provided with the lights, shapes, means of making sound signals and distress signals as required by the provisions of the present Convention and the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea in force.

 (ii) The periodical survey shall include an inspection of the structure, boilers and other pressure vessels, machinery and equipment, including the outside of the ship’s bottom. The survey shall be such as to ensure that the ship, as regards the structure, boilers and other pressure vessels and their appurtenances, main and auxiliary machinery, electrical installation, radio installation, radiotelegraph installations in motor lifeboats, portable radio apparatus for survival craft, lifesaving appliances, fire protection, fire detecting and extinguishing appliances, radar, echosounding device, gyrocompass, pilot ladders, mechanical pilot hoists and other equipment, is in satisfactory condition and fit for the service for which it is intended, and that it complies with the requirements of the present Convention, and of the laws, decrees, orders and regulations promulgated as a result thereof by the Administration. The lights, shapes and means of making sound signals and the distress signals carried by the ship shall also be subject to the abovementioned survey for the purpose of ensuring that they comply with the requirements of the present Convention and of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea in force.

 (iii) A survey either general or partial, according to the circumstances, shall be made every time an accident occurs or a defect is discovered which affects the safety of the ship or the efficiency or completeness of its lifesaving appliances or other equipment, or whenever any important repairs or renewals are made. The survey shall be such as to ensure that the necessary repairs or renewals have been effectively made, that the material and workmanship of such repairs are in all respects satisfactory, and that the ship complies in all respects with the provisions of the present Convention and of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea in force, and of the laws, decrees, orders and regulations promulgated as a result thereof by the Administration.

(c) (i) The laws, decrees, orders and regulations referred to in paragraph (b) of this Regulation shall be in all respects such as to ensure that, from the point of view of safety of life, the ship is fit for the service for which it is intended.

 (ii) They shall among other things prescribe the requirements to be observed as to the initial and subsequent hydraulic or other acceptable alternative tests to which the main and auxiliary boilers, connexions, steam pipes, high pressure receivers, and fuel tanks for internal combustion engines are to be submitted including the test procedures to be followed and the intervals between two consecutive tests.

Regulation 8

Surveys of LifeSaving Appliances and other Equipment of Cargo Ships

The lifesaving appliances, except a radiotelegraph installation in a motor lifeboat or a portable radio apparatus for survival craft, the echosounding device, the gyrocompass, and the fireextinguishing appliances of cargo ships to which Chapters II–1, II–2, III and V apply shall be subject to initial and subsequent surveys as provided for passenger ships in Regulation 7 of this Chapter with the substitution of 24 months for 12 months in subparagraph (a)(ii) of that Regulation. The fire control plans in new ships and the pilot ladders, mechanical pilot hoists, lights, shapes and means of making sound signals carried by new and existing ships shall be included in the surveys for the purpose of ensuring that they comply fully with the requirements of the present Convention and, where applicable, the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea in force.

Regulation 9

Surveys of Radio and Radar Installations of Cargo Ships

The radio and radar installations of cargo ships to which Chapters IV and V apply and any radiotelegraph installation in a motor lifeboat or portable radio apparatus for survival craft which is carried in compliance with the requirements of Chapter III shall be subject to initial and subsequent surveys as provided for passenger ships in Regulation 7 of this Chapter.

Regulation 10

Surveys of Hull, Machinery and Equipment of Cargo Ships

The hull, machinery and equipment (other than items in respect of which Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificates, Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificates or Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificates are issued) of a cargo ship shall be surveyed on completion and thereafter in such manner and at such intervals as the Administration may consider necessary in order to ensure that their condition is in all respects satisfactory. The survey shall be such as to ensure that the arrangements, material, and scantlings of the structure, boilers and other pressure vessels and their appurtenances, main and auxiliary machinery, electrical installations and other equipment are in all respects satisfactory for the service for which the ship is intended.

Regulation 11

Maintenance of Conditions after Survey

After any survey of the ship under Regulations 7, 8, 9 or 10 of this Chapter has been completed, no change shall be made in the structural arrangements, machinery, equipment, etc. covered by the survey, without the sanction of the Administration.

Regulation 12

Issue of Certificates

(a) (i) A certificate called a Passenger Ship Safety Certificate shall be issued after inspection and survey to a passenger ship which complies with the requirements of Chapters II–1, II–2, III and IV and any other relevant requirements of the present Regulations.

 (ii) A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate shall be issued after survey to a cargo ship which satisfies the requirements for cargo ships on survey set out in Regulation 10 of this Chapter and complies with the applicable requirements of Chapters II–1 and II–2 other than those relating to fireextinguishing appliances and fire control plans.

 (iii) A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate shall be issued after inspection to a cargo ship which complies with the relevant requirements of Chapters II–1, II–2 and III and any other relevant requirements of the present Regulations.

 (iv) A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificate shall be issued after inspection to a cargo ship, fitted with a radiotelegraph installation, which complies with the requirements of Chapter IV and any other relevant requirements of the present Regulations.

 (v) A certificate called a Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificate shall be issued after inspection to a cargo ship, fitted with a radiotelephone installation, which complies with the requirements of Chapter IV and any other relevant requirements of the present Regulations.

 (vi) When an exemption is granted to a ship under and in accordance with the provisions of the present Regulations, a certificate called an Exemption Certificate shall be issued in addition to the certificates prescribed in this paragraph.

 (vii) Passenger Ship Safety Certificates, Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificates, Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificates, Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificates, Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificates and Exemption Certificates shall be issued either by the Administration or by any person or organization duly authorized by it. In every case, that Administration assumes full responsibility for the Certificate.

 (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of the present Convention any certificate issued under, and in accordance with, the provisions of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, which is current when the present Convention comes into force in respect of the Administration by which the certificate is issued, shall remain valid until it expires under the terms of Regulation 14 of Chapter I of that Convention.

 (c) A Contracting Government shall not issue certificates under, and in accordance with, the provisions of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, 1948 or 1929, after the date on which acceptance of the present Convention by the Government takes effect.

Regulation 13

Issue of Certificate by another Government

A Contracting Government may, at the request of the Administration, cause a ship to be surveyed and, if satisfied that the requirements of the present Regulations are complied with, shall issue certificates to the ship in accordance with the present Regulations. Any certificate so issued must contain a statement to the effect that it has been issued at the request of the Government of the country in which the ship is or will be registered, and it shall have the same force and receive the same recognition as a certificate issued under Regulation 12 of this Chapter.

Regulation 14

Duration of Certificates

(a) Certificates other than Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificates, Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificates and Exemption Certificates shall be issued for a period of not more than 12 months. Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificates shall be issued for a period of not more than 24 months. Exemption Certificates shall not be valid for longer than the period of the certificates to which they refer.

(b) If a survey takes place within two months before the end of the period for which a Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelegraphy Certificate or a Cargo Ship Safety Radiotelephony Certificate issued in respect of cargo ships of 300 tons gross tonnage and upwards, but less than 500 tons gross tonnage, was originally issued, that certificate may be withdrawn, and a new certificate may be issued which shall expire 12 months after the end of the said period.

(c) If a ship at the time when its certificate expires is not in a port of the country in which it is registered, the certificate may be extended by the Administration, but such extension shall be granted only for the purpose of allowing the ship to complete its voyage to the country in which it is registered or is to be surveyed, and then only in cases where it appears proper and reasonable so to do.

(d) No certificate shall be thus extended for a longer period than five months, and a ship to which such extension is granted shall not, on its arrival in the country in which it is registered or the port in which it is to be surveyed, be entitled by virtue of such extension to leave that port or country without having obtained a new certificate.

(e) A certificate which has not been extended under the foregoing provisions of this Regulation may be extended by the Administration for a period of grace of up to one month from the date of expiry stated on it.

Regulation 15

Form of Certificates

(a) All certificates shall be drawn up in the official language or languages of the country by which they are issued.

(b) The form of the certificates shall be that of the models given in the Appendix to the present Regulations. The arrangement of the printed part of the model certificates shall be exactly reproduced in the certificates issued, or in certified copies thereof, and the particulars inserted in the certificates issued, or in certified copies thereof, shall be in Roman characters and Arabic figures.

Regulation 16

Posting up of Certificates

All certificates or certified copies thereof issued under the present Regulations shall be posted up in a prominent and accessible place in the ship.

Regulation 17

Acceptance of Certificates

Certificates issued under the authority of a Contracting Government shall be accepted by the other Contracting Governments for all purposes covered by the present Convention. They shall be regarded by the other Contracting Governments as having the same force as certificates issued by them.

Regulation 18

Qualification of Certificates

(a) If in the course of a particular voyage a ship has on board a number of persons less than the total number stated in the Passenger Ship Safety Certificate and is in consequence, in accordance with the provisions of the present Regulations, free to carry a smaller number of lifeboats and other lifesaving appliances than that stated in the Certificate, an annex may be issued by the Government, person or organization referred to in Regulation 12 or 13 of this Chapter.

(b) This annex shall state that in the circumstances there is no infringement of the provisions of the present Regulations. It shall be annexed to the Certificate and shall be substituted for it in so far as the lifesaving appliances are concerned. It shall be valid only for the particular voyage for which it is issued.

Regulation 19

Control

Every ship holding a certificate issued under Regulation 12 or Regulation 13 of this Chapter is subject in the ports of the other Contracting Governments to control by officers duly authorized by such Governments in so far as this control is directed towards verifying that there is on board a valid certificate. Such certificate shall be accepted unless there are clear grounds for believing that the condition of the ship or of its equipment does not correspond substantially with the particulars of that certificate. In that case, the officer carrying out the control shall take such steps as will ensure that the ship shall not sail until it can proceed to sea without danger to the passengers or the crew. In the event of this control giving rise to intervention of any kind, the officer carrying out the control shall inform the Consul of the country in which the ship is registered in writing forthwith of all the circumstances in which intervention was deemed to be necessary, and the facts shall be reported to the Organization.

Regulation 20

Privileges

The privileges of the present Convention may not be claimed in favour of any ship unless it holds appropriate valid certificates.

PART CCASUALTIES

Regulation 21

Casualties

(a) Each Administration undertakes to conduct an investigation of any casualty occurring to any of its ships subject to the provisions of the present Convention when it judges that such an investigation may assist in determining what changes in the present Regulations might be desirable.

(b) Each Contracting Government undertakes to supply the Organization with pertinent information concerning the findings of such investigations. No reports or recommendations of the Organization based upon such information shall disclose the identity or nationality of the ships concerned or in any manner fix or imply responsibility upon any ship or person.

CHAPTER II–1

CONSTRUCTIONSUBDIVISION AND STABILITY, MACHINERY AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

PART AGENERAL

Regulation 1

Application

(a) (i) Unless expressly provided otherwise, this Chapter applies to new ships.

 (ii) Existing passenger ships and cargo ships shall comply with the following:

 (1) for ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, the Administration shall ensure that the requirements which were applied under Chapter II of that Convention to new ships as defined in that Chapter are complied with;

 (2) for ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, but before the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, the Administration shall ensure that the requirements which were applied under Chapter II of the 1948 Convention to new ships as defined in that Chapter are complied with;

 (3) for ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction before the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, the Administration shall ensure that the requirements which were applied under Chapter II of that Convention to existing ships as defined in that Chapter are complied with;

 (4) as regards the requirements of Chapter II–1 of the present Convention which are not contained in Chapter II of the 1960 and 1948 Conventions, the Administration shall decide which of these requirements shall be applied to existing ships as defined in the present Convention.

 (iii) A ship which undergoes repairs, alterations, modifications and outfitting related thereto shall continue to comply with at least the requirements previously applicable to the ship. An existing ship in such a case shall not, as a rule, comply to a lesser extent with the requirements for a new ship than it did before. Repairs, alterations and modifications of a major character and outfitting related thereto should meet the requirements for a new ship in so far as the Administration deems reasonable and practicable.

(b) For the purpose of this Chapter:

 (i) a new passenger ship is a passenger ship the keel of which is laid or which is at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the present Convention, or a cargo ship which is converted to a passenger ship on or after that date, all other passenger ships being described as existing passenger ships.

 (ii) A new cargo ship is a cargo ship the keel of which is laid or which is at a similar stage of construction after the date of coming into force of the present Convention.

(c) The Administration may, if it considers that the sheltered nature and conditions of the voyage are such as to render the application of any specific requirements of this Chapter unreasonable or unnecessary, exempt from those requirements individual ships or classes of ships belonging to its country which, in the course of their voyage, do not proceed more than 20 miles from the nearest land.

(d) In the case of a passenger ship which is permitted under paragraph (c) of Regulation 27 of Chapter III to carry a number of persons on board in excess of the lifeboat capacity provided, it shall comply with the special standards of subdivision set out in paragraph (e) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter, and the associated special provisions regarding permeability in paragraph (d) of Regulation 4 of this Chapter, unless the Administration is satisfied that, having regard to the nature and conditions of the voyage, compliance with the other provisions of the Regulations of this Chapter and Chapter II–2 of the present Convention is sufficient.

(e) In the case of passenger ships which are employed in special trades for the carriage of large numbers of special trade passengers, such as the pilgrim trade, the Administration, if satisfied that it is impracticable to enforce compliance with the requirements of this Chapter, may exempt such ships, when they belong to its country, from those requirements, provided that they comply fully with the provisions of:

(i) the Rules annexed to the Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement, 1971, and

(ii) the Rules annexed to the Protocol on Space Requirements for Special Trade Passenger Ships, 1973, when it enters into force.

Regulation 2

Definitions

For the purpose of this Chapter, unless expressly provided otherwise:

(a) (i) A subdivision load line is a waterline used in determining the subdivision of the ship.

 (ii) The deepest subdivision load line is the waterline which corresponds to the greatest draught permitted by the subdivision requirements which are applicable.

(b) The length of the ship is the length measured between perpendiculars taken at the extremities of the deepest subdivision load line.

(c) The breadth of the ship is the extreme width from outside of frame to outside of frame at or below the deepest subdivision load line.

(d) The draught is the vertical distance from the moulded base line amidships to the subdivision load line in question.

(e) The bulkhead deck is the uppermost deck up to which the transverse watertight bulkheads are carried.

(f) The margin line is a line drawn at least 76 millimetres (3 inches) below the upper surface of the bulkhead deck at side.

(g) The permeability of a space is the percentage of that space which can be occupied by water.

The volume of a space which extends above the margin line shall be measured only to the height of that line.

(h) The machinery space is to be taken as extending from the moulded base line to the margin line and between the extreme main transverse watertight bulkheads bounding the spaces containing the main and auxiliary propelling machinery, boilers serving the needs of propulsion, and all permanent coal bunkers.

In the case of unusual arrangements, the Administration may define the limits of the machinery spaces.

(i) Passenger spaces are those which are provided for the accommodation and use of passengers, excluding baggage, store, provision and mail rooms.

For the purposes of Regulations 4 and 5 of this Chapter, spaces provided below the margin line for the accommodation and use of the crew shall be regarded as passenger spaces.

(j) In all case volumes and areas shall be calculated to moulded lines.

PART BSUBDIVISION AND STABILITY

(Part B applies to passenger ships only, except
that Regulation 19 also applies to cargo ships.)

Regulation 3

Floodable Length

(a) The floodable length at any point of the length of a ship shall be determined by a method of calculation which takes into consideration the form, draught and other characteristics of the ship in question.

(b) In a ship with a continuous bulkhead deck, the floodable length at a given point is the maximum portion of the length of the ship, having its centre at the point in question, which can be flooded under the definite assumptions set forth in Regulation 4 of this Chapter without the ship being submerged beyond the margin line.

(c) (i) In the case of a ship not having a continuous bulkhead deck, the floodable length at any point may be determined to an assumed continuous margin line which at no point is less than 76 millimetres (3 inches) below the top of the deck (at side) to which the bulkheads concerned and the shell are carried watertight.

 (ii) Where a portion of an assumed margin line is appreciably below the deck to which bulkheads are carried, the Administration may permit a limited relaxation in the watertightness of those portions of the bulkheads which are above the margin line and immediately under the higher deck.

Regulation 4

Permeability

(a) The definite assumptions referred to in Regulation 3 of this Chapter relate to the permeabilities of the spaces below the margin line.

In determining the floodable length, a uniform average permeability shall be used throughout the whole length of each of the following portions of the ship below the margin line:

 (i) the machinery space as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter;

 (ii) the portion forward of the machinery space; and

 (iii) the portion abaft the machinery space.

(b) (i) The uniform average permeability throughout the machinery space shall be determined from the formula—

where:

a  = volume of the passenger spaces, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, which are situated below the margin line within the limits of the machinery space;

c  = volume of between deck spaces below the margin line within the limits of the machinery space which are appropriated to cargo, coal or stores;

v  = whole volume of the machinery space below the margin line.

 (ii) Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that the average permeability as determined by detailed calculation is less than that given by the formula, the detailed calculated value may be used. For the purpose of such calculation, the permeabilities of passenger spaces, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, shall be taken as 95, that of all cargo, coal and store spaces as 60, and that of double bottom, oil fuel and other tanks at such values as may be approved in each case.

(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this Regulation, the uniform average permeability throughout the portion of the ship before (or abaft) the machinery space shall be determined from the formula—

 where:

a  = volume of the passenger spaces, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, which are situated below the margin line, before (or abaft) the machinery space, and

v  = whole volume of the portion of the ship below the margin line before (or abaft) the machinery space.

(d) In the case of a ship which is permitted under paragraph (c) of Regulation 27 of Chapter III to carry a number of persons on board in excess of the lifeboat capacity provided, and is required under paragraph (d) of Regulation 1 of this Chapter to comply with special provisions, the uniform average permeability throughout the portion of the ship before (or abaft) the machinery space shall be determined from the formula—

 where:

b  = the volume of the spaces below the margin line and above the tops of floors, inner bottom, or peak tanks, as the case may be, which are appropriated to and used as cargo spaces, coal or oil fuel bunkers, storerooms, baggage and mail rooms, chain lockers and fresh water tanks, before (or abaft) the machinery space; and

v  = whole volume of the portion of the ship below the margin line before (or abaft) the machinery space.

In the case of ships engaged on services where the cargo holds are not generally occupied by any substantial quantities of cargo, no part of the cargo spaces is to be included in calculating “b”.

(e) In the case of unusual arrangements the Administration may allow, or require, a detailed calculation of average permeability for the portions before or abaft the machinery space. For the purpose of such calculation, the permeability of passenger spaces as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter shall be taken as 95, that of spaces containing machinery as 85, that of all cargo, coal and store spaces as 60, and that of double bottom, oil fuel and other tanks at such value as may be approved in each case.

(f) Where a between deck compartment between two watertight transverse bulkheads contains any passenger or crew space, the whole of that compartment, less any space completely enclosed within permanent steel bulkheads and appropriated to other purposes, shall be regarded as passenger space. Where, however, the passenger or crew space in question is completely enclosed within permanent steel bulkheads, only the space so enclosed need be considered as passenger space.

Regulation 5

Permissible Length of Compartments

(a) Ships shall be as efficiently subdivided as is possible having regard to the nature of the service for which they are intended. The degree of subdivision shall vary with the length of the ship and with the service, in such manner that the highest degree of subdivision corresponds with the ships of greatest length, primarily engaged in the carriage of passengers.

(b) Factor of Subdivision. The maximum permissible length of a compartment having its centre at any point in the ship’s length is obtained from the floodable length by multiplying the latter by an appropriate factor called the factor of subdivision.

The factor of subdivision shall depend on the length of the ship, and for a given length shall vary according to the nature of the service for which the ship is intended. It shall decrease in a regular and continuous manner:

 (i) as the length of the ship increases, and

 (ii) from a factor A, applicable to ships primarily engaged in the carriage of cargo, to a factor B, applicable to ships primarily engaged in the carriage of passengers.

The variations of the factors A and B shall be expressed by the following formulae (I) and (II) where L is the length of the ship as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter:

L in metres

  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  (I)

L in feet

L in metres

L in feet

(c) Criterion of Service. For a ship of given length the appropriate factor of subdivision shall be determined by the Criterion of Service Numeral (hereinafter called the Criterion Numeral) as given by the following formulae (III) and (IV) where:

Cs = the Criterion Numeral;

L = Length of the ship, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter;

M = the volume of the machinery space, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter; with the addition thereto of the volume of any permanent oil fuel bunkers which may be situated above the inner bottom and before or abaft the machinery space;

P = the whole volume of the passenger spaces below the margin line, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter;

V = the whole volume of the ship below the margin line;

P1 = KN where:

N = number of passengers for which the ship is to be certified, and

K has the following values:

Value of K

Length in metres and volumes in cubic metres .056L

Length in feet and volumes in cubic feet .6L

Where the value of KN is greater than the sum of P and the whole volume of the actual passenger spaces above the margin line, the figure to be taken as P1 is that sum or twothirds KN, whichever is the greater.

When P1 is greater than P—

.......................................(III)

and in other cases—

.......................................(IV)

For ships not having a continuous bulkhead deck the volumes are to be taken up to the actual margin lines used in determining the floodable lengths.

(d) Rules for Subdivision of Ships other than those covered by paragraph (e) of this Regulation

 (i) The subdivision abaft the forepeak of ships 131 metres (430 feet) in length and upwards having a criterion numeral of 23 or less shall be governed by the factor A given by formula (I); of those having a criterion numeral of 123 or more by the factor B given by formula (II); and of those having a criterion numeral between 23 and 123 by the factor F obtained by linear interpolation between the factors A and B, using the formula:

........................................(V)

 Nevertheless, where the criterion numeral is equal to 45 or more and simultaneously the computed factor of subdivision as given by formula (V) is .65 or less, but more than .50, the subdivision abaft the forepeak shall be governed by the factor .50.

Where the factor F is less than .40 and it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration to be impracticable to comply with the factor F in a machinery compartment of the ship, the subdivision of such compartment may be governed by an increased factor, which, however, shall not exceed .40.

 (ii) The subdivision abaft the forepeak of ships less than 131 metres (430 feet) but not less than 79 metres (260 feet) in length having a criterion numeral equal to S, where—

 shall be governed by the factor unity; of those having a criterion numeral of 123 or more by the factor B given by the formula (II); of those having a criterion numeral between S and 123 by the factor F obtained by linear interpolation between unity and the factor B using the formula:

........................................(VI)

 (iii) The subdivision abaft the forepeak of ships less than 131 metres (430 feet) but not less than 79 metres (260 feet) in length and having a criterion numeral less than S, and of all ships less than 79 metres (260 feet) in length shall be governed by the factor unity, unless, in either case, it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration to be impracticable to comply with this factor in any part of the ship, in which case the Administration may allow such relaxation as may appear to be justified, having regard to all the circumstances.

 (iv) The provisions of subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph shall apply also to ships of whatever length, which are to be certified to carry a number of passengers exceeding 12 but not exceeding—

(e) Special Standards of Subdivision for Ships which are permitted under paragraph (c) of Regulation 27 of Chapter III to carry a number of persons on board in excess of the lifeboat capacity provided and are required under paragraph (d) of Regulation 1 of this Chapter to comply with special provisions

 (i) (1) In the case of ships primarily engaged in the carriage of passengers, the subdivision abaft the forepeak shall be governed by a factor of .50 or by the factor determined according to paragraphs (c) and (d) of this Regulation, if less than .50.

 (2) In the case of such ships less than 91.5 metres (300 feet) in length, if the Administration is satisfied that compliance with such factor would be impracticable in a compartment, it may allow the length of that compartment to be governed by a higher factor provided the factor used is the lowest that is practicable and reasonable in the circumstances.

 (ii) Where, in the case of any ship whether less than 91.5 metres (300 feet) or not, the necessity of carrying appreciable quantities of cargo makes it impracticable to require the subdivision abaft the forepeak to be governed by a factor not exceeding .50, the standard of subdivision to be applied shall be determined in accordance with the following subparagraphs (1) to (5), subject to the condition that where the Administration is satisfied that insistence on strict compliance in any respect would be unreasonable, it may allow such alternative arrangement of the watertight bulkheads as appears to be justified on merits and will not diminish the general effectiveness of the subdivision.

 (1) The provisions of paragraph (c) of this Regulation relating to the criterion numeral shall apply with the exception that in calculating the value of P1 for berthed passengers K is to have the value defined in paragraph (c) of this Regulation, or 3.55 cubic metres (125 cubic feet), whichever is the greater, and for unberthed passengers K is to have the value 3.55 cubic metres (125 cubic feet).

 (2) The factor B in paragraph (b) of this Regulation shall be replaced by the factor BB determined by the following formula:

L in metres

L in feet

 (3) The subdivision abaft the forepeak of ships 131 metres (430 feet) in length and upwards having a criterion numeral of 23 or less shall be governed by the factor A given by formula (I) in paragraph (b) of this Regulation; of those having a criterion numeral of 123 of more by the factor BB given by the formula in subparagraph (ii)(2) of this paragraph; and of those having a criterion numeral between 23 and 123 by the factor F obtained by linear interpolation between the factors A and BB, using the formula:

 except that if the factor F so obtained is less than .50 the factor to be used shall be either .50 or the factor calculated according to the provisions of subparagraph (d) (i) of this Regulation, whichever is the smaller.

 (4) The subdivision abaft the forepeak of ships less than 131 metres (430 feet) but not less than 55 metres (180 feet) in length having a criterion numeral equal to S1 where—

 shall be governed by the factor unity; of those having a criterion numeral of 123 or more by the factor BB given by the formula in subparagraph (ii)(2) of this paragraph; of those having a criterion numeral between S1 and 123 by the factor F obtained by linear interpolation between unity and the factor BB using the formula:

except that in either of the two latter cases if the factor so obtained is less than .50 the subdivision may be governed by a factor not exceeding .50.

(5) The subdivision abaft the forepeak of ships less than 131 metres (430 feet) but not less than 55 metres (180 feet) in length and having a criterion numeral less than S1 and of all ships less than 55 metres (180 feet) in length shall be governed by the factor unity, unless it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration to be impracticable to comply with this factor in particular compartments, in which event the Administration may allow such relaxations in respect of those compartments as appear to be justified, having regard to all the circumstances, provided that the aftermost compartment and as many as possible of the forward compartments (between the forepeak and the after end of the machinery space) shall be kept within the floodable length.

Regulation 6

Special Rules concerning Subdivision

(a) Where in a portion or portions of a ship the watertight bulkheads are carried to a higher deck than in the remainder of the ship and it is desired to take advantage of this higher extension of the bulkheads in calculating the floodable length, separate margin lines may be used for each such portion of the ship provided that:

 (i) the sides of the ship are extended throughout the ship’s length to the deck corresponding to the upper margin line and all openings in the shell plating below this deck throughout the length of the ship are treated as being below a margin line, for the purposes of Regulation 14 of this Chapter; and

 (ii) the two compartments adjacent to the “step” in the bulkhead deck are each within the permissible length corresponding to their respective margin lines, and, in addition, their combined length does not exceed twice the permissible length based on the lower margin line.

(b) (i) A compartment may exceed the permissible length determined by the rules of Regulation 5 of this Chapter provided the combined length of each pair of adjacent compartments to which the compartment in question is common does not exceed either the floodable length or twice the permissible length, whichever is the less.

 (ii) If one of the two adjacent compartments is situated inside the machinery space, and the second is situated outside the machinery space, and the average permeability of the portion of the ship in which the second is situated differs from that of the machinery space, the combined length of the two compartments shall be adjusted to the mean average permeability of the two portions of the ship in which the compartments are situated.

 (iii) Where the two adjacent compartments have different factors of subdivision, the combined length of the two compartments shall be determined proportionately.

(c) In ships 100 metres (330 feet) in length and upwards, one of the main transverse bulkheads abaft the forepeak shall be fitted at a distance from forward perpendicular which is not greater than the permissible length.

(d) A main transverse bulkhead may be recessed provided that all parts of the recess lie inboard of vertical surfaces on both sides of the ship, situated at a distance from the shell plating equal to onefifth the breadth of the ship, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, and measured at right angles to the centre line at the level of the deepest subdivision load line.

Any part of a recess which lies outside these limits shall be dealt with as a step in accordance with paragraph (e) of this Regulation.

(e) A main transverse bulkhead may be stepped provided that it meets one of the following conditions:

 (i) the combined length of the two compartments, separated by the bulkhead in question, does not exceed either 90 per cent of the floodable length or twice the permissible length, except that in ships having a factor of subdivision greater than .9, the combined length of the two compartments in question shall not exceed the permissible length;

 (ii) additional subdivision is provided in way of the step to maintain the same measure of safety as that secured by a plane bulkhead;

 (iii) the compartment over which the step extends does not exceed the permissible length corresponding to a margin line taken 76 millimetres (3 inches) below the step.

(f) Where a main transverse bulkhead is recessed or stepped, an equivalent plane bulkhead shall be used in determining the subdivision.

(g) If the distance between two adjacent main transverse bulkheads, or their equivalent plane bulkheads, or the distance between the transverse planes passing through the nearest stepped portions of the bulkheads, is less than 3.05 metres (10 feet) plus 3 per cent of the length of the ship, or 10.67 metres (35 feet) whichever is the less, only one of these bulkheads shall be regarded as forming part of the subdivision of the ship in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 5 of this Chapter.

(h) Where a main transverse watertight compartment contains local subdivision and it can be shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that, after any assumed side damage extending over a length of 3.05 metres (10 feet) plus 3 per cent of the length of the ship, or 10.67 metres (35 feet) whichever is the less, the whole volume of the main compartment will not be flooded, a proportionate allowance may be made in the permissible length otherwise required for such compartment. In such a case the volume of effective buoyancy assumed on the undamaged side shall not be greater than that assumed on the damaged side.

(i) Where the required factor of subdivision is .50 or less, the combined length of any two adjacent compartments shall not exceed the floodable length.

Regulation 7

Stability of Ships in Damaged Condition

(a) Sufficient intact stability shall be provided in all service conditions so as to enable the ship to withstand the final stage of flooding of any one main compartment which is required to be within the floodable length.

Where two adjacent main compartments are separated by a bulkhead which is stepped under the conditions of subparagraph (e) (i) of Regulation 6 of this Chapter the intact stability shall be adequate to withstand the flooding of those two adjacent main compartments.

Where the required factor of subdivision is .50 or less but more than .33 intact stability shall be adequate to withstand the flooding of any two adjacent main compartments.

Where the required factor of subdivision is .33 or less the intact stability shall be adequate to withstand the flooding of any three adjacent main compartments.

(b) (i) The requirements of paragraph (a) of this Regulation shall be determined by calculations which are in accordance with paragraphs (c), (d) and (f) of this Regulation and which take into consideration the proportions and design characteristics of the ship and the arrangement and configuration of the damaged compartments. In making these calculations the ship is to be assumed in the worst anticipated service condition as regards stability.

 (ii) Where it is proposed to fit decks, inner skins or longitudinal bulkheads of sufficient tightness to seriously restrict the flow of water, the Administration shall be satisfied that proper consideration is given to such restrictions in the calculations.

 (iii) In cases where the Administration considers the range of stability in the damaged condition to be doubtful, it may require investigation thereof.

(c) For the purpose of making damage stability calculations the volume and surface permeabilities shall be in general as follows:

 

Spaces

Permeability

Appropriated to Cargo, Coal or Stores..............

                60 

Occupied by Accommodation ...................

                95 

Occupied by Machinery .......................

                85 

Intended for Liquids .........................

         0 or 95 

Higher surface permeabilities are to be assumed in respect of spaces which, in the vicinity of the damage waterplane, contain no substantial quantity of accommodation or machinery and spaces which are not generally occupied by any substantial quantity of cargo or stores.

(d) Assumed extent of damage shall be as follows:

 (i) longitudinal extent: 3.05 metres (10 feet) plus 3 per cent of the length of the ship, or 10.67 metres (35 feet) whichever is the less. Where the required factor of subdivision is .33 or less the assumed longitudinal extent of damage shall be increased as necessary so as to include any two consecutive main transverse watertight bulkheads;

 (ii) transverse extent (measured inboard from the ship’s side, at right angles to the centre line at the level of the deepest subdivision load line): a distance of onefifth of the breadth of the ship, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter; and

 (iii) vertical extent: from the base line upwards without limit.

 (iv) If any damage of lesser extent than that indicated in subparagraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph would result in a more severe condition regarding heel or loss of metacentric height, such damage shall be assumed in the calculations.

(e) Unsymmetrical flooding is to be kept to a minimum consistent with efficient arrangements. Where it is necessary to correct large angles of heel, the means adopted shall, where practicable, be selfacting, but in any case where controls to crossflooding fittings are provided they shall be operable from above the bulkhead deck. These fittings together with their controls as well as the maximum heel before equalization shall be acceptable to the Administration. Where crossflooding fittings are required the time for equalization shall not exceed 15 minutes. Suitable information concerning the use of crossflooding fittings shall be supplied to the master of the ship.[† ]

(f) The final conditions of the ship after damage and, in the case of unsymmetrical flooding, after equalization measures have been taken shall be as follows:

 (i) in the case of symmetrical flooding there shall be a positive residual metacentric height of at least 50 millimetres (2 inches) as calculated by the constant displacement method;

 (ii) in the case of unsymmetrical flooding the total heel shall not exceed seven degrees, except that in special cases, the Administration may allow additional heel due to the unsymmetrical moment, but in no case shall the final heel exceed fifteen degrees;

 (iii) in no case shall the margin line be submerged in the final stage of flooding. If it is considered that the margin line may become submerged during an intermediate stage of flooding, the Administration may require such investigations and arrangements as it considers necessary for the safety of the ship.

(g) The master of the ship shall be supplied with the data necessary to maintain sufficient intact stability under service conditions to enable the ship to withstand critical damage. In the case of ships requiring crossflooding the master of the ship shall be informed of the conditions of stability on which the calculations of heel are based and be warned that excessive heeling might result should the ship sustain damage when in a less favourable condition.

(h) (i) No relaxation from the requirements for damage stability may be considered by the Administration unless it is shown that the intact metacentric height in any service condition necessary to meet these requirements is excessive for the service intended.

 (ii) Relaxations from the requirements for damage stability shall be permitted only in exceptional cases and subject to the condition that the Administration is to be satisfied that the proportions, arrangements and other characteristics of the ship are the most favourable to stability after damage which can practically and reasonably be adopted in the particular circumstances.

Regulation 8

Ballasting

When ballasting with water is necessary, the water ballast should not in general be carried in tanks intended for oil fuel. In ships in which it is not practicable to avoid putting water in oil fuel tanks, oilywater separator equipment to the satisfaction of the Administration shall be fitted, or other alternative means acceptable to the Administration shall be provided for disposing of the oilywater ballast.

Regulation 9

Peak and Machinery Space Bulkheads, Shaft Tunnels, etc.

(a) (i) A ship shall have a forepeak or collision bulkhead, which shall be watertight up to the bulkhead deck. This bulkhead shall be fitted not less than 5 per cent of the length of the ship, and not more than 3.05 metres (10 feet) plus 5 per cent of the length of the ship from the forward perpendicular.

 (ii) If the ship has a long forward superstructure, the forepeak bulkhead shall be extended weathertight to the deck next above the bulkhead deck. The extension need not be fitted directly over the bulkhead below, provided it is at least 5 per cent of the length of the ship from the forward perpendicular, and the part of the bulkhead deck which forms the step is made effectively weathertight.

(b) An afterpeak bulkhead, and bulkheads dividing the machinery space, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, from the cargo and passenger spaces forward and aft, shall also be fitted and made watertight up to the bulkhead deck. The afterpeak bulkhead may, however, be stepped below the bulkhead deck, provided the degree of safety of the ship as regards subdivision is not thereby diminished.

(c) In all cases stern tubes shall be enclosed in watertight spaces of moderate volume. The stern gland shall be situated in a watertight shaft tunnel or other watertight space separate from the stern tube compartment and of such volume that, if flooded by leakage through the stern gland, the margin line will not be submerged.

Regulation 10

Double Bottoms

(a) A double bottom shall be fitted extending from the forepeak bulkhead to the afterpeak bulkhead as far as this is practicable and compatible with the design and proper working of the ship.

 (i) In ships 50 metres (165 feet) and under 61 metres (200 feet) in length a double bottom shall be fitted at least from the machinery space to the forepeak bulkhead, or as near thereto as practicable.

 (ii) In ships 61 metres (200 feet) and under 76 metres (249 feet) in length a double bottom shall be fitted at least outside the machinery space, and shall extend to the fore and after peak bulkheads, or as near thereto as practicable.

 (iii) In ships 76 metres (249 feet) in length and upwards, a double bottom shall be fitted amidships, and shall extend to the fore and after peak bulkheads, or as near thereto as practicable.

(b) Where a double bottom is required to be fitted its depth shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration and the inner bottom shall be continued out to the ship’s sides in such a manner as to protect the bottom to the turn of the bilge. Such protection will be deemed satisfactory if the line of intersection of the outer edge of the margin plate with the bilge plating is not lower at any part than a horizontal plane passing through the point of intersection with the frame line amidships of a transverse diagonal line inclined at 25 degrees to the base line and cutting it at a point onehalf the ship’s moulded breadth from the middle line.

(c) Small wells constructed in the double bottom in connexion with drainage arrangements of holds, etc., shall not extend downwards more than necessary. The depth of the well shall in no case be more than the depth less 457 millimetres (18 inches) of the double bottom at the centreline, nor shall the well extend below the horizontal plane referred to in paragraph (b) of this Regulation. A well extending to the outer bottom is, however, permitted at the after end of the shaft tunnel of screwships. Other wells (e.g., for lubricating oil under main engines) may be permitted by the Administration if satisfied that the arrangements give protection equivalent to that afforded by a double bottom complying with this Regulation.

(d) A double bottom need not be fitted in way of watertight compartments of moderate size used exclusively for the carriage of liquids, provided the safety of the ship, in the event of bottom or side damage, is not, in the opinion of the Administration, thereby impaired.

(e) In the case of ships to which the provisions of paragraph (d) of Regulation 1 of this Chapter apply and which are engaged on regular service within the limits of a short international voyage as defined in Regulation 2 of Chapter III, the Administration may permit a double bottom to be dispensed with in any part of the ship which is subdivided by a factor not exceeding .50, if satisfied that the fitting of a double bottom in that part would not be compatible with the design and proper working of the ship.

Regulation 11

Assigning, Marking and Recording of Subdivision Load Lines

(a) In order that the required degree of subdivision shall be maintained, a load line corresponding to the approved subdivision draught shall be assigned and marked on the ship’s sides. A ship having spaces which are specially adapted for the accommodation of passengers and the carriage of cargo alternatively may, if the owners desire, have one or more additional load lines assigned and marked to correspond with the subdivision draughts which the Administration may approve for the alternative service conditions.

(b) The subdivision load lines assigned and marked shall be recorded in the Passenger Ship Safety Certificate, and shall be distinguished by the notation C.1 for the principal passenger condition, and C.2, C.3, etc., for the alternative conditions.

(c) The freeboard corresponding to each of these load lines shall be measured at the same position and from the same deck line as the freeboards determined in accordance with the International Convention respecting Load Lines in force.

(d) The freeboard corresponding to each approved subdivision load line and the conditions of service for which it is approved, shall be clearly indicated on the Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

(e) In no case shall any subdivision load line mark be placed above the deepest load line in salt water as determined by the strength of the ship and/or the International Convention respecting Load Lines in force.

(f) Whatever may be the position of the subdivision load line marks, a ship shall in no case be loaded so as to submerge the load line mark appropriate to the season and locality as determined in accordance with the International Convention respecting Load Lines in force.

(g) A ship shall in no case be so loaded that when she is in salt water the subdivision load line mark appropriate to the particular voyage and condition of service is submerged.

Regulation 12

Construction and Initial Testing of Watertight Bulkheads, etc.

(a) Each watertight subdivision bulkhead, whether transverse or longitudinal, shall be constructed in such a manner that it shall be capable of supporting, with a proper margin of resistance, the pressure due to the maximum head of water which it might have to sustain in the event of damage to the ship but at least the pressure due to a head of water up to the margin line. The construction of these bulkheads shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) (i) Steps and recesses in bulkheads shall be watertight and as strong as the bulkhead at the place where each occurs.

 (ii) Where frames or beams pass through a watertight deck or bulkhead, such deck or bulkhead shall be made structurally watertight without the use of wood or cement.

(c) Testing main compartments by filling them with water is not compulsory. When testing by filling with water is not carried out, a hose test is compulsory; this test shall be carried out in the most advanced stage of the fitting out of the ship. In any case, a thorough inspection of the watertight bulkheads shall be carried out.

(d) The forepeak, double bottoms (including duct keels) and inner skins shall be tested with water to a head corresponding to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this Regulation.

(e) Tanks which are intended to hold liquids, and which form part of the subdivision of the ship, shall be tested for tightness with water to a head up to the deepest subdivision load line or to a head corresponding to twothirds of the depth from the top of keel to the margin line in way of the tanks, whichever is the greater; provided that in no case shall the test head be less than 0.92 metres (3 feet) above the top of the tank.

(f) The tests referred to in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this Regulation are for the purpose of ensuring that the subdivision structural arrangements are watertight and are not to be regarded as a test of the fitness of any compartment for the storage of oil fuel or for other special purposes for which a test of a superior character may be required depending on the height to which the liquid has access in the tank or its connexions.

Regulation 13

Openings in Watertight Bulkheads

(a) The number of openings in watertight bulkheads shall be reduced to the minimum compatible with the design and proper working of the ship; satisfactory means shall be provided for closing these openings.

(b) (i) Where pipes, scuppers, electric cables, etc. are carried through watertight subdivision bulkheads, arrangements shall be made to ensure the integrity of the watertightness of the bulkheads.

 (ii) Valves and cocks not forming part of a piping system shall not be permitted in watertight subdivision bulkheads.

 (iii) Lead or other heat sensitive materials shall not be used in systems which penetrate watertight subdivision bulkheads, where deterioration of such systems in the event of fire would impair the watertight integrity of the bulkheads.

(c) (i) No doors, manholes, or access openings are permitted:

 (1) in the collision bulkhead below the margin line;

 (2) in watertight transverse bulkheads dividing a cargo space from an adjoining cargo space or from a permanent or reserve bunker, except as provided in paragraph (1) of this Regulation.

 (ii) Except as provided in subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph, the collision bulkhead may be pierced below the margin line by not more than one pipe for dealing with fluid in the forepeak tank, provided that the pipe is fitted with a screwdown valve capable of being operated from above the bulkhead deck, the valve chest being secured inside the forepeak to the collision bulkhead.

 (iii) If the forepeak is divided to hold two different kinds of liquids the Administration may allow the collision bulkhead to be pierced below the margin line by two pipes, each of which is fitted as required by subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph, provided the Administration is satisfied that there is no practical alternative to the fitting of such a second pipe and that, having regard to the additional subdivision provided in the forepeak, the safety of the ship is maintained.

(d) (i) Watertight doors fitted in bulkheads between permanent and reserve bunkers shall be always accessible, except as provided in subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (k) of this Regulation for between deck and bunker doors.

 (ii) Satisfactory arrangements shall be made by means of screens or otherwise to prevent the coal from interfering with the closing of watertight bunker doors.

(e) Within spaces containing the main and auxiliary propelling machinery including boilers serving the needs of propulsion and all permanent bunkers, not more than one door apart from the doors to bunkers and shaft tunnels may be fitted in each main transverse bulkhead. Where two or more shafts are fitted the tunnels shall be connected by an intercommunicating passage. There shall be only one door between the machinery space and the tunnel spaces where two shafts are fitted and only two doors where there are more than two shafts. All these doors shall be of the sliding type and shall be located so as to have their sills as high as practicable. The hand gear for operating these doors from above the bulkhead deck shall be situated outside the spaces containing the machinery if this is consistent with a satisfactory arrangement of the necessary gearing.

(f) (i) Watertight doors shall be sliding doors or hinged doors or doors of an equivalent type. Plate doors secured only by bolts and doors required to be closed by dropping or by the action of a dropping weight are not permitted.

 (ii) Sliding doors may be either:

 handoperated only, or

 poweroperated as well as handoperated.

 (iii) Authorized watertight doors may therefore be divided into three Classes:

Class 1—hinged doors;

Class 2—handoperated sliding doors;

Class 3—sliding doors which are poweroperated as well as handoperated.

 (iv) The means of operation of any watertight door whether poweroperated or not shall be capable of closing the door with the ship listed to 15 degrees either way.

 (v) In all classes of watertight doors indicators shall be fitted which show, at all operating stations from which the doors are not visible, whether the doors are open or closed. If any of the watertight doors, of whatever Class, is not fitted so as to enable it to be closed from a central control station, it shall be provided with a mechanical, electrical, telephonic, or any other suitable direct means of communication, enabling the officer of the watch promptly to contact the person who is responsible for closing the door in question, under previous orders.

(g) Hinged doors (Class 1) shall be fitted with quick action closing devices, such as catches, workable from each side of the bulkhead.

(h) Handoperated sliding doors (Class 2) may have a horizontal or vertical motion. It shall be possible to operate the mechanism at the door itself from either side, and in addition, from an accessible position above the bulkhead deck, with an all round crank motion, or some other movement providing the same guarantee of safety and of an approved type. Departures from the requirement of operation on both sides may be allowed, if this requirement is impossible owing to the layout of the spaces. When operating a hand gear the time necessary for the complete closure of the door with the vessel upright, shall not exceed 90 seconds.

(i) (i) Poweroperated sliding doors (Class 3) may have a vertical or horizontal motion. If a door is required to be poweroperated from a central control, the gearing shall be so arranged that the door can be operated by power also at the door itself from both sides. The arrangement shall be such that the door will close automatically if opened by local control after being closed from the central control, and also such that any door can be kept closed by local systems which will prevent the door from being opened from the upper control. Local control handles in connexion with the power gear shall be provided each side of the bulkhead and shall be so arranged as to enable persons passing through the doorway to hold both handles in the open position without being able to set the closing mechanism in operation accidentally. Poweroperated sliding doors shall be provided with hand gear workable at the door itself on either side and from an accessible position above the bulkhead deck, with an all round crank motion or some other movement providing the same guarantee of safety and of an approved type. Provision shall be made to give warnings by sound signal that the door has begun to close and will continue to move until it is completely closed. The door shall take a sufficient time to close to ensure safety.

 (ii) There shall be at least two independent power sources capable of opening and closing all the doors under control, each of them capable of operating all the doors simultaneously. The two power sources shall be controlled from the central station on the bridge provided with all the necessary indicators for checking that each of the two power sources is capable of giving the required service satisfactorily.

 (iii) In the case of hydraulic operation, each power source shall consist of a pump capable of closing all doors in not more than 60 seconds. In addition, there shall be for the whole installation hydraulic accumulators of sufficient capacity to operate all the doors at least three times, i.e., closedopenclosed. The fluid used shall be one which does not freeze at any of the temperatures liable to be encountered by the ship during its service.

(j) (i) Hinged watertight doors (Class 1) in passenger, crew and working spaces are only permitted above a deck the underside of which, at its lowest point at side, is at least 2.13 metres (7 feet) above the deepest subdivision load line.

 (ii) Watertight doors, the sills of which are above the deepest load line and below the line specified in the preceding subparagraph shall be sliding doors and may be handoperated (Class 2), except in vessels engaged on short international voyages and required to have a factor of subdivision of .50 or less in which all such doors shall be poweroperated. When trunkways in connexion with refrigerated cargo and ventilation or forced draught ducts are carried through more than one main watertight subdivision bulkhead, the doors at such openings shall be operated by power.

(k) (i) Watertight doors which may sometimes be opened at sea, and the sills of which are below the deepest subdivision load line shall be sliding doors. The following rules shall apply:

(1) when the number of such doors (excluding doors at entrances to shaft tunnels) exceeds five, all of these doors and those at the entrance to shaft tunnels or ventilation or forced draught ducts, shall be poweroperated (Class 3) and shall be capable of being simultaneously closed from a central station situated on the bridge;

(2) when the number of such doors (excluding doors at entrances to shaft tunnels) is greater than one, but does not exceed five,

 (a) where the ship has no passenger spaces below the bulkhead deck, all the abovementioned doors may be handoperated (Class 2);

 (b) where the ship has passenger spaces below the bulkhead deck all the abovementioned doors shall be poweroperated (Class 3) and shall be capable of being simultaneously closed from a central station situated on the bridge;

(3) in any ship where there are only two such watertight doors and they are into or within the space containing machinery, the Administration may allow these two doors to be handoperated only (Class 2).

 (ii) If sliding watertight doors which have sometimes to be open at sea for the purpose of trimming coal are fitted between bunkers in the between decks below the bulkhead deck, these doors shall be operated by power. The opening and closing of these doors shall be recorded in such log book as may be prescribed by the Administration.

(l) (i) If the Administration is satisfied that such doors are essential, watertight doors of satisfactory construction may be fitted in watertight bulkheads dividing cargo between deck spaces. Such doors may be hinged, rolling or sliding doors but shall not be remotely controlled. They shall be fitted at the highest level and as far from the shell plating as practicable, but in no case shall the outboard vertical edges be situated at a distance from the shell plating which is less than onefifth of the breadth of the ship, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, such distance being measured at right angles to the centre line of the ship at the level of the deepest subdivision load line.

 (ii) Such doors shall be closed before the voyage commences and shall be kept closed during navigation; and the time of opening such doors in port and of closing them before the ship leaves port shall be entered in the log book. Should any of the doors be accessible during the voyage, they shall be fitted with a device which prevents unauthorized opening. When it is proposed to fit such doors, the number and arrangements shall receive the special consideration of the Administration.

(m) Portable plates on bulkheads shall not be permitted except in machinery spaces. Such plates shall always be in place before the ship leaves port, and shall not be removed during navigation except in case of urgent necessity. The necessary precautions shall be taken in replacing them to ensure that the joints shall be watertight.

(n) All watertight doors shall be kept closed during navigation except when necessarily opened for the working of the ship, and shall always be ready to be immediately closed.

(o) (i) Where trunkways or tunnels for access from crew accommodation to the stokehold, for piping, or for any other purpose are carried through main transverse watertight bulkheads, they shall be watertight and in accordance with the requirements of Regulation 16 of this Chapter. The access to at least one end of each such tunnel or trunkway, if used as a passage at sea, shall be through a trunk extending watertight to a height sufficient to permit access above the margin line. The access to the other end of the trunkway or tunnel may be through a watertight door of the type required by its location in the ship. Such trunkways or tunnels shall not extend through the first subdivision bulkhead abaft the collision bulkhead.

 (ii) Where it is proposed to fit tunnels or trunkways for forced draught, piercing main transverse watertight bulkheads, these shall receive the special consideration of the Administration.

Regulation 14

Openings in the Shell Plating below the Margin Line

(a) The number of openings in the shell plating shall be reduced to the minimum compatible with the design and proper working of the ship.

(b) The arrangement and efficiency of the means for closing any opening in the shell plating shall be consistent with its intended purpose and the position in which it is fitted and generally to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) (i) If in a between decks, the sills of any sidescuttles are below a line drawn parallel to the bulkhead deck at side and having its lowest point 21/2 per cent of the breadth of the ship above the deepest subdivision load line, all sidescuttles in that between deck shall be of the nonopening type.

 (ii) All sidescuttles the sills of which are below the margin line, other than those required to be of a nonopening type by subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, shall be of such construction as will effectively prevent any person opening them without the consent of the master of the ship.

 (iii) (1) Where in a between decks, the sills of any of the sidescuttles referred to in subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph are below a line drawn parallel to the bulkhead deck at side and having its lowest point 1.37 metres (41/2 feet) plus 21/2 per cent of the breadth of the ship above the water when the ship departs from any port, all the sidescuttles in that between decks shall be closed watertight and locked before the ship leaves port, and they shall not be opened before the ship arrives at the next port. In the application of this subparagraph the appropriate allowance for fresh water may be made when applicable.

 (2) The time of opening such sidescuttles in port and of closing and locking them before the ship leaves port shall be entered in such log book as may be prescribed by the Administration.

 (3) For any ship that has one or more sidescuttles so placed that the requirements of clause (1) of this subparagraph would apply when she was floating at her deepest subdivision load line, the Administration may indicate the limiting mean draught at which these sidescuttles will have their sills above the line drawn parallel to the bulkhead deck at side, and having its lowest point 1.37 metres (41/2 feet) plus 21/2 per cent of the breadth of the ship above the waterline corresponding to the limiting mean draught, and at which it will therefore be permissible to depart from port without previously closing and locking them and to open them at sea on the responsibility of the master during the voyage to the next port. In tropical zones as defined in the International Convention respecting Load Lines in force, this limiting draught may be increased by 0.305 metres (1 foot).

(d) Efficient hinged inside deadlights arranged so that they can be easily and effectively closed and secured watertight shall be fitted to all sidescuttles except that abaft oneeighth of the ship’s length from the forward perpendicular and above a line drawn parallel to the bulkhead deck at side and having its lowest point at a height of 3.66 metres (12 feet) plus 21/2 per cent of the breadth of the ship above the deepest subdivision load line, the deadlights may be portable in passenger accommodation other than that for steerage passengers, unless the deadlights are required by the International Convention respecting Load Lines in force to be permanently attached in their proper positions. Such portable deadlights shall be stowed adjacent to the sidescuttles they serve.

(e) Sidescuttles and their deadlights, which will not be accessible during navigation, shall be closed and secured before the ship leaves port.

(f) (i) No sidescuttles shall be fitted in any spaces which are appropriated exclusively to the carriage of cargo or coal.

 (ii) Sidescuttles may, however, be fitted in spaces appropriated alternatively to the carriage of cargo or passengers, but they shall be of such construction as will effectively prevent any person opening them or their deadlights without the consent of the master of the ship.

 (iii) If cargo is carried in such spaces, the sidescuttles and their deadlights shall be closed watertight and locked before the cargo is shipped and such closing and locking shall be recorded in such log book as may be prescribed by the Administration.

(g) Automatic ventilating sidescuttles shall not be fitted in the shell plating below the margin line without the special sanction of the Administration.

(h) The number of scuppers, sanitary discharges and other similar openings in the shell plating shall be reduced to the minimum either by making each discharge serve for as many as possible of the sanitary and other pipes, or in any other satisfactory manner.

(i) (i) All inlets and discharges in the shell plating shall be fitted with efficient and accessible arrangements for preventing the accidental admission of water into the ship. Lead or other heat sensitive materials shall not be used for pipes fitted outboard of shell valves in inlets or discharges, or any other application where the deterioration of such pipes in the event of fire would give rise to danger of flooding.

 (ii) (1) Except as provided in subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph, each separate discharge led through the shell plating from spaces below the margin line shall be provided either with one automatic nonreturn valve fitted with a positive means of closing it from above the bulkhead deck, or, alternatively, with two automatic nonreturn valves without such means, the upper of which is so situated above the deepest subdivision load line as to be always accessible for examination under service conditions, and is of a type which is normally closed.

 (2) Where a valve with positive means of closing is fitted, the operating position above the bulkhead deck shall always be readily accessible, and means shall be provided for indicating whether the valve is open or closed.

 (iii) Main and auxiliary sea inlets and discharges in connexion with machinery shall be fitted with readily accessible cocks or valves between the pipes and shell plating or between the pipes and fabricated boxes attached to the shell plating.

(j) (i) Gangway, cargo and coaling ports fitted below the margin line shall be of sufficient strength. They shall be effectively closed and secured watertight before the ship leaves port, and shall be kept closed during navigation.

 (ii) Such ports shall be in no case fitted so as to have their lowest point below the deepest subdivision load line.

(k) (i) The inboard opening of each ashshoot, rubbishshoot, etc., shall be fitted with an efficient cover.

 (ii) If the inboard opening is situated below the margin line, the cover shall be watertight, and in addition an automatic nonreturn valve shall be fitted in the shoot in an easily accessible position above the deepest subdivision load line. When the shoot is not in use both the cover and the valve shall be kept closed and secured.

Regulation 15

Construction and Initial Tests of Watertight Doors, Sidescuttles, etc.

(a) (i) The design, materials and construction of all watertight doors, sidescuttles, gangway, cargo and coaling ports, valves, pipes, ashshoots and rubbishshoots referred to in these Regulations shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (ii) The frames of vertical watertight doors shall have no groove at the bottom in which dirt might lodge and prevent the door closing properly.

 (iii) All cocks and valves for sea inlets and discharges below the bulkhead deck and all fittings outboard of such cocks and valves shall be made of steel, bronze or other approved ductile material. Ordinary cast iron or similar materials shall not be used.

(b) Each watertight door shall be tested by water pressure to a head up to the bulkhead deck. The test shall be made before the ship is put in service, either before or after the door is fitted.

Regulation 16

Construction and Initial Tests of Watertight Decks, Trunks, etc.

(a) Watertight decks, trunks, tunnels, duct keels and ventilators shall be of the same strength as watertight bulkheads at corresponding levels. The means used for making them watertight, and the arrangements adopted for closing openings in them, shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration. Watertight ventilators and trunks shall be carried at least up to the bulkhead deck.

(b) After completion, a hose or flooding test shall be applied to watertight decks and a hose test to watertight trunks, tunnels and ventilators.

Regulation 17

Watertight Integrity above the Margin Line

(a) The Administration may require that all reasonable and practicable measures shall be taken to limit the entry and spread of water above the bulkhead deck. Such measures may include partial bulkheads or webs. When partial watertight bulkheads and webs are fitted on the bulkhead deck, above or in the immediate vicinity of main subdivision bulkheads, they shall have watertight shell and bulkhead deck connexions so as to restrict the flow of water along the deck when the ship is in a heeled damaged condition. Where the partial watertight bulkhead does not line up with the bulkhead below, the bulkhead deck between shall be made effectively watertight.

(b) The bulkhead deck or a deck above it shall be weathertight in the sense that in ordinary sea conditions water will not penetrate in a downward direction. All openings in the exposed weather deck shall have coamings of ample height and strength and shall be provided with efficient means for expeditiously closing them weathertight. Freeing ports, open rails and/or scuppers shall be fitted as necessary for rapidly clearing the weather deck of water under all weather conditions.

(c) Sidescuttles, gangway, cargo and coaling ports and other means for closing openings in the shell plating above the margin line shall be of efficient design and construction and of sufficient strength having regard to the spaces in which they are fitted and their positions relative to the deepest subdivision load line.

(d) Efficient inside deadlights, arranged so that they can be easily and effectively closed and secured watertight, shall be provided for all sidescuttles to spaces below the first deck above the bulkhead deck.

Regulation 18

Bilge Pumping Arrangements in Passenger Ships

(a) Ships shall be provided with an efficient bilge pumping plant capable of pumping from and draining any watertight compartment which is neither a permanent oil compartment nor a permanent water compartment under all practicable conditions after a casualty whether the ship is upright or listed. For this purpose wing suctions will generally be necessary except in narrow compartments at the ends of the ship, where one suction may be sufficient. In compartments of unusual form, additional suctions may be required. Arrangements shall be made whereby water in the compartment may find its way to the suction pipes. Where in relation to particular compartments the Administration is satisfied that the provision of drainage may be undesirable, it may allow such provision to be dispensed with if calculations made in accordance with the conditions laid down in paragraph (b) of Regulation 7 of this Chapter show that the safety of the ship will not be impaired. Efficient means shall be provided for draining water from insulated holds.

(b) (i) Ships shall have at least three power pumps connected to the bilge main, one of which may be attached to the propelling unit. Where the criterion numeral is 30 or more, one additional independent power pump shall be provided.

 (ii) The requirements are summarized in the following table:

Criterion numeral

Less than 30

30 and over

Main engine pump (may be replaced by one independent pump) 


1


1

Independent pumps.............

2

3

 (iii) Sanitary, ballast and general service pumps may be accepted as independent power bilge pumps if fitted with the necessary connexions to the bilge pumping system.

(c) Where practicable, the power bilge pumps shall be placed in separate watertight compartments so arranged or situated that these compartments will not readily be flooded by the same damage. If the engines and boilers are in two or more watertight compartments, the pumps available for bilge service shall be distributed throughout these compartments as far as is possible.

(d) On ships 91.5 metres (300 feet) or more in length or having a criterion numeral of 30 or more, the arrangements shall be such that at least one power pump shall be available for use in all ordinary circumstances in which a ship may be flooded at sea. This requirement will be satisfied if:

 (i) one of the required pumps is an emergency pump of a reliable submersible type having a source of power situated above the bulkhead deck; or

 (ii) the pumps and their sources of power are so disposed throughout the length of the ship that under any condition of flooding which the ship is required to withstand, at least one pump in an undamaged compartment will be available.

(e) With the exception of additional pumps which may be provided for peak compartments only, each required bilge pump shall be arranged to draw water from any space required to be drained by paragraph (a) of this Regulation.

(f) (i) Each power bilge pump shall be capable of giving a speed of water through the required main bilge pipe of not less than 122 metres (400 feet) per minute. Independent power bilge pumps situated in machinery spaces shall have direct suctions from these spaces, except that not more than two such suctions shall be required in any one space. Where two or more such suctions are provided there shall be at least one on the port side and one on the starboard side. The Administration may require independent power bilge pumps situated in other spaces to have separate direct suctions. Direct suctions shall be suitably arranged and those in a machinery space shall be of a diameter not less than that required for the bilge main.

 (ii) In coalburning ships there shall be provided in the stokehold, in addition to the other suctions required by this Regulation, a flexible suction hose of suitable diameter and sufficient length, capable of being connected to the suction side of an independent power pump.

(g) (i) In addition to the direct bilge suction or suctions required by paragraph (f) of this Regulation there shall be in the machinery space a direct suction from the main circulating pump leading to the drainage level of the machinery space and fitted with a nonreturn valve. The diameter of this direct suction pipe shall be at least twothirds of the diameter of the pump inlet in the case of steamships, and of the same diameter as the pump inlet in the case of motorships.

 (ii) Where in the opinion of the Administration the main circulating pump is not suitable for this purpose, a direct emergency bilge suction shall be led from the largest available independent power driven pump to the drainage level of the machinery space; the suction shall be of the same diameter as the main inlet of the pump used. The capacity of the pump so connected shall exceed that of a required bilge pump by an amount satisfactory to the Administration.

 (iii) The spindles of the sea inlet and direct suction valves shall extend well above the engine room platform.

 (iv) Where the fuel is, or may be, coal and there is no watertight bulkhead between the engines and the boilers, a direct discharge overboard or alternatively a bypass to the circulating pump discharge, shall be fitted from any circulating pump used in compliance with subparagraph (i) of this paragraph.

(h) (i) All pipes from the pumps which are required for draining cargo or machinery spaces shall be entirely distinct from pipes which may be used for filling or emptying spaces where water or oil is carried.

 (ii) All bilge pipes used in or under coal bunkers or fuel storage tanks or in boiler or machinery spaces, including spaces in which oilsettling tanks or oil fuel pumping units are situated, shall be of steel or other approved material.

(i) The diameter of the bilge main shall be calculated according to the following formulae provided that the actual internal diameter of the bilge main may be of the nearest standard size acceptable to the Administration:

where: d = internal diameter of the bilge main in millimetres,

L and B are the length and the breadth of the ship in metres, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, and

D = moulded depth of the ship to bulkhead deck in metres;

or

where: d = internal diameter of the bilge main in inches,

L and B are the length and the breadth of the ship in feet, as defined in Regulation 2 of this Chapter, and

D = moulded depth of the ship to bulkhead deck in feet.

The diameter of the bilge branch pipes shall be determined by rules to be made by the Administration.

(j) The arrangement of the bilge and ballast pumping system shall be such as to prevent the possibility of water passing from the sea and from water ballast spaces into the cargo and machinery spaces, or from one compartment to another. Special provision shall be made to prevent any deep tank having bilge and ballast connexions being inadvertently run up from the sea when containing cargo, or pumped out through a bilge pipe when containing water ballast.

(k) Provision shall be made to prevent the compartment served by any bilge suction pipe being flooded in the event of the pipe being severed, or otherwise damaged by collision or grounding in any other compartment. For this purpose, where the pipe is at any part situated nearer the side of the ship than onefifth the breadth of the ship (measured at right angles to the centre line at the level of the deepest subdivision load line), or in a duct keel, a nonreturn valve shall be fitted to the pipe in the compartment containing the open end.

(l) All the distribution boxes, cocks and valves in connexion with the bilge pumping arrangements shall be in positions which are accessible at all times under ordinary circumstances. They shall be so arranged that, in the event of flooding, one of the bilge pumps may be operative on any compartment; in addition, damage to a pump or its pipe connecting to the bilge main outboard of a line drawn at onefifth of the breadth of the ship shall not put the bilge system out of action. If there is only one system of pipes common to all the pumps, the necessary cocks or valves for controlling the bilge suctions must be capable of being operated from above the bulkhead deck. Where in addition to the main bilge pumping system an emergency bilge pumping system is provided, it shall be independent of the main system and so arranged that a pump is capable of operating on any compartment under flooding conditions; in that case only the cocks and valves necessary for the operation of the emergency system need be capable of being operated from above the bulkhead deck.

(m) All cocks and valves mentioned in paragraph (l) of this Regulation which can be operated from above the bulkhead deck shall have their controls at their place of operation clearly marked and provided with means to indicate whether they are open or closed.

Regulation 19

Stability Information for Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships

(a) Every passenger ship and cargo ship shall be inclined upon its completion and the elements of its stability determined. The master shall be supplied with such reliable information as is necessary to enable him by rapid and simple processes to obtain accurate guidance as to the stability of the ship under varying conditions of service, and a copy shall be furnished to the Administration.

(b) Where any alterations are made to a ship so as to materially affect the stability information supplied to the master, amended stability information shall be provided. If necessary the ship shall be reinclined.

(c) The Administration may allow the inclining test of an individual ship to be dispensed with provided basic stability data are available from the inclining test of a sister ship and it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that reliable stability information for the exempted ship can be obtained from such basic data.

(d) The Administration may also allow the inclining test of an individual ship or class of ships, especially designed for the carriage of liquids or ore in bulk, to be dispensed with when reference to existing data for similar ships clearly indicates that due to the ship’s proportions and arrangements more than sufficient metacentric height will be available in all probable loading conditions.

Regulation 20

Damage Control Plans

There shall be permanently exhibited, for the guidance of the officer in charge of the ship, plans showing clearly for each deck and hold the boundaries of the watertight compartments, the openings therein with the means of closure and position of any controls thereof, and the arrangements for the correction of any list due to flooding. In addition, booklets containing the aforementioned information shall be made available to the officers of the ship.

Regulation 21

Marking, Periodical Operation and Inspection of Watertight Doors, etc.

(a) This Regulation applies to new and existing ships.

(b) Drills for the operating of watertight doors, sidescuttles, valves and closing mechanisms of scuppers, ashshoots and rubbishshoots shall take place weekly. In ships in which the voyage exceeds one week in duration a complete drill shall be held before leaving port, and others thereafter at least once a week during the voyage. In all ships all watertight power doors and hinged doors, in main transverse bulkheads, in use at sea, shall be operated daily.

(c) (i) The watertight doors and all mechanisms and indicators connected therewith, all valves the closing of which is necessary to make a compartment watertight, and all valves the operation of which is necessary for damage control cross connexions shall be periodically inspected at sea at least once a week.

 (ii) Such valves, doors and mechanisms shall be suitably marked to ensure that they may be properly used to provide maximum safety.

Regulation 22

Entries in Log

(a) This Regulation applies to new and existing ships.

(b) Hinged doors, portable plates, sidescuttles, gangway, cargo and coaling ports and other openings, which are required by these Regulations to be kept closed during navigation, shall be closed before the ship leaves port. The time of closing and the time of opening (if permissible under these Regulations) shall be recorded in such log book as may be prescribed by the Administration.

(c) A record of all drills and inspections required by Regulation 21 of this Chapter shall be entered in the log book with an explicit record of any defects which may be disclosed.

PART CMACHINERY AND ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS

(Part C applies to passenger ships and cargo ships)

Regulation 23

General

(a) Electrical installations in passenger ships shall be such that:

 (i) services essential for safety will be maintained under various emergency conditions; and

 (ii) the safety of passengers, crew and ship from electrical hazards will be assured.

(b) Cargo ships shall comply with Regulations 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 32 of this Chapter.

Regulation 24

Main Source of Electrical Power in Passenger Ships

(a) Every passenger ship, the electrical power of which constitutes the only means of maintaining the auxiliary services indispensable for the propulsion and the safety of the ship, shall be provided with at least two main generating sets. The power of these sets shall be such that it shall still be possible to ensure the functioning of the services referred to in subparagraph (a) (i) of Regulation 23 of this Chapter in the event of any one of these generating sets being stopped.

(b) In a passenger ship where there is only one main generating station, the main switchboard shall be located in the same main fire zone. Where there is more than one main generating station, it is permissible to have only one main switchboard.

Regulation 25

Emergency Source of Electrical Power in Passenger Ships

(a) There shall be above the bulkhead deck and outside the machinery casings a selfcontained emergency source of electrical power. Its location in relation to the main source or sources of electrical power shall be such as to ensure to the satisfaction of the Administration that a fire or other casualty to the machinery space as defined in paragraph (h) of Regulation 2 of this Chapter will not interfere with the supply or distribution of emergency power. It shall not be forward of the collision bulkhead.

(b) The power available shall be sufficient to supply all those services that are, in the opinion of the Administration, necessary for the safety of the passengers and the crew in an emergency, due regard being paid to such services as may have to be operated simultaneously. Special consideration shall be given to emergency lighting at every boat station on deck and oversides, in all alleyways, stairways and exits, in the machinery spaces and in the control stations as defined in paragraph (r) of Regulation 3 of Chapter II2, to the sprinkler pump, to navigation lights, and to the daylight signalling lamp if operated from the main source of power. The power shall be adequate for a period of 36 hours, except that, in the case of ships engaged regularly on voyages of short duration, the Administration may accept a lesser supply if satisfied that the same standard of safety would be attained.

(c) The emergency source of power may be either:

 (i) a generator driven by a suitable primemover with an independent fuel supply and with approved starting arrangements; the fuel used shall have a flashpoint of not less than 43C (110F); or

 (ii) an accumulator (storage) battery capable of carrying the emergency load without recharging or excessive voltage drop.

(d) (i) Where the emergency source of power is a generator there shall be provided a temporary source of emergency power consisting of an accumulator battery of sufficient capacity:

 (1) to supply emergency lighting continuously for half an hour;

 (2) to close the watertight doors (if electrically operated) but not necessarily to close them all simultaneously;

 (3) to operate the indicators (if electrically operated) which show whether poweroperated watertight doors are open or closed; and

 (4) to operate the sound signals (if electrically operated) which give warning that poweroperated watertight doors are about to close.

The arrangements shall be such that the temporary source of emergency power will come into operation automatically in the event of failure of the main electrical supply.

 (ii) Where the emergency source of power is an accumulator battery, arrangements shall be made to ensure that emergency lighting will automatically come into operation in the event of failure of the main lighting supply.

(e) An indicator shall be mounted in the machinery space, preferably on the main switchboard, to indicate when any accumulator battery fitted in accordance with this Regulation is being discharged.

(f) (i) The emergency switchboard shall be installed as near as is practicable to the emergency source of power.

 (ii) Where the emergency source of power is a generator, the emergency switchboard shall be located in the same space as the emergency source of power, unless the operation of the emergency switchboard would thereby be impaired.

 (iii) No accumulator battery fitted in accordance with this Regulation shall be installed in the same space as the emergency switchboard.

 (iv) The Administration may permit the emergency switchboard to be supplied from the main switchboard in normal operation.

(g) Arrangements shall be such that the complete emergency installation will function when the ship is inclined 221/2 degrees and/or when the trim of the ship is 10 degrees.

(h) Provision shall be made for the periodic testing of the emergency source of power and the temporary source of power, if provided, which shall include the testing of automatic arrangements.

Regulation 26

Emergency Source of Electrical Power in Cargo Ships

(a) Cargo ships of 5,000 Tons Gross Tonnage and upwards

 (i) In cargo ships of 5,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards there shall be a selfcontained emergency source of power, located to the satisfaction of the Administration above the uppermost continuous deck and outside the machinery casings, to ensure its functioning in the event of fire or other casualty causing failure to the main electrical installation.

 (ii) The power available shall be sufficient to supply all those services which are, in the opinion of the Administration, necessary for the safety of all on board in an emergency, due regard being paid to such services as may have to be operated simultaneously. Special consideration shall be given to:

 (1) emergency lighting at every boat station on deck and oversides, in all alleyways, stairways and exits, in the main machinery space and main generating set space, on the navigating bridge and in the chartroom;

 (2) the general alarm; and

 (3) navigation lights if solely electric, and the daylight signalling lamp if operated by the main source of electrical power.

 The power shall be adequate for a period of 6 hours.

 (iii) The emergency source of power may be either:

 (1) an accumulator (storage) battery capable of carrying the emergency load without recharging or excessive voltage drop; or

 (2) a generator driven by a suitable primemover with an independent fuel supply and with starting arrangements to the satisfaction of the Administration. The fuel used shall have a flashpoint of not less than 43C (110F).

 (iv) Arrangements shall be such that the complete emergency installation will function when the ship is inclined 221/2 degrees and/or when the trim of the ship is 10 degrees.

 (v) Provision shall be made for the periodic testing of the complete emergency installation.

(b) Cargo ships of less than 5,000 Tons Gross Tonnage

 (i) In cargo ships of less than 5,000 tons gross tonnage there shall be a selfcontained emergency source of power located to the satisfaction of the Administration, and capable of supplying the illumination at launching stations and stowage positions of survival craft prescribed in subparagraphs (a) (ii), (b) (ii) and (b) (iii) of Regulation 19 of Chapter III, and in addition such other services as the Administration may require, due regard being paid to Regulation 38 of Chapter III.

 (ii) The power available shall be adequate for a period of at least 3 hours.

 (iii) These ships shall also be subject to subparagraphs (iii), (iv), and (v) of paragraph (a) of this Regulation.

Regulation 27

Precautions against Shock, Fire and other Hazards of Electrical Origin

(a) Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships

 (i) (1) All exposed metal parts of electrical machines or equipment which are not intended to be “live” but are liable to become “live” under fault conditions, shall be earthed (grounded); and all electrical apparatus shall be so constructed and so installed that danger of injury in ordinary handling shall not exist.

 (2) Metal frames of all portable electric lamps, tools and similar apparatus, supplied as ship’s equipment and rated in excess of a safety voltage to be prescribed by the Administration shall be earthed (grounded) through a suitable conductor, unless equivalent provisions are made such as by double insulation or by an isolating transformer. The Administration may require additional special precautions for electric lamps, tools or similar apparatus for use in damp spaces.

 (ii) Main and emergency switchboards shall be so arranged as to give easy access back and front, without danger to attendants. The sides and backs and, where necessary, the fronts of switchboards shall be suitably guarded. There shall be nonconducting mats or gratings front and rear where necessary. Exposed currentcarrying parts at voltages to earth (ground) exceeding a voltage to be specified by the Administration shall not be installed on the face of any switchboard or control panel.

 (iii) (1) Where the hull return system of distribution is used, special precautions shall be taken to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (2) Hull return shall not be used in tankers.

 (iv) (1) All metal sheaths and armour of cables shall be electrically continuous and shall be earthed (grounded).

 (2) Where the cables are neither sheathed nor armoured and there might be a risk of fire in the event of an electrical fault, precautions shall be required by the Administration.

 (v) Lighting fittings shall be arranged to prevent temperature rises that would be injurious to the wiring, and to prevent surrounding material from becoming excessively hot.

 (vi) Wiring shall be supported in such a manner as to avoid chafing or other injury.

 (vii) Each separate circuit shall be protected against short circuit. Each separate circuit shall also be protected against overload, except in accordance with Regulation 30 of this Chapter or where the Administration grants an exemption. The currentcarrying capacity of each circuit shall be permanently indicated, together with the rating or setting of the appropriate overload protective device.

 (viii) Accumulator batteries shall be suitably housed, and compartments used primarily for their accommodation shall be properly constructed and efficiently ventilated.

(b) Passenger Ships only

 (i) Distribution systems shall be so arranged that fire in any main fire zone will not interfere with essential services in any other main fire zone. This requirement will be met if main and emergency feeders passing through any zone are separated both vertically and horizontally as widely as is practicable.

 (ii) Electric cables shall be of a flame retarding type to the satisfaction of the Administration. The Administration may require additional safeguards for electric cables in particular spaces of the ship with a view to the prevention of fire or explosion.

 (iii) In spaces where inflammable mixtures are liable to collect, no electrical equipment shall be installed unless it is of a type which will not ignite the mixture concerned, such as flameproof (explosion proof) equipment.

 (iv) A lighting circuit in a bunker or hold shall be provided with an isolating switch outside the space.

 (v) Joints in all conductors except for low voltage communication circuits shall be made only in junction or outlet boxes. All such boxes or wiring devices shall be so constructed as to prevent the spread of fire from the box or device. Where splicing is employed it shall only be by an approved method such that it retains the original mechanical and electrical properties of the cable.

 (vi) Wiring systems for interior communications essential for safety and for emergency alarm systems shall be arranged to avoid galleys, machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces having a high risk of fire except in so far as it is necessary to provide communication or to give alarm within those spaces. In the case of ships the construction and small size of which do not permit of compliance with these requirements, measures satisfactory to the Administration shall be taken to ensure efficient protection for these wiring systems where they pass through galleys, machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces having a high risk of fire.

(c) Cargo Ships only

Devices liable to arc shall not be installed in any compartment assigned principally to accumulator batteries unless the devices are flameproof (explosion proof).

Regulation 28

Means of Going Astern

(a) Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships

Ships shall have sufficient power for going astern to secure proper control of the ship in all normal circumstances.

(b) Passenger Ships only

The ability of the machinery to reverse the direction of thrust of the propeller in sufficient time, under normal manoeuvring conditions, and so to bring the ship to rest from maximum ahead service speed shall be demonstrated at the initial survey.

Regulation 29

Steering Gear

(a) Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships

 (i) Ships shall be provided with a main steering gear and an auxiliary steering gear to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (ii) The main steering gear shall be of adequate strength and sufficient to steer the ship at maximum service speed. The main steering gear and rudder stock shall be so designed that they are not damaged at maximum astern speed.

 (iii) The auxiliary steering gear shall be of adequate strength and sufficient to steer the ship at navigable speed and capable of being brought speedily into action in an emergency.

 (iv) The exact position of the rudder, if power operated, shall be indicated at the principal steering station.

(b) Passenger Ships only

 (i) The main steering gear shall be capable of putting the rudder over from 35 degrees on one side to 35 degrees on the other side with the ship running ahead at maximum service speed. The rudder shall be capable of being put over from 35 degrees on either side to 30 degrees on the other side in 28 seconds at maximum service speed.

 (ii) The auxiliary steering gear shall be operated by power in any case in which the Administration would require a rudder stock of over 228.6 millimetres (9 inches) diameter in way of the tiller.

 (iii) Where main steering gear power units and their connexions are fitted in duplicate to the satisfaction of the Administration, and each power unit enables the steering gear to meet the requirements of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, no auxiliary steering gear need be required.

 (iv) Where the Administration would require a rudder stock with a diameter in way of the tiller exceeding 228.6 millimetres (9 inches) there shall be provided an alternative steering station located to the satisfaction of the Administration. The remote steering control systems from the principal and alternative steering stations shall be so arranged to the satisfaction of the Administration that failure of either system would not result in inability to steer the ship by means of the other system.

 (v) Means satisfactory to the Administration shall be provided to enable orders to be transmitted from the bridge to the alternative steering station.

(c) Cargo Ships only

 (i) The auxiliary steering gear shall be operated by power in any case in which the Administration would require a rudder stock of over 355.6 millimetres (14 inches) diameter in way of the tiller.

 (ii) Where poweroperated steering gear units and connexions are fitted in duplicate to the satisfaction of the Administration, and each unit complies with subparagraph (iii) of paragraph (a) of this Regulation, no auxiliary steering gear need be required, provided that the duplicate units and connexions operating together comply with subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) of this Regulation.

Regulation 30

Electric and Electrohydraulic Steering Gear

(a) Passenger Ships and Cargo Ships

Indicators for running indication of the motors of electric and electrohydraulic steering gear shall be installed in a suitable location to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) All Passenger Ships (irrespective of tonnage) and Cargo Ships of 5,000 Tons Gross Tonnage and upwards

 (i) Electric and electrohydraulic steering gear shall be served by two circuits fed from the main switchboard. One of the circuits may pass through the emergency switchboard, if provided. Each circuit shall have adequate capacity for supplying all the motors which are normally connected to it and which operate simultaneously. If transfer arrangements are provided in the steering gear room to permit either circuit to supply any motor or combination of motors, the capacity of each circuit shall be adequate for the most severe load condition. The circuits shall be separated throughout their length as widely as is practicable.

 (ii) Short circuit protection only shall be provided for these circuits and motors.

(c) Cargo Ships of less than 5,000 Tons Gross Tonnage

 (i) Cargo ships in which electrical power is the sole source of power for both main and auxiliary steering gear shall comply with subparagraphs (i) and (ii) of paragraph (b) of this Regulation, except that if the auxiliary steering gear is powered by a motor primarily intended for other services, paragraph (b)(ii) may be waived, provided that the Administration is satisfied with the protection arrangements.

 (ii) Short circuit protection only shall be provided for motors and power circuits of electrically or electrohydraulically operated main steering gear.

Regulation 31

Location of Emergency Installations in Passenger Ships

The emergency source of electrical power, emergency fire pumps, emergency bilge pumps, batteries of carbon dioxide bottles for fire extinguishing purposes and other emergency installations which are essential for the safety of the ship shall not be installed in a passenger ship forward of the collision bulkhead.

Regulation 32

Communication between Bridge and Engine Room

Ships shall be fitted with two means of communicating orders from the bridge to the engine room. One means shall be an engine room telegraph.

CHAPTER II–2

CONSTRUCTIONFIRE PROTECTION, FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINCTION

PART AGENERAL[†]

Regulation 1

Application

(a) For the purpose of this Chapter:

 (i) A new passenger ship is a passenger ship the keel of which is laid or which is at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the present Convention, or a cargo ship which is converted to a passenger ship on or after that date, all other passenger ships being considered as existing ships.

 (ii) A new cargo ship is a cargo ship the keel of which is laid or which is at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the present Convention.

 (iii) A ship which undergoes repairs, alterations, modifications and outfitting related thereto shall continue to comply with at least the requirements previously applicable to the ship. An existing ship in such a case shall not as a rule comply to a lesser extent with the requirements for a new ship than it did before. Repairs, alterations and modifications of a major character and outfitting related thereto should meet the requirements for a new ship in so far as the Administration deems reasonable and practicable.

(b) Unless expressly provided otherwise:

 (i) Regulations 4 to 16 of Part A of this Chapter apply to new ships.

 (ii) Part B of this Chapter applies to new passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers.

 (iii) Part C of this Chapter applies to new passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers.

 (iv) Part D of this Chapter applies to new cargo ships.

 (v) Part E of this Chapter applies to new tankers.

(c) (i) Part F of this Chapter applies to existing passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers.

 (ii) Existing passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers and existing cargo ships shall comply with the following:

 (1) for ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, the Administration shall ensure that the requirements which were applied under Chapter II of that Convention to new ships as defined in that Chapter are complied with;

 (2) for ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction on or after the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, but before the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, the Administration shall ensure that the requirements which were applied under Chapter II of the 1948 Convention to new ships as defined in that Chapter are complied with;

 (3) for ships the keels of which were laid or which were at a similar stage of construction before the date of coming into force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1948, the Administration shall ensure that the requirements which were applied under Chapter II of that Convention to existing ships as defined in that Chapter are complied with.

(d) For any existing ship as defined in the present Convention the Administration, in addition to applying the requirements of subparagraph (c) (i) of this Regulation, shall decide which of the requirements of this Chapter not contained in Chapter II of the 1948 and 1960 Conventions shall be applied.

(e) The Administration may, if it considers that the sheltered nature and conditions of the voyage are such as to render the application of any specific requirements of this Chapter unreasonable or unnecessary, exempt from those requirements individual ships or classes of ships belonging to its country which, in the course of their voyage, do not proceed more than 20 miles from the nearest land.

(f) In the case of passenger ships which are employed in special trades for the carriage of large numbers of special trade passengers, such as the pilgrim trade, the Administration, if satisfied that it is impracticable to enforce compliance with the requirements of this Chapter, may exempt such ships, when they belong to its country, from those requirements, provided that they comply fully with the provisions of:

 (i) the Rules annexed to the Special Trade Passenger Ships Agreement, 1971, and

 (ii) the Rules annexed to the Protocol on Space Requirements for Special Trade Passenger Ships, 1973, when it comes into force.

Regulation 2

Basic Principles

The purpose of this Chapter is to require the fullest practicable degree of fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction in ships. The following basic principles underlie the Regulations in this Chapter and are embodied in the Regulations as appropriate, having regard to the type of ships and the potential fire hazard involved:

(a) division of ship into main vertical zones by thermal and structural boundaries;

(b) separation of accommodation spaces from the remainder of the ship by thermal and structural boundaries;

(c) restricted use of combustible materials;

(d) detection of any fire in the zone of origin;

(e) containment and extinction of any fire in the space of origin;

(f) protection of means of escape or access for fire fighting;

(g) ready availability of fireextinguishing appliances;

(h) minimization of possibility of ignition of inflammable cargo vapour.

Regulation 3

Definitions

For the purpose of this Chapter, unless expressly provided otherwise:

(a) “Noncombustible material” means a material which neither burns nor gives off inflammable vapours in sufficient quantity for selfignition when heated to approximately 750C (1,382F) this being determined to the satisfaction of the Administration by an established test procedure.[† ]Any other material is a combustible material.

(b) “A Standard Fire Test” is one in which specimens of the relevant bulkheads or decks are exposed in a test furnace to temperatures corresponding approximately to the standard timetemperature curve. The specimen shall have an exposed surface of not less then 4.65 square metres (50 square feet) and height (or length of deck) of 2.44 metres (8 feet) resembling as closely as possible the intended construction and including where appropriate at least one joint. The standard timetemperature curve is defined by a smooth curve drawn through the following points:

at the end of the first

5 minutes

–538C

(1,000F)

                      

10    

–704C

(1,300F)

                      

30    

–843C

(1,550F)

                      

60    

–927C

(1,700F)

(c)  “A” Class Divisions” are those divisions formed by bulkheads and decks which comply with the following:

 (i) they shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material;

 (ii) they shall be suitably stiffened;

 (iii) they shall be so constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of smoke and flame to the end of the onehour standard fire test;

 (iv) they shall be insulated with approved noncombustible materials such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 139C (250F) above the original temperature, nor will the temperature, at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 180C (325F) above the original temperature, within the time listed below:

Class “A60”

60 minutes

Class “A30”

30 minutes

Class “A15”

15 minutes

Class “A0”

 0 minutes

 (v) the Administration may require a test of a prototype bulkhead or deck to ensure that it meets the above requirements for integrity and temperature rise.[‡]

(d)  “B” Class Divisions” are those divisions formed by bulkheads, decks, ceilings or linings which comply with the following:

 (i) they shall be so constructed as to be capable of preventing the passage of flame to the end of the first onehalf hour of the standard fire test;

 (ii) they shall have an insulation value such that the average temperature of the unexposed side will not rise more than 139C (250F) above the original temperature, nor will the temperature at any one point, including any joint, rise more than 225C (405F) above the original temperature, within the time listed below:

Class “B15”

15 minutes

Class “B0”

0 minutes

 (iii) they shall be constructed of approved noncombustible materials and all materials entering into the construction and erection of “B” Class Divisions shall be noncombustible, except where in accordance with Parts C and D of this Chapter the use of combustible material is not precluded, in which case it shall comply with the temperature rise limitation specified in subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph up to the end of the first onehalf hour of the standard fire test;

 (iv) the Administration may require a test of a prototype division to ensure that it meets the above requirements for integrity and temperature rise.[1]

(e)  “C” Class Divisions” shall be constructed of approved noncombustible materials. They need meet no requirements relative to the passage of smoke and flame nor the limiting of temperature rise.

(f) “Continuous “B” Class Ceilings or Linings” are those “B” Class ceilings or linings which terminate only at an “A” or “B” Class division.

(g) “Steel or Other Equivalent Material”. Where the words “steel or other equivalent material” occur, “equivalent material” means any material which, by itself or due to insulation provided, has structural and integrity properties equivalent to steel at the end of the applicable fire exposure to the standard fire test (e.g. aluminium alloy with appropriate insulation).

(h) “Low Flame Spread” means that the surface thus described will adequately restrict the spread of flame, this being determined to the satisfaction of the Administration by an established test procedure.

(i) “Main Vertical Zones” are those sections into which the hull, superstructure, and deckhouses are divided by “A” Class divisions, the mean length of which on any one deck does not in general exceed 40 metres (131 feet).

(j) “Accommodation Spaces” are those used for public spaces, corridors, lavatories, cabins, offices, crew quarters, barber shops, isolated pantries and lockers and similar spaces.

(k) “Public Spaces” are those portions of the accommodation which are used for halls, dining rooms, lounges and similar permanently enclosed spaces.

(l) “Service Spaces” are those used for galleys, main pantries, stores (except isolated pantries and lockers), mail and specie rooms, workshops other than those forming part of machinery spaces, and similar spaces and trunks to such spaces.

(m) “Cargo Spaces” are all spaces used for cargo (including cargo oil tanks) and trunks to such spaces.

(n) “Special Category Spaces” are those enclosed spaces above or below the bulkhead deck intended for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion, into and from which such vehicles can be driven and to which passengers have access.

(o) “Machinery Spaces of Category A” are all spaces which contain:

 (i) internal combustion type machinery used either for main propulsion purposes, or for other purposes where such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output of not less than 373 kW, or

 (ii) any oilfired boiler or oil fuel unit; and trunks to such spaces.

(p) “Machinery Spaces” are all machinery spaces of Category A and all other spaces containing propelling machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and major electrical machinery, oil filling stations, refrigerating, stabilizing, ventilation and air conditioning machinery, and similar spaces; and trunks to such spaces.

(q) “Oil Fuel Unit” means the equipment used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oilfired boiler, or equipment used for the preparation for delivery of heated oil to an internal combustion engine, and includes any oil pressure pumps, filters and heaters dealing with oil at a pressure more than 1.8 kilogrammes per square centimetre (25 pounds per square inch) gauge.

(r) “Control Stations” are those spaces in which the ship’s radio or main navigating equipment or the emergency source of power is located or where the fire recording or fire control equipment is centralized.

(s) “Rooms containing Furniture and Furnishings of Restricted Fire Risk” are, for the purpose of Regulation 20 of this Chapter, those rooms containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk (whether cabins, public spaces, offices or other types of accommodation) in which:

 (i) all case furniture such as desks, wardrobes, dressing tables, bureaux, dressers, is constructed entirely of approved noncombustible materials, except that a combustible veneer not exceeding 2 millimetres (1/12 inch) may be used on the working surface of such articles;

 (ii) all freestanding furniture such as chairs, sofas, tables, is constructed with frames of noncombustible materials;

 (iii) all draperies, curtains and other suspended textile materials have, to the satisfaction of the Administration, qualities of resistance to the propagation of flame not inferior to those of wool weighing 0.8 kilogrammes per square metre (24 ounces per square yard);

 (iv) all floor coverings have, to the satisfaction of the Administration, qualities of resistance to the propagation of flame not inferior to those of an equivalent woollen material used for the same purpose; and

 (v) all exposed surfaces of bulkheads, linings and ceilings have low flamespread characteristics.

(t) “Bulkhead deck” is the uppermost deck up to which the transverse watertight bulkheads are carried.

(u) “Deadweight” is the difference in metric tons between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the load water line corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the lightweight of the ship.

(v) “Lightweight” is the displacement of a ship in metric tons without cargo, fuel, lubricating oil, ballast water, fresh water and feedwater in tanks, consumable stores, together with passengers, and crew and their effects.

(w) “Combination carrier” is a tanker designed to carry oil or alternatively solid cargoes in bulk.

Regulation 4

Fire Control Plans

There shall be permanently exhibited in all new and existing ships for the guidance of the ship’s officers general arrangement plans showing clearly for each deck the control stations, the various fire sections enclosed by “A” Class divisions, the sections enclosed by “B” Class divisions (if any), together with particulars of the fire alarms, detecting systems, the sprinkler installation (if any), the fireextinguishing appliances, means of access to different compartments, decks, etc. and the ventilating system including particulars of the fan control positions, the position of dampers and identification numbers of the ventilating fans serving each section. Alternatively, at the discretion of the Administration, the aforementioned details may be set out in a booklet, a copy of which shall be supplied to each officer, and one copy at all times shall be available on board in an accessible position. Plans and booklets shall be kept up to date, any alterations being recorded thereon as soon as practicable. Description in such plans and booklets shall be in the national language. If the language is neither English nor French, a translation into one of those languages shall be included. In addition, instructions concerning the maintenance and operation of all the equipment and installations on board for the fighting and containment of fire shall be kept under one cover, readily available in an accessible position.

Regulation 5

Fire Pumps, Fire Mains, Hydrants and Hoses

(a) Total Capacity of Fire Pumps

 (i) In a passenger ship, the required fire pumps shall be capable of delivering for firefighting purposes a quantity of water, at the appropriate pressure prescribed below, not less than twothirds of the quantity required to be dealt with by the bilge pumps when employed for bilge pumping.

 (ii) In a cargo ship, the required fire pumps, other than the emergency pump (if any), shall be capable of delivering for firefighting purposes a quantity of water, at the appropriate pressure prescribed, not less than fourthirds of the quantity required under Regulation 18 of Chapter II–1 to be dealt with by each of the independent bilge pumps in a passenger ship of the same dimensions when employed on bilge pumping, provided that in no cargo ship need the total required capacity of the fire pumps exceed 180 cubic metres per hour.

(b) Fire Pumps

 (i) The fire pumps shall be independently driven. Sanitary, ballast, bilge or general service pumps may be accepted as fire pumps, provided that they are not normally used for pumping oil and that if they are subject to occasional duty for the transfer or pumping of fuel oil, suitable changeover arrangements are fitted.

 (ii) (1) In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, each of the required fire pumps shall have a capacity not less than 80 per cent of the total required capacity divided by the minimum number of required fire pumps and each such pump shall in any event be capable of delivering at least the two required jets of water. These fire pumps shall be capable of supplying the fire main system under the required conditions.

Where more pumps than the minimum of required pumps are installed the capacity of such additional pumps shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (2) In all other types of ships, each of the required fire pumps (other than any emergency pump required by Regulation 52 of this Chapter) shall have a capacity not less than 80 per cent of the total required capacity divided by the number of required fire pumps, and shall in any event be capable of supplying the fire main system under the required conditions.

Where more pumps than required are installed their capacity shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (iii) Relief valves shall be provided in conjunction with all fire pumps if the pumps are capable of developing a pressure exceeding the design pressure of the water service pipes, hydrants and hoses. These valves shall be so placed and adjusted as to prevent excessive pressure in any part of the fire main system.

(c) Pressure in the Fire Main

 (i) The diameter of the fire main and water service pipes shall be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two fire pumps operating simultaneously, except that in the case of cargo ships the diameter need only be sufficient for the discharge of 140 cubic metres per hour.

 (ii) With the two pumps simultaneously delivering through nozzles specified in paragraph (g) of this Regulation the quantity of water specified in subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, through any adjacent hydrants, the following minimum pressures shall be maintained at all hydrants:

Passenger ships:

 

4,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards

3.2 kilogrammes per square centimetre (45 pounds per square inch)

1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards but under 4,000 tons gross tonnage

2.8 kilogrammes per square centimetre (40 pounds per square inch)

Under 1,000 tons gross tonnage

To the satisfaction of the Administration

Cargo ships:

 

6,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards

2.8 kilogrammes per square centimetre (40 pounds per square inch)

1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards but under 6,000 tons gross tonnage

2.6 kilogrammes per square centimetre (37 pounds per square inch)

Under 1,000 tons gross tonnage

To the satisfaction of the Administration

(d) Number and Position of Hydrants

The number and position of the hydrants shall be such that at least two jets of water not emanating from the same hydrant, one of which shall be from a single length of hose, may reach any part of the ship normally accessible to the passengers or crew while the ship is being navigated.

(e) Pipes and Hydrants

 (i) Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for fire mains and hydrants unless adequately protected. The pipes and hydrants shall be so placed that the fire hoses may be easily coupled to them. In ships where deck cargo may be carried, the positions of the hydrants shall be such that they are always readily accessible and the pipes shall be arranged as far as practicable to avoid risk of damage by such cargo. Unless there is provided one hose and nozzle for each hydrant in the ship, there shall be complete interchangeability of hose couplings and nozzles.

 (ii) A cock or valve shall be fitted to serve each fire hose so that any fire hose may be removed while the fire pumps are at work.

(f) Fire Hoses

Fire hoses shall be of material approved by the Administration and sufficient in length to project a jet of water to any of the spaces in which they may be required to be used. Their maximum length shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration. Each hose shall be provided with a nozzle and the necessary couplings. Hoses specified in this Chapter as “fire hoses” shall together with any necessary fittings and tools be kept ready for use in conspicuous positions near the water service hydrants or connexions. Additionally in interior locations in passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, fire hoses shall be connected to the hydrants at all times.

(g) Nozzles

 (i) For the purposes of this Chapter, standard nozzle sizes shall be 12 millimetres (1/2 inch), 16 millimetres (5/8 inch) and 19 millimetres (3/4 inch) or as near thereto as possible. Larger diameter nozzles may be permitted at the discretion of the Administration.

 (ii) For accommodation and service spaces, a nozzle size greater than 12 millimetres (1/2 inch) need not be used.

 (iii) For machinery spaces and exterior locations, the nozzle size shall be such as to obtain the maximum discharge possible from two jets at the pressure mentioned in paragraph (c) of this Regulation from the smallest pump, provided that a nozzle size greater than 19 millimetres (3/4 inch) need not be used.

 (iv) For machinery spaces or in similar spaces where the risk of spillage of oil exists, the nozzles shall be suitable for spraying water on oil or alternatively shall be of a dual purpose type.

(h) International Shore Connexion

Standard dimensions of flanges for the international shore connexion required in this Chapter to be installed in the ship shall be in accordance with the following table:

Description

Dimension

Outside diameter

178 millimetres (7 inches)

Inner diameter

64 millimetres (21/2 inches)

Bolt circle diameter

132 millimetres (51/4 inches)

Slots in flange

4 holes 19 millimetres (3/4 inch) in diameter equidistantly placed on a bolt circle of the above diameter, slotted to the flange periphery

Flange thickness

14.5 millimetres (9/16 inch) minimum

Bolts and nuts

4, each of 16 millimetres (5/8 inch) diameter, 50 millimetres (2 inches) in length

The connexion shall be constructed of material suitable for 10.5 kilogrammes per square centimetre (150 pounds per square inch) service. The flange shall have a flat face on one side and the other shall have permanently attached thereto a coupling that will fit the ship’s hydrant and hose. The connexion shall be kept aboard the ship together with a gasket of any material suitable for 10.5 kilogrammes per square centimetre (150 pounds per square inch) service, together with four 16 millimetre (5/8 inch) bolts, 50 millimetres (2 inches) in length and eight washers.

Regulation 6

Miscellaneous Items

(a) Electric radiators, if used, shall be fixed in position and so constructed as to reduce fire risks to a minimum. No such radiators shall be fitted with an element so exposed that clothing, curtains, or other similar materials can be scorched or set on fire by heat from the element.

(b) Cellulosenitrate based films shall not be used for cinematograph installations.

Regulation 7

Fire Extinguishers

(a) All fire extinguishers shall be of approved types and designs.

 (i) The capacity of required portable fluid extinguishers shall be not more than 13.5 litres (3 gallons) and not less than 9 litres (2 gallons). Other extinguishers shall not be in excess of the equivalent portability of the 13.5 litre (3 gallons) fluid extinguisher and shall not be less than the fireextinguishing equivalent of a 9 litre (2 gallons) fluid extinguisher.

 (ii) The Administration shall determine the equivalents of fire extinguishers.

(b) Spare charges shall be provided in accordance with requirements to be specified by the Administration.

(c) Fire extinguishers containing an extinguishing medium which, in the opinion of the Administration, either by itself or under expected conditions of use gives off toxic gases in such quantities as to endanger persons shall not be permitted.

(d) A portable froth applicator unit shall consist of an inductor type of airfroth nozzle capable of being connected to the fire main by the fire hose, together with a portable tank containing at least 20 litres (41/2 gallons) of frothmaking liquid and one spare tank. The nozzle shall be capable of producing effective froth suitable for extinguishing an oil fire, at the rate of at least 1.5 cubic metres (53 cubic feet) per minute.

(e) Fire extinguishers shall be periodically examined and subject to such tests as the Administration may require.

(f) One of the portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be stowed near the entrance to that space.

Regulation 8

Fixed Gas FireExtinguishing Systems

(a) The use of a fireextinguishing medium which, in the opinion of the Administration, either by itself or under expected conditions of use gives off toxic gases in such quantities as to endanger persons shall not be permitted.

(b) Where provision is made for the injection of gas for fireextinguishing purposes, the necessary pipes for conveying the gas shall be provided with control valves or cocks so marked as to indicate clearly the compartments to which the pipes are led. Suitable provision shall be made to prevent inadvertent admission of the gas to any compartment. Where cargo spaces fitted with such a system for fire protection are used as passenger spaces the gas connexion shall be blanked during such use.

(c) The piping shall be arranged so as to provide effective distribution of fireextinguishing gas.

(d) (i) When carbon dioxide is used as the extinguishing medium in cargo spaces, the quantity of gas available shall be sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 30 per cent of the gross volume of the largest cargo compartment in the ship which is capable of being sealed.

 (ii) When carbon dioxide is used as an extinguishing medium for machinery spaces of Category A the quantity of gas carried shall be sufficient to give a minimum quantity of free gas equal to the larger of the following quantities, either:

 (1) 40 per cent of the gross volume of the largest space, the volume to include the casing up to the level at which the horizontal area of the casing is 40 per cent or less of the horizontal area of the space concerned taken midway between the tank top and the lowest part of the casing; or

 (2) 35 per cent of the entire volume of the largest space including the casing;

 provided that the abovementioned percentages may be reduced to 35 per cent and 30 per cent respectively for cargo ships of less than 2,000 tons gross tonnage; provided also that if two or more machinery spaces of Category A are not entirely separate they shall be considered as forming one compartment.

 (iii) Where the volume of free air contained in air receivers in any machinery space of Category A is such that, if released in such space in the event of fire, such release of air within that space would seriously affect the efficiency of the fixed fireextinguishing installation, the Administration shall require the provision of an additional quantity of carbon dioxide.

 (iv) When carbon dioxide is used as an extinguishing medium both for cargo spaces and for machinery spaces of Category A the quantity of gas need not be more than the maximum required either for the largest cargo compartment or machinery space.

 (v) For the purpose of this paragraph the volume of carbon dioxide shall be calculated at 0.56 cubic metres to the kilogramme (9 cubic feet to the pound).

 (vi) When carbon dioxide is used as the extinguishing medium for machinery spaces of Category A the fixed piping system shall be such that 85 per cent of the gas can be discharged into the space within 2 minutes.

 (vii) Carbon dioxide bottle storage rooms shall be situated at a safe and readily accessible position and shall be effectively ventilated to the satisfaction of the Administration. Any entrance to such storage rooms shall preferably be from the open deck, and in any case shall be independent of the protected space. Access doors shall be gastight and bulkheads and decks which form the boundaries of such rooms shall be gastight and adequately insulated.

(e) (i) Where gas other than carbon dioxide or steam as permitted by paragraph (f) of this Regulation is produced on the ship and is used as an extinguishing medium, it shall be a gaseous product of fuel combustion in which the oxygen content, the carbon monoxide content, the corrosive elements and any solid combustible elements have been reduced to a permissible minimum.

 (ii) Where such gas is used as the extinguishing medium in a fixed fireextinguishing system for the protection of machinery spaces of Category A it shall afford protection equivalent to that provided by a fixed carbon dioxide system.

 (iii) Where such gas is used as the extinguishing medium in a fixed fireextinguishing system for the protection of cargo spaces a sufficient quantity of such gas shall be available to supply hourly a volume of free gas at least equal to 25 per cent of the gross volume of the largest compartment protected in this way for a period of 72 hours.

(f) In general, the Administration shall not permit the use of steam as a fireextinguishing medium in fixed fireextinguishing systems of new ships. Where the use of steam is permitted by the Administration it shall be used only in restricted areas as an addition to the required fireextinguishing medium and with the proviso that the boiler or boilers available for supplying steam shall have an evaporation of at least 1 kilogramme of steam per hour for each 0.75 cubic metres (1 pound of steam per hour per 12 cubic feet) of the gross volume of the largest space so protected. In addition to complying with the foregoing requirements the systems in all respects shall be as determined by, and to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(g) Means shall be provided for automatically giving audible warning of the release of fireextinguishing gas into any space to which personnel normally have access. The alarm shall operate for a suitable period before the gas is released.

(h) The means of control of any such fixed gas fireextinguishing system shall be readily accessible and simple to operate and shall be grouped together in as few locations as possible at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in the protected space.

Regulation 9

Fixed Froth FireExtinguishing Systems in Machinery Spaces

(a) Any required fixed froth fireextinguishing system in machinery spaces shall be capable of discharging through fixed discharge outlets in not more than five minutes, a quantity of froth sufficient to cover to a depth of 150 millimetres (6 inches) the largest single area over which oil fuel is liable to spread. The system shall be capable of generating froth suitable for extinguishing oil fires. Means shall be provided for effective distribution of the froth through a permanent system of piping and control valves or cocks to suitable discharge outlets, and for the froth to be effectively directed by fixed sprayers on other main fire hazards in the protected space. The expansion ratio of the froth shall not exceed 12 to 1.

(b) The means of control of any such systems shall be readily accessible and simple to operate and shall be grouped together in as few locations as possible at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in the protected space.

Regulation 10

Fixed High Expansion Froth FireExtinguishing Systems in
Machinery Spaces

(a) (i) Any required fixed high expansion froth system in machinery spaces shall be capable of rapidly discharging through fixed discharge outlets a quantity of froth sufficient to fill the greatest space to be protected at a rate of at least 1 metre (3.3 feet) in depth per minute. The quantity of frothforming liquid available shall be sufficient to produce a volume of froth equal to five times the volume of the largest space to be protected. The expansion ratio of the froth shall not exceed 1,000 to 1.

 (ii) The Administration may permit alternative arrangements and discharge rates provided that it is satisfied that equivalent protection is achieved.

(b) Supply ducts for delivering froth, air intakes to the froth generator and the number of frothproducing units shall in the opinion of the Administration be such as will provide effective froth production and distribution.

(c) The arrangement of the froth generator delivery ducting shall be such that a fire in the protected space will not affect the frothgenerating equipment.

(d) The froth generator, its sources of power supply, frothforming liquid and means of controlling the system shall be readily accessible and simple to operate and shall be grouped in as few locations as possible at positions not likely to be cut off by fire in the protected space.

Regulation 11

Fixed Pressure WaterSpraying FireExtinguishing Systems in
Machinery Spaces

(a) Any required fixed pressure waterspraying fireextinguishing system in machinery spaces shall be provided with spraying nozzles of an approved type.

(b) The number and arrangement of the nozzles shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration and be such as to ensure an effective average distribution of water of at least 5 litres per square metre (0.1 gallon per square foot) per minute in the spaces to be protected. Where increased application rates are considered necessary, these shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration. Nozzles shall be fitted above bilges, tank tops and other areas over which oil fuel is liable to spread and also above other specific fire hazards in the machinery spaces.

(c) The system may be divided into sections, the distribution valves of which shall be operated from easily accessible positions outside the spaces to be protected and which will not be readily cut off by an outbreak of fire.

(d) The system shall be kept charged at the necessary pressure and the pump supplying the water for the system shall be put automatically into action by a pressure drop in the system.

(e) The pump shall be capable of simultaneously supplying at the necessary pressure all sections of the system in any one compartment to be protected. The pump and its controls shall be installed outside the space or spaces to be protected. It shall not be possible for a fire in the space or spaces protected by the waterspraying system to put the system out of action.

(f) The pump may be driven by independent internal combustion type machinery but if it is dependent upon power being supplied from the emergency generator fitted in compliance with the provisions of Regulation 25 or Regulation 26 as appropriate of Chapter II–1 of the present Convention that generator shall be arranged to start automatically in case of main power failure so that power for the pump required by paragraph (e) of this Regulation is immediately available. When the pump is driven by independent internal combustion type machinery it shall be so situated that a fire in the protected space will not affect the air supply to the machinery.

(g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the nozzles from becoming clogged by impurities in the water or corrosion of piping, nozzles, valves and pump.

Regulation 12

Automatic Sprinkler and Fire Alarm and Fire Detection Systems

(a) (i) Any required automatic sprinkler and fire alarm and fire detection system shall be capable of immediate operation at all times and no action by the crew shall be necessary to set it in operation. It shall be of the wet pipe type but small exposed sections may be of the dry pipe type where in the opinion of the Administration this is a necessary precaution. Any parts of the system which may be subjected to freezing temperatures in service shall be suitably protected against freezing. It shall be kept charged at the necessary pressure and shall have provision for a continuous supply of water as required in this Regulation.

 (ii) Each section of sprinklers shall include means for giving a visual and audible alarm signal automatically at one or more indicating units whenever any sprinkler comes into operation. Such units shall give an indication of any fire and its location in any space served by the system and shall be centralized on the navigating bridge or in the main fire control station, which shall be so manned or equipped as to ensure that any alarm from the system is immediately received by a responsible member of the crew. Such alarm systems shall be constructed so as to indicate if any fault occurs in the system.

(b) (i) Sprinklers shall be grouped into separate sections, each of which shall contain not more than 200 sprinklers. Any section of sprinklers shall not serve more than two decks and shall not be situated in more than one main vertical zone, except that an Administration, if it is satisfied that the protection of the ship against fire will not thereby be reduced, may permit such a section of sprinklers to serve more than two decks or to be situated in more than one main vertical zone.

 (ii) Each section of sprinklers shall be capable of being isolated by one stop valve only. The stop valve in each section shall be readily accessible and its location shall be clearly and permanently indicated. Means shall be provided to prevent the operation of the stop valves by any unauthorized person.

 (iii) A gauge indicating the pressure in the system shall be provided at each section stop valve and at a central station.

 (iv) The sprinklers shall be resistant to corrosion by marine atmospheres. In accommodation and service spaces the sprinklers shall come into operation within the temperature range of 68C (155F) and 79C (175F), except that in locations such as drying rooms, where high ambient temperatures might be expected, the operating temperature may be increased by not more than 30C (54F) above the maximum deck head temperature.

 (v) A list or plan shall be displayed at each indicating unit showing the spaces covered and the location of the zone in respect of each section. Suitable instructions for testing and maintenance shall be available.

(c) Sprinklers shall be placed in an overhead position and spaced in a suitable pattern to maintain an average application rate of not less than 5 litres per square metre (0.1 gallon per square foot) per minute over the nominal area covered by the sprinklers. Alternatively, the Administration may permit the use of sprinklers providing such other amount of water suitably distributed as has been shown to the satisfaction of the Administration to be not less effective.

(d) (i) A pressure tank having a volume equal to at least twice that of the charge of water specified in this subparagraph shall be provided. The tank shall contain a standing charge of fresh water, equivalent to the amount of water which would be discharged in one minute by the pump referred to in subparagraph (e) (ii) of this Regulation, and the arrangements shall provide for maintaining such air pressure in the tank to ensure that where the standing charge of fresh water in the tank has been used the pressure will be not less than the working pressure of the sprinkler, plus the pressure due to a head of water measured from the bottom of the tank to the highest sprinkler in the system. Suitable means of replenishing the air under pressure and of replenishing the fresh water charge in the tank shall be provided. A glass gauge shall be provided to indicate the correct level of the water in the tank.

 (ii) Means shall be provided to prevent the passage of sea water into the tank.

(e) (i) An independent power pump shall be provided solely for the purpose of continuing automatically the discharge of water from the sprinklers. The pump shall be brought into action automatically by the pressure drop in the system before the standing fresh water charge in the pressure tank is completely exhausted.

 (ii) The pump and the piping system shall be capable of maintaining the necessary pressure at the level of the highest sprinkler to ensure a continuous output of water sufficient for the simultaneous coverage of a minimum area of 280 square metres (3,000 square feet) at the application rate specified in paragraph (c) of this Regulation.

 (iii) The pump shall have fitted on the delivery side a test valve with a short openended discharge pipe. The effective area through the valve and pipe shall be adequate to permit the release of the required pump output while maintaining the pressure in the system specified in subparagraph (d) (i) of this Regulation.

 (iv) The sea inlet to the pump shall wherever possible be in the space containing the pump and shall be so arranged that when the ship is afloat it will not be necessary to shut off the supply of sea water to the pump for any purpose other than the inspection or repair of the pump.

(f) The sprinkler pump and tank shall be situated in a position reasonably remote from any machinery space of Category A and shall not be situated in any space required to be protected by the sprinkler system.

(g) There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the sea water pump and automatic alarm and detection system. Where the sources of power for the pump are electrical, these shall be a main generator and an emergency source of power. One supply for the pump shall be taken from the main switchboard, and one from the emergency switchboard by separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose.

The feeders shall be arranged so as to avoid galleys, machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces of high fire risk except in so far as it is necessary to reach the appropriate switchboards, and shall be run to an automatic changeover switch situated near the sprinkler pump. This switch shall permit the supply of power from the main switchboard so long as a supply is available therefrom, and be so designed that upon failure of that supply it will automatically change over to the supply from the emergency switchboard. The switches on the main switchboard and the emergency switchboard shall be clearly labelled and normally kept closed. No other switch shall be permitted in the feeders concerned. One of the sources of power supply for the alarm and detection system shall be an emergency source. Where one of the sources of power for the pump is an internal combustiontype engine it shall, in addition to complying with the provisions of paragraph (f) of this Regulation, be so situated that a fire in any protected space will not affect the air supply to the machinery.

(h) The sprinkler system shall have a connexion from the ship’s fire main by way of a lockable screwdown nonreturn valve at the connexion which will prevent a backflow from the sprinkler system to the fire main.

(i) (i) A test valve shall be provided for testing the automatic alarm for each section of sprinklers by a discharge of water equivalent to the operation of one sprinkler. The test valve for each section shall be situated near the stop valve for that section.

 (ii) Means shall be provided for testing the automatic operation of this pump, on reduction of pressure in the system.

 (iii) Switches shall be provided at one of the indicating positions referred to in subparagraph (a) (ii) of this Regulation which will enable the alarm and the indicators for each section of sprinklers to be tested.

(j) Spare sprinkler heads shall be provided for each section of sprinklers to the satisfaction of the Administration.

Regulation 13

Automatic Fire Alarm and Fire Detection Systems

Requirements for passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers

(a) (i) Any required automatic fire alarm and fire detection system shall be capable of immediate operation at all times and no action of the crew shall be necessary to set it in operation.

 (ii) Each section of detectors shall include means for giving a visual and audible alarm signal automatically at one or more indicating units whenever any detector comes into operation. Such units shall give an indication of any fire and its location in any space served by the system and shall be centralized on the navigating bridge or in the main fire control station which shall be so manned or equipped as to ensure that any alarm from the system is immediately received by a responsible member of the crew. Such alarm system shall be constructed so as to indicate if any fault occurs in the system.

(b) Detectors shall be grouped into separate sections each covering not more than 50 rooms served by such a system and containing not more than 100 detectors. A section of detectors shall not serve spaces on both the port and starboard sides of the ship nor on more than one deck and neither shall it be situated in more than one main vertical zone except that the Administration, if it is satisfied that the protection of the ship against fire will not thereby be reduced, may permit such a section of detectors to serve both the port and starboard sides of the ship and more than one deck.

(c) The system shall be operated by an abnormal air temperature, by an abnormal concentration of smoke or by other factors indicative of incipient fire in any one of the spaces to be protected. Systems which are sensitive to air temperature shall not operate at less than 57C (135F) and shall operate at a temperature not greater than 74C (165F) when the temperature increase to those levels is not more than 1C (1.8F) per minute. At the discretion of the Administration the permissible temperature of operation may be increased to 30C (54F) above the maximum deckhead temperature in drying rooms and similar places of a normally high ambient temperature. Systems which are sensitive to smoke concentration shall operate on the reduction of the intensity of a transmitted light beam by an amount to be determined by the Administration. Other equally effective methods of operation may be accepted at the discretion of the Administration. The detection system shall not be used for any purpose other than fire detection.

(d) The detectors may be arranged to operate the alarm by the opening or closing of contacts or by other appropriate methods. They shall be fitted in an overhead position and shall be suitably protected against impact and physical damage. They shall be suitable for use in a marine atmosphere. They shall be placed in an open position clear of beams and other objects likely to obstruct the flow of hot gases or smoke to the sensitive element. Detectors operated by the closing of contacts shall be of the sealed contact type and the circuit shall be continuously monitored to indicate fault conditions.

(e) At least one detector shall be installed in each space where detection facilities are required and there shall be not less than one detector for each 37 square metres (400 square feet) of deck area. In large spaces the detectors shall be arranged in a regular pattern so that no detector is more than 9 metres (30 feet) from another detector or more than 4.5 metres (15 feet) from a bulkhead.

(f) There shall be not less than two sources of power supply for the electrical equipment used in the operation of the fire alarm and fire detection system, one of which shall be an emergency source. The supply shall be provided by separate feeders reserved solely for that purpose. Such feeders shall run to a changeover switch situated in the control station for the fire detection system. The wiring system shall be so arranged to avoid galleys, machinery spaces and other enclosed spaces having a high fire risk except in so far as it is necessary to provide for fire detection in such spaces or to reach the appropriate switchboard.

(g) (i) A list or plan shall be displayed adjacent to each indicating unit showing the spaces covered and the location of the zone in respect of each section. Suitable instructions for testing and maintenance shall be available.

 (ii) Provision shall be made for testing the correct operation of the detectors and the indicating units by supplying means for applying hot air or smoke at detector positions.

(h) Spare detector heads shall be provided for each section of detectors to the satisfaction of the Administration.

Requirements for all other types of ships

(i) All required fire detection systems shall be capable of automatically indicating the presence or indication of fire and also its location. Indicators shall be centralized either on the navigating bridge or in other control stations which are provided with a direct communication with the bridge. The administration may permit the indicators to be distributed among several stations.

(j) In passenger ships electrical equipment used in the operation of required fire detection systems shall have two separate sources of power, one of which shall be an emergency source.

(k) The alarm system shall operate both audible and visible signals at the main stations referred to in paragraph (i) of this Regulation. Detection systems for cargo spaces need not have audible alarms.

Regulation 14

Fireman’s Outfit

A fireman’s outfit shall consist of:

(a) Personal equipment comprising:

 (i) Protective clothing of material to protect the skin from the heat radiating from the fire and from burns and scalding by steam. The outer surface shall be waterresistant.

 (ii) Boots and gloves of rubber or other electrically nonconducting material.

 (iii) A rigid helmet providing effective protection against impact.

 (iv) An electric safety lamp (hand lantern) of an approved type with a minimum burning period of three hours.

 (v) An axe to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) A breathing apparatus of an approved type which may be either:

 (i) A smoke helmet or smoke mask which shall be provided with a suitable air pump and a length of air hose sufficient to reach from the open deck, well clear of hatch or doorway, to any part of the holds or machinery spaces. If, in order to comply with this subparagraph, an air hose exceeding 36 metres (120 feet) in length would be necessary, a selfcontained breathing apparatus shall be substituted or provided in addition as determined by the Administration, or

 (ii) a selfcontained breathing apparatus which shall be capable of functioning for a period of time to be determined by the Administration.

For each breathing apparatus a fireproof lifeline of sufficient length and strength shall be provided capable of being attached by means of a snaphook to the harness of the apparatus or to a separate belt in order to prevent the breathing apparatus becoming detached when the lifeline is operated.

Regulation 15

Ready Availability of FireExtinguishing Appliances

In all new and existing ships, fireextinguishing appliances shall be kept in good order and available for immediate use at all times during the voyage.

Regulation 16

Acceptance of Substitutes

Where in this Chapter any special type of appliance, apparatus, extinguishing medium or arrangement is specified in any new and existing ships, any other type of appliance etc., may be allowed, provided the Administration is satisfied that it is not less effective.

PART B—FIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR PASSENGER SHIPS CARRYING MORE THAN 36 PASSENGERS

Regulation 17

Structure

The hull, superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material. For the purpose of applying the definition of steel or other equivalent material as given in Regulation 3 (g) of this Chapter the “applicable fire exposure” shall be according to the integrity and insulation standards given in the tables of Regulation 20 of this Chapter. An example where divisions such as decks or sides and ends of deckhouses are permitted to have “BO” fire integrity, the “applicable fire exposure” shall be one halfhour.

Provided that in cases where any part of the structure is of aluminium alloy, the following requirements shall apply:

(a) The insulation of aluminium alloy components of “A” or “B” Class divisions, except structure which in the opinion of the Administration is nonloadbearing, shall be such that the temperature of the structural core does not rise more than 200C (360F) above the ambient temperature at any time during the applicable fire exposure to the standard fire test.

(b) Special attention shall be given to the insulation of aluminium alloy components of columns, stanchions and other structural members required to support lifeboat and liferaft stowage, launching and embarkation areas, and “A” and “B” Class divisions to ensure:

 (i) that for such members supporting lifeboat and liferaft areas and “A” Class divisions the temperature rise limitation specified in paragraph (a) of this Regulation shall apply at the end of one hour; and

 (ii) that for such members required to support “B” Class divisions, the temperature rise limitation specified in paragraph (a) of this Regulation shall apply at the end of one halfhour.

(c) Crowns and casings of machinery spaces of Category A shall be of steel construction adequately insulated and openings therein, if any, shall be suitably arranged and protected to prevent the spread of fire.

Regulation 18

Main Vertical Zones and Horizontal Zones

(a) The hull, superstructure and deckhouses shall be subdivided into main vertical zones by “A” Class divisions. Steps and recesses shall be kept to a minimum, but where they are necessary, they shall also be “A” Class divisions. These divisions shall have insulation values in accordance with the applicable tables in Regulation 20 of this Chapter.

(b) As far as practicable, the bulkheads forming the boundaries of the main vertical zones above the bulkhead deck shall be in line with watertight subdivision bulkheads situated immediately below the bulkhead deck.

(c) Such bulkheads shall extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries.

(d) Where a main vertical zone is subdivided by horizontal “A” Class divisions into horizontal zones for the purpose of providing an appropriate barrier between sprinklered and nonsprinklered zones of the ship the divisions shall extend between adjacent main vertical zone bulkheads and to the shell or exterior boundaries of the ship and shall be insulated in accordance with the fire insulation and integrity values given in Table 3 of Regulation 20 of this Chapter.

(e) On ships designed for special purposes, such as automobile or railroad car ferries, where the provision of main vertical zone bulkheads would defeat the purpose for which the ship is intended, equivalent means for controlling and limiting a fire shall be substituted and specifically approved by the Administration.

Provided that in a ship with special category spaces, any such space shall comply with the applicable provisions of Regulation 30 of this Chapter, and in so far as such compliance would be inconsistent with compliance with other requirements of this Part of this Chapter, the requirements of Regulation 30 shall prevail.

Regulation 19

Bulkheads within a Main Vertical Zone

(a) All bulkheads which are not required to be “A” Class divisions shall be at least “B” Class or “C” Class divisions as prescribed in the tables in Regulation 20 of this Chapter. All such divisions may be faced with combustible materials in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 27 of this Chapter.

(b) All corridor bulkheads where not required to be “A” Class shall be “B” Class divisions which shall extend from deck to deck except:

 (i) when continuous “B” Class ceilings and/or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead, the portion of the bulkhead behind the continuous ceiling or lining shall be of material which in thickness and composition is acceptable in the construction of “B” Class divisions but which shall be required to meet “B” Class integrity standards only in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Administration;

 (ii) in the case of a ship protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter, the corridor bulkheads of “B” Class materials may terminate at a ceiling in the corridor provided such a ceiling is of material which in thickness and composition is acceptable in the construction of “B” Class divisions. Notwithstanding the requirements of Regulation 20 of this Chapter, such bulkheads and ceilings shall be required to meet “B” Class integrity standards only in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Administration. All doors and frames in such bulkheads shall be of incombustible materials and shall be constructed and erected so as to provide substantial fire resistance to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) All bulkheads required to be “B” Class divisions, except corridor bulkheads, shall extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries unless continuous “B” Class ceilings and/or linings are fitted on both sides of the bulkhead in which case the bulkhead may terminate at the continuous ceiling or lining.

Regulation 20

Fire Integrity of Bulkheads and Decks

(a) In addition to complying with the specific provisions for fire integrity of bulkheads and decks mentioned elsewhere in the Regulations of this Part, the minimum fire integrity of all bulkheads and decks shall be as prescribed in Tables 1 to 4 in this Regulation. Where, due to any particular structural arrangements in the ship, difficulty is experienced in determining from the tables the minimum fire integrity value of any divisions, such values shall be determined to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) The following requirement shall govern application of the tables:

 (i) Table 1 shall apply to bulkheads bounding main vertical zones or horizontal zones.

 Table 2 shall apply to bulkheads not bounding either main vertical zones or horizontal zones.

 Table 3 shall apply to decks forming steps in main vertical zones or bounding horizontal zones.

 Table 4 shall apply to decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones.

 (ii) For the purpose of determining the appropriate fire integrity standards to be applied to boundaries between adjacent spaces, such spaces are classified according to their fire risk as shown in Categories (1) to (14) below. Where the contents and use of a space are such that there is a doubt as to its classification for the purpose of this Regulation, it shall be treated as a space within the relevant category having the most stringent boundary requirements. The title of each category is intended to be typical rather than restrictive. The number in parentheses preceding each category refers to the applicable column or row number in the tables.

 (1) Control Stations

Spaces containing emergency sources of power and lighting.

Wheelhouse and chartroom.

Spaces containing the ship’s radio equipment.

Fire control and recording stations.

Control room for propelling machinery when located outside the propelling machinery space.

Spaces containing centralized fire alarm equipment.

Spaces containing centralized emergency public address system stations and equipment.

 (2) Stairways

Interior stairways, lifts and escalators (other than those wholly contained within the machinery spaces) for passengers and crew and enclosures thereto.

In this connexion, a stairway which is enclosed at only one level shall be regarded as part of the space from which it is not separated by a fire door.

 (3) Corridors

Passenger and crew corridors.

 (4) Lifeboat and Liferaft Handling and Embarkation Stations

Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades forming lifeboat and liferaft embarkation and lowering stations.

 (5) Open Deck Spaces

Open deck spaces and enclosed promenades clear of lifeboat and liferaft embarkation and lowering stations.

Air space (the space outside superstructures and deckhouses).

 (6) Accommodation Spaces of Minor Fire Risk

Cabins containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk.

Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk.

Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk and having a deck area of less than 50 square metres (540 square feet).

Offices and dispensaries containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk.

 (7) Accommodation Spaces of Moderate Fire Risk

Same as (6) above but containing furniture and furnishings of other than restricted fire risk.

Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of restricted fire risk and having a deck area of 50 square metres (540 square feet) and greater.

Isolated lockers and small storerooms in accommodation spaces.

Sale shops.

Motion picture projection and film stowage rooms.

Diet kitchens (containing no open flame).

Cleaning gear lockers (in which inflammable liquids are not stowed).

Laboratories (in which inflammable liquids are not stowed).

Pharmacies.

Small drying rooms (having a deck area of 4 square metres (43 square feet) or less).

Specie rooms.

 (8) Accommodation Spaces of Greater Fire Risk

Public spaces containing furniture and furnishings of other than restricted fire risk and having a deck area of 50 square metres (540 square feet) and greater.

Barber shops and beauty parlours.

 (9) Sanitary and Similar Spaces

Communal sanitary facilities, showers, baths, water closets, etc.

Small laundry rooms.

Indoor swimming pool area.

Operating rooms.

Isolated serving pantries in accommodation spaces.

Private sanitary facilities shall be considered a portion of the space in which they are located.

 (10) Tanks, Voids and Auxiliary Machinery Spaces having little or no Fire Risk

Water tanks forming part of the ship’s structure.

Voids and cofferdams.

Auxiliary machinery spaces which do not contain machinery having a pressure lubrication system and where storage of combustibles is prohibited, such as:

 ventilation and airconditioning rooms; windlass room; steering gear room; stabilizer equipment room; electrical propulsion motor room; rooms containing section switchboards and purely electrical equipment other than oilfilled electrical transformers (above 10 kVA); shaft alleys and pipe tunnels; spaces for pumps and refrigeration machinery (not handling or using inflammable liquids).

Closed trunks serving the spaces listed above.

Other closed trunks such as pipe and cable trunks.

 (11) Auxiliary Machinery Spaces, Cargo Spaces, Special Category Spaces, Cargo and other Oil Tanks and other Similar Spaces of Moderate Fire Risk

Cargo oil tanks.

Cargo holds, trunkways and hatchways.

Refrigerated chambers.

Oil fuel tanks (where installed in a separate space with no machinery).

Shaft alleys and pipe tunnels allowing storage of combustibles.

Auxiliary machinery spaces as in Category (10) which contain machinery having a pressure lubrication system or where storage of combustibles is permitted.

Oil fuel filling stations.

Spaces containing oilfilled electrical transformers (above 10 k VA).

Spaces containing turbine and reciprocating steam engine driven auxiliary generators and small internal combustion engines of power output up to 112 kW driving emergency generators, sprinkler, drencher or fire pumps, bilge pumps, etc.

Special category spaces (Tables 1 and 3 only apply).

Closed trunks serving the spaces listed above.

 (12) Machinery Spaces and Main Galleys

Main propelling machinery rooms (other than electric propulsion motor rooms) and boiler rooms.

Auxiliary machinery spaces other than those in Categories (10) and (11) which contain internal combustion machinery or other oilburning, heating or pumping units.

Main galleys and annexes.

Trunks and casings to the spaces listed above.

 (13) Storerooms, Workshops, Pantries, etc.

Main pantries not annexed to galleys.

Main laundry.

Large drying rooms (having a deck area of more than 4 square metres (43 square feet)).

Miscellaneous stores.

Mail and baggage rooms.

Garbage rooms.

Workshops (not part of machinery spaces, galleys, etc.).

 (14) Other Spaces in which Inflammable Liquids are stowed

Lamp rooms.

Paint rooms.

Storerooms containing inflammable liquids (including dyes, medicines, etc.).

Laboratories (in which inflammable liquids are stowed).

 (iii) Where a single value is shown for the fire integrity of a boundary between two spaces, that value shall apply in all cases.

 (iv) In determining the applicable fire integrity standard of a boundary between two spaces within a main vertical zone or horizontal zone which is not protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter or between such zones neither of which is so protected, the higher of the two values given in the tables shall apply.

 (v) In determining the applicable fire integrity standard of a boundary between two spaces within a main vertical zone or horizontal zone which is protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter or between such zones both of which are so protected, the lesser of the two values given in the tables shall apply. In instances where a sprinklered zone and a nonsprinklered zone meet within accommodation and service spaces, the higher of the two values given in the tables shall apply to the division between the zones.

 (vi) Where adjacent spaces are in the same numerical category and the superscript “1” appears in the tables, a bulkhead or deck between such spaces need not be fitted if deemed unnecessary by the Administration. For example, in Category (12) a bulkhead need not be required between a galley and its annexed pantries provided the pantry bulkheads and decks maintain the integrity of the galley boundaries. A bulkhead is, however, required between a galley and a machinery space even though both spaces are in Category (12).

 (vii) Where the superscript “2” appears in the tables, the lesser insulation value may be permitted only if at least one of the adjoining spaces is protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter.

 (viii) Notwithstanding the provisions of Regulation 19 of this Chapter, there are no special requirements for material or integrity of boundaries where only a dash appears in the tables.

 (ix) The Administration shall determine in respect of Category (5) spaces whether the insulation values in Table 1 or 2 shall apply to ends of deckhouses and superstructures, and whether the insulation values in Table 3 or 4 shall apply to weather decks. In no case shall the requirements of Category (5) of Tables 1 to 4 necessitate enclosure of spaces which in the opinion of the Administration need not be enclosed.

(c) Continuous “B” Class ceilings or linings, in association with the relevant decks or bulkheads, may be accepted as contributing wholly or in part, to the required insulation and integrity of a division.

(d) In approving structural fire protection details, the Administration shall have regard to the risk of heat transmission at intersections and terminal points of required thermal barriers.

TABLE 1.—BULKHEADS BOUNDING MAIN VERTICAL ZONES OR HORIZONTAL ZONES

Spaces

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

Control stations.....................(1)

A60

A30

A30

A0

A0

A60

A60

A60

A0

A0

A60

A60

A60

A60

Stairways.........................(2)

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A60
A15

A0

A0

A30

A60

A15
A0

A60

Corridors.........................(3)

 

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A30
A0

A30
A0

A0

A0

A30

A60

A15
A0

A60

Lifeboat and liferaft handling and .........(4)
embarkation stations

 

 

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A60

A0

A60

Open deck spaces....................(5)

 

 

 

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk....(6)

 

 

 

 

 

A15
A0

A30
A0

A30
A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A30

A15
A0

A30

Accommodation spaces of moderate .......(7)
fire risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

A30
A0

A60
A15

A0

A0

A30
A0

A60

A30
A0

A60

Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk...(8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A60
A15

A0

A0

A60
A15

A60

A30
A0

A60

Sanitary and similar spaces.............(9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery......(10)
spaces having little or no fire risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo .......(11)
spaces, special category spaces,
cargo and other oil tanks and
other similar spaces of moderate
fire risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A0

A60

A0

A60

Machinery spaces and main galleys.......(12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A60

A302
A15

A60

Storerooms, workshops, pantries, etc. (13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A0

A30

Other spaces in which inflammable .......(14)
liquids are stowed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A60


TABLE 2.—BULKHEADS NOT BOUNDING EITHER MAIN VERTICAL ZONES OR HORIZONTAL ZONES

Spaces

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

Control stations.....................(1)

B01

A0

A0

A0

A0
B0

A60

A60

A60

A0

A0

A60

A60

A60

A60

Stairways.........................(2)

 

A01

A0

A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A0

A0

A15

A30

A15
A0

A60

Corridors.........................(3)

 

 

C

A0

A0
B0

B0

B15
B0

B15
B0

B0

A0

A15

A30

A0

A30
A0

Lifeboat and liferaft handling and .........(4)
embarkation stations

 

 

 

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A15

A0

A15
A0

Open deck space....................(5)

 

 

 

 

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk....(6)

 

 

 

 

 

B0
C

B15
C

B15
C

B0
C

A0

A15
A0

A30

A0

A30
A0

Accommodation spaces of moderate .......(7)
fire risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

B15
C

B15
C

B0
C

A0

A15
A0

A60

A15
A0

A60
A15

Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk...(8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B15
C

B0
C

A0

A30
A0

A60

A15
A0

A60
A15

Sanitary and similar spaces.............(9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery......(10)
spaces having little or no fire risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A01

A0

A0

A0

A0

Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo .......(11)
spaces, cargo and other oil tanks and other similar spaces of moderate fire risk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A01

A0

A0

A302
A15

Machinery spaces and main galleys.......(12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A0

A0

A60

Storerooms, workshops, pantries, etc. (13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A01

A0

Other spaces in which inflammable liquids..(14)
are stowed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A302

A15


TABLE 3.—DECKS FORMING STEPS IN MAIN VERTICAL ZONES OR BOUNDING HORIZONTAL ZONES

Space below

   Space above

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

Control stations.....................(1)

A60

A60

A30

A0

A0

A15

A30

A60

A0

A0

A30

A60

A15

A60

Stairways.........................(2)

A15

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A15
A0

A0

A0

A0

A60

A0

A60

Corridors.........................(3)

A30

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A15
A0

A0

A0

A0

A60

A0

A60

Lifeboat and liferaft handling and .........(4)
embarkation stations

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Open deck spaces....................(5)

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk....(6)

A60

A30
A0

A15
A0

A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A15

A0

A15

Accommodation spaces of moderate .......(7)
fire risk

A60

A60
A15

A30
A0

A15
A0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A60
A15

A0

A0

A30
A0

A30

A0

A30

Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk...(8)

A60

A60
A15

A60
A15

A60
A15

A0

A30
A0

A60
A15

A60
A15

A0

A0

A30
A0

A60

A15
A0

A60

Sanitary and similar spaces.............(9)

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery......(10)
spaces having little or no fire risk

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo .......(11)
spaces, special category spaces, cargo and other oil tanks and other similar spaces of moderate fire risk

A60

A60

A60

A60

A0

A30
A0

A60
A15

A60
A15

A0

A0

A0

A30

A302
A0

A30

Machinery spaces and main galleys.......(12)

A60

A60

A60

A60

A0

A60

A60

A60

A0

A0

A60

A60

A60

A60

Storerooms, workshops, pantries, etc. (13)

A60

A60
A15

A30
A0

A15

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A60
A15

A0

A0

A0

A30

A0

A30

Other spaces in which inflammable liquids..(14)
are stowed

A60

A60

A60

A60

A0

A60

A60

A60

A0

A0

A60

A60

A60

A60


TABLE 4.—DECKS NOT FORMING STEPS IN MAIN VERTICAL ZONES NOR BOUNDING HORIZONTAL ZONES

Space below

   Space above

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

Control stations.....................(1)

A30
A0

A30
A0

A15
A0

A0

A0
B0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A0

A0

A0

A60

A0

A60
A15

Stairways.........................(2)

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A30

A0

A30
A0

Corridors.........................(3)

A15
A0

A0

A01
B01

A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A15
B0

A15
B0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A30

A0

A30
A0

Lifeboat and liferaft handling and .........(4)
embarkation stations

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Open deck spaces....................(5)

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0

Accommodation spaces of minor fire risk....(6)

A60

A15
A0

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A0

A15
A0

Accommodation spaces of moderate .......(7)
fire risk

A60

A30
A0

A15
A0

A15
A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A15
B0

A30
B0

A0
B0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A0

A30
A0

Accommodation spaces of greater fire risk...(8)

A60

A60
A15

A60
A0

A30
A0

A0
B0

A15
B0

A30
B0

A60
B0

A0
B0

A0

A30
A0

A30
A0

A0

A30
A0

Sanitary spaces and similar spaces.........(9)

A0

A0

A0
B0

A0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

Tanks, voids and auxiliary machinery......(10)
spaces having little or no fire risk

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A01

A0

A0

A0

A0

Auxiliary machinery spaces, cargo .......(11)
spaces, cargo and other oil tanks and other similar spaces of moderate fire risk

A60

A60
A15

A60
A15

A30
A0

A0

A0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A0

A0

A01

A0

A0

A302
A15

Machinery spaces and main galleys.......(12)

A60

A60

A60

A60

A0

A60

A60

A60

A0

A0

A30

A301

A0

A60

Storerooms, workshops, pantries, etc. (13)

A60

A30
A0

A15
A0

A15
A0

A0
B0

A15
A0

A30
A0

A30
A0

A0
B0

A0

A0

A0

A0

A152
A0

Other spaces in which inflammable liquids..(14)
are stowed

A60

A60
A30

A60
A30

A60

A0

A30
A0

A60
A15

A60
A15

A0

A0

A302
A0

A302
A0

A0

A302
A0

 

Regulation 21

Means of Escape

(a) In and from all passenger and crew spaces and in spaces in which the crew is normally employed, other than machinery spaces, stairways and ladders shall be arranged to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation deck. In particular, the following provisions shall be complied with:

 (i) Below the bulkhead deck, two means of escape, at least one of which shall be independent of watertight doors, shall be provided from each watertight compartment or similarly restricted space or group of spaces. Exceptionally, the Administration may dispense with one of the means of escape, due regard being paid to the nature and location of spaces and to the number of persons who normally might be quartered or employed there.

 (ii) Above the bulkhead deck, there shall be at least two means of escape from each main vertical zone or similarly restricted space or group of spaces at least one of which shall give access to a stairway forming a vertical escape.

 (iii) At least one of the means of escape required by subparagraphs (a) (i) and (ii) of this Regulation shall be by means of a readily accessible enclosed stairway, which shall provide continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks or the highest level served by the stairway, whichever level is the highest. However, where an Administration has granted dispensation under the provisions of subparagraph (a) (i) of this Regulation the sole means of escape shall provide safe escape to the satisfaction of the Administration. The width, number and continuity of the stairways shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (iv) Protection of access from the stairway enclosures to the lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

 (v) Lifts shall not be considered as forming one of the required means of escape.

 (vi) Stairways serving only a space and a balcony in that space shall not be considered as forming one of the required means of escape.

 (vii) If a radiotelegraph station has no direct access to the weather deck, two means of escape shall be provided from such station.

 (viii) Deadend corridors exceeding 13 metres (43 feet) shall not be permitted.

(b) (i) In special category spaces the number and disposition of the means of escape both below and above the bulkhead deck shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration, and in general the safety of access to the embarkation deck shall be at least equivalent to that provided for under subparagraphs (a) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v) of this Regulation.

 (ii) One of the escape routes from the machinery spaces where the crew is normally employed shall avoid direct access to any special category space.

(c) Two means of escape shall be provided from each machinery space. In particular, the following provisions shall be complied with:

 (i) Where the space is below the bulkhead deck the two means of escape shall consist of either:

 (1) two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible, leading to doors in the upper part of the space similarly separated and from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks. One of these ladders shall provide continuous fire shelter from the lower part of the space to a safe position outside the space; or

 (2) one steel ladder leading to a door in the upper part of the space from which access is provided to the embarkation deck and a steel door capable of being operated from each side and which provides a safe escape route to the embarkation deck.

 (ii) Where the space is above the bulkhead deck, two means of escape shall be as widely separated as possible and the doors leading from such means of escape shall be in a position from which access is provided to the appropriate lifeboat and liferaft embarkation decks. Where such escapes require the use of ladders these shall be of steel.

Provided that in a ship of less than 1,000 tons gross tonnage, the Administration may dispense with one of the means of escape due regard being paid to the width and disposition of the upper part of the space; and in a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and above, the Administration may dispense with one means of escape from any such space so long as either a door or a steel ladder provides a safe escape route to the embarkation deck due regard being paid to the nature and location of the space and whether persons are normally employed in that space.

Regulation 22

Protection of Stairways and Lifts in Accommodation and Service Spaces

(a) All stairways shall be of steel frame construction except where the Administration sanctions the use of other equivalent material, and shall be within enclosures formed of “A” Class divisions, with positive means of closure at all openings, except that:

 (i) a stairway connecting only two decks need not be enclosed, provided the integrity of the deck is maintained by proper bulkheads or doors at one between deck space. When a stairway is closed at one between deck space, the stairway enclosure shall be protected in accordance with the tables for decks in Regulation 20 of this Chapter;

 (ii) stairways may be fitted in the open in a public space, provided they lie wholly within such public space.

(b) Stairway enclosures shall have direct communication with the corridors and be of sufficient area to prevent congestion, having in view the number of persons likely to use them in an emergency. In so far as practicable, stairway enclosures shall not give direct access to cabins, service lockers, or other enclosed spaces containing combustibles in which a fire is likely to originate.

(c) Lift trunks shall be so fitted as to prevent the passage of smoke and flame from one between deck to another and shall be provided with means of closing so as to permit the control of draught and smoke.

Regulation 23

Openings in “A” Class Divisions

(a) Where “A” Class divisions are pierced for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., for girders, beams or other structures, arrangements shall be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired, subject to the provisions of paragraph (g) of this Regulation.

(b) Where of necessity, a ventilation duct passes through a main vertical zone bulkhead, a failsafe automatic closing fire damper shall be fitted adjacent to the bulkhead. The damper shall also be capable of being manually closed from each side of the bulkhead. The operating position shall be readily accessible and be marked in red lightreflecting colour. The duct between the bulkhead and the damper shall be of steel or other equivalent material and, if necessary, to an insulating standard such as to comply with paragraph (a) of this Regulation. The damper shall be fitted on at least one side of the bulkhead with a visible indicator showing if the damper is in the open position.

(c) Except for hatches between cargo, special category, store, and baggage spaces, and between such spaces and the weather decks, all openings shall be provided with permanently attached means of closing which shall be at least as effective for resisting fires as the divisions in which they are fitted.

(d) The construction of all doors and door frames in “A” Class divisions, with the means of securing them when closed, shall provide resistance to fire as well as to the passage of smoke and flame, as far as practicable, equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which the doors are situated. Such doors and door frames shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material. Watertight doors need not be insulated.

(e) It shall be possible for each door to be opened and closed from each side of the bulkhead by one person only.

(f) Fire doors in main vertical zone bulkheads and stairway enclosures, other than poweroperated watertight doors and those which are normally locked, shall be of the selfclosing type capable of closing against an inclination of 31/2 degrees opposing closure. The speed of door closure shall, if necessary, be controlled so as to prevent undue danger to personnel. All such doors, except those that are normally closed, shall be capable of release from a control station, either simultaneously or in groups, and also individually from a position at the door. The release mechanism shall be so designed that the door will automatically close in the event of disruption of the control system; however, approved poweroperated watertight doors will be considered acceptable for this purpose. Holdback hooks, not subject to control station release, will not be permitted. When double swing doors are permitted, they shall have a latch arrangement which is automatically engaged by the operation of the door release system.

(g) Where a space is protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter or fitted with a continuous “B” Class ceiling, openings in decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones shall be closed reasonably tight and such decks shall meet the “A” Class integrity requirements in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Administration.

(h) The requirements for “A” Class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles. Similarly, the requirements for “A” Class integrity shall not apply to exterior doors in superstructures and deckhouses.

Regulation 24

Openings in “B” Class Divisions

(a) Where “B” Class divisions are penetrated for the passage of electrical cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., or for the fitting of ventilation terminals, lighting fixtures and similar devices, arrangements shall be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired.

(b) Doors and door frames in “B” Class divisions and means of securing them shall provide a method of closure which shall have resistance to fire as far as practicable equivalent to the divisions except that ventilation openings may be permitted in the lower portion of such doors. Where such opening is in or under a door the total net area of any such opening or openings shall not exceed 0.05 square metres (78 square inches). When such opening is cut in a door it shall be fitted with a grill made of noncombustible material. Doors shall be noncombustible.

(c) The requirements for “B” Class integrity of the outer boundaries of a ship shall not apply to glass partitions, windows and sidescuttles. Similarly, the requirements for “B” Class integrity shall not apply to exterior doors in superstructures and deckhouses.

(d) Where an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter is fitted:

 (i) openings in decks not forming steps in main vertical zones nor bounding horizontal zones shall be closed reasonably tight and such decks shall meet the “B” Class integrity requirements in so far as is reasonable and practicable in the opinion of the Administration; and

 (ii) openings in corridor bulkheads of “B” Class materials shall be protected in accordance with the provisions of Regulation 19 of this Chapter.

Regulation 25

Ventilation Systems

(a) In general, the ventilation fans shall be so disposed that the ducts reaching the various spaces remain within the main vertical zone.

(b) Where ventilation systems penetrate decks, precautions shall be taken, in addition to those relating to the fire integrity of the deck required by Regulation 23 of this Chapter, to reduce the likelihood of smoke and hot gases passing from one between deck space to another through the system. In addition to insulation requirements contained in this Regulation, vertical ducts shall, if necessary, be insulated as required by the appropriate tables in Regulation 20 of this Chapter.

(c) The main inlets and outlets of all ventilation systems shall be capable of being closed from outside the space being ventilated.

(d) Except in cargo spaces, ventilation ducts shall be constructed of the following materials:

 (i) Ducts not less than 0.075 square metres (116 square inches) in sectional area and all vertical ducts serving more than a single between deck space shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.

 (ii) Ducts less than 0.075 square metres (116 square inches) in sectional area shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Where such ducts penetrate “A” or “B” Class divisions due regard shall be given to ensuring the fire integrity of the division.

 (iii) Short lengths of duct, not in general exceeding 0.02 square metres (31 square inches) in sectional area nor 2 metres (79 inches) in length, need not be incombustible provided that all of the following conditions are met:

 (1) the duct is constructed of a material of restricted fire risk to the satisfaction of the Administration;

 (2) the duct is used only at the terminal end of the ventilation system; and

 (3) the duct is not located closer than 0.6 metres (24 inches) measured along its length to a penetration of an “A” or “B” Class division, including continuous “B” Class ceilings.

(e) Where a stairway enclosure is ventilated, the duct or ducts (if any) shall be taken from the fan room independently of other ducts in the ventilation system and shall not serve any other space.

(f) All power ventilation, except machinery and cargo spaces ventilation and any alternative system which may be required under paragraph (h) of this Regulation, shall be fitted with controls so grouped that all fans may be stopped from either of two separate positions which shall be situated as far apart as practicable. Controls provided for the power ventilation serving machinery spaces shall also be grouped so as to be operable from two positions, one of which shall be outside such spaces. Fans serving power ventilation systems to cargo spaces shall be capable of being stopped from a safe position outside such spaces.

(g) Where they pass through accommodation spaces or spaces containing combustible materials the exhaust ducts from galley ranges shall be constructed of “A” Class divisions. Each exhaust duct shall be fitted with:

 (i) a grease trap readily removable for cleaning;

 (ii) a fire damper located in the lower end of the duct;

 (iii) arrangements, operable from within the galley, for shutting off the exhaust fan; and

 (iv) fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the duct.

(h) Such measures as are practicable shall be taken in respect of control stations outside machinery spaces in order to ensure that ventilation, visibility and freedom from smoke are maintained, so that in the event of fire the machinery and equipment contained therein may be supervised and continue to function effectively. Alternative and separate means of air supply shall be provided; air inlets of the two sources of supply shall be so disposed that the risk of both inlets drawing in smoke simultaneously is minimized. At the discretion of the Administration, such requirements need not apply to control stations situated on, and opening on to, an open deck, or where local closing arrangements would be equally effective.

(i) Ducts provided for ventilation of machinery spaces of Category A shall not in general pass through accommodation, service spaces or control stations, except that the Administration may permit relaxation from this requirement, provide that:

 (i) the ducts are constructed of steel, and are insulated to “A60” standard; or

 (ii) the ducts are constructed of steel and are fitted with an automatic fire damper close to the boundary penetrated and are insulated to “A60” standard from the machinery space to a point at least 5 metres (16 feet) beyond the fire damper.

(j) Ducts provided for ventilation of accommodation, service spaces, or control stations shall not in general pass through machinery spaces of Category A, except that the Administration may permit relaxation from this requirement provided that the ducts are constructed of steel and automatic fire dampers are fitted close to the boundaries penetrated.

Regulation 26

Windows and Sidescuttles

(a) All windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads within accommodation and service spaces and control stations other than those to which the provisions of paragraph (h) of Regulation 23 and paragraph (c) of Regulation 24 of this Chapter apply, shall be constructed so as to preserve the integrity requirements of the type of bulkheads in which they are fitted.

(b) Notwithstanding the requirements of the tables in Regulation 20 of this Chapter:

 (i) All windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads separating accommodation and service spaces and control stations from weather shall be constructed with frames of steel or other suitable material. The glass shall be retained by a metal glazing bead or angle.

 (ii) Special attention shall be given to the fire integrity of windows facing open or enclosed lifeboat and liferaft embarkation areas and to windows situated below such areas in such a position that their failure during a fire would impede the launching of, or embarkation into, lifeboats or liferafts.

Regulation 27

Restriction of Combustible Materials

(a) Except in cargo spaces, mail rooms, baggage rooms, or refrigerated compartments of service spaces, all linings, grounds, ceilings and insulations shall be of noncombustible materials. Partial bulkheads or decks used to subdivide a space for utility or artistic treatment shall also be of noncombustible material.

(b) Vapour barriers and adhesives used in conjunction with insulation, as well as insulation of pipe fittings, for cold service systems need not be noncombustible, but they shall be kept to the minimum quantity practicable and their exposed surfaces shall have qualities of resistance to the propagation of flame to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings in all accommodation and service spaces may have combustible veneer, provided that such veneer shall not exceed 2 millimetres (1/12 inch) within any such spaces except corridors, stairway enclosures and control stations where it shall not exceed 1.5 millimetres (1/17 inch).

(d) The total volume of combustible facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers in any accommodation and service space shall not exceed a volume equivalent to 2.5 millimetres (1/10 inch) veneer on the combined area of the walls and ceilings. In the case of ships fitted with an automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions Regulation 12 of this Chapter, the above volume may include some combustible material used for erection of “C” class divisions.

(e) All exposed surfaces in corridors or stairway enclosures and surfaces in concealed or inaccessible spaces in accommodation and service spaces and control stations shall have low flamespread characteristics.

(f) Furniture in the passages and stairway enclosures shall be kept to a minimum.

(g) Paints, varnishes and other finishes used on exposed interior surfaces shall not be of a nature to offer an undue fire hazard in the judgment of the Administration and shall not be capable of producing excessive quantities of smoke or other toxic properties.

(h) Primary deck coverings, if applied, within accommodation and service spaces and control stations, shall be of approved material which will not readily ignite, or give rise to toxic or explosive hazards at elevated temperatures.[†]

(i) Wastepaper receptacles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and with solid sides and bottoms.

Regulation 28

Miscellaneous Items

Requirements Applicable to all Portions of the Ship

(a) Pipes penetrating “A” or “B” Class divisions shall be of a material approved by the Administration having regard to the temperature such divisions are required to withstand. Pipes conveying oil or combustible liquids shall be of a material approved by the Administration having regard to the fire risk. Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for overboard scuppers, sanitary discharges, and other outlets which are close to the waterline and where the failure of the material in the event of fire would give rise to danger of flooding.

Requirements Applicable to Accommodation and Service Spaces, Control Stations, Corridors and Stairways

(b) (i) Air spaces enclosed behind ceilings, panelling or linings shall be suitably divided by closefitting draught stops not more than 14 metres (46 feet) apart.

 (ii) In the vertical direction, such spaces, including those behind linings of stairways, trunks, etc., shall be closed at each deck.

(c) The construction of ceiling and bulkheading shall be such that it will be possible, without impairing the efficiency of the fire protection, for the fire patrols to detect any smoke originating in concealed and inaccessible places, except where in the opinion of the Administration there is no risk of fire originating in such places.

Regulation 29

Automatic Sprinkler and Fire Alarm and Fire Detection Systems or Automatic Fire Alarm and Fire Detection Systems

In any ship to which this Part applies there shall be installed throughout each separate zone, whether vertical or horizontal, in all accommodation and service spaces and, where it is considered necessary by the Administration, in control stations, except spaces which afford no substantial fire risk (such as void spaces, sanitary spaces, etc.) either:

 (i) an automatic sprinkler and fire alarm and fire detection system of an approved type, complying with the provisions of Regulation 12 of this Chapter and installed and so arranged as to protect such spaces; or

 (ii) an automatic fire alarm and fire detection system of an approved type, complying with the provisions of Regulation 13 of this Chapter, and installed and so arranged as to detect the presence of fire in such spaces.

Regulation 30

Protection of Special Category Spaces

Provisions Applicable to Special Category Spaces whether above or below the Bulkhead Deck

(a) General

 (i) The basic principle underlying the provisions in this Regulation is that as normal main vertical zoning may not be practicable in special category spaces, equivalent protection must be obtained in such spaces on the basis of a horizontal zone concept and the provision of an efficient fixed fireextinguishing system. Under this concept a horizontal zone for the purpose of this Regulation may include special category spaces on more than one deck provided that the overall height of the zone does not exceed 10 metres (33 feet).

 (ii) All requirements laid down in Regulations 23 and 25 of this Chapter for maintaining the integrity of vertical zones shall be applied equally to decks and bulkheads forming the boundaries separating horizontal zones from each other and from the remainder of the ship.

(b) Structural Protection

 (i) Boundary bulkheads of special category spaces shall be insulated as required for Category (11) spaces in Table 1 of Regulation 20 of this Chapter and the horizontal boundaries as required for Category (11) spaces in Table 3 of that Regulation.

 (ii) Indicators shall be provided on the navigating bridge which shall indicate when any fire door leading to or from the special category spaces is closed.

(c) Fixed FireExtinguishing System

Each special category space shall be fitted with an approved fixed pressure waterspraying system for manual operation which shall protect all parts of any deck and vehicle platform, if any, in such space, provided that the Administration may permit the use of any other fixed fireextinguishing system that has been shown by fullscale test in conditions simulating a flowing petrol fire in a special category space to be not less effective in controlling fires likely to occur in such a space.

(d) Patrols and Detection

 (i) An efficient patrol system shall be maintained in special category spaces. In any such space in which the patrol is not maintained by a continuous fire watch at all times during the voyage there shall be provided in that space an automatic fire detection system of an approved type.

 (ii) Manual fire alarms shall be provided as necessary throughout the special category spaces and one shall be placed close to each exit from such spaces.

(e) FireExtinguishing Equipment

There shall be provided in each special category space:

 (i) a number of hydrants with hoses and dualpurpose nozzles of an approved type so arranged that at least two jets of water each from a single length of hose not emanating from the same hydrant may reach any part of such space;

 (ii) at least three water fog applicators;

 (iii) one portable applicator unit complying with the provisions of Regulation 7 (d) of this Chapter, provided that at least two such units are available in the ship for use in such spaces; and

 (iv) such number of portable fire extinguishers of an approved type as the Administration may deem sufficient.

(f) Ventilation System

 (i) There shall be provided an effective power ventilation system for the special category spaces sufficient to give at least 10 air changes per hour. The system for such spaces shall be entirely separated from other ventilation systems and shall be operating at all times when vehicles are in such spaces. The Administration may require an increased number of air changes when vehicles are being loaded and unloaded.

 (ii) The ventilation shall be such as to prevent air stratification and the formation of air pockets.

 (iii) Means shall be provided to indicate on the navigating bridge any loss or reduction of the required ventilating capacity.

Additional Provisions Applicable only to Special Category Spaces above the Bulkhead Deck

(g) Scuppers

In view of the serious loss of stability which could arise due to large quantities of water accumulating on the deck or decks consequent on the operation of the fixed pressure waterspraying system, scuppers shall be fitted so as to ensure that such water is rapidly discharged directly overboard.

(h) Precautions against Ignition of Inflammable Vapours

 (i) Equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of inflammable vapours and in particular electrical equipment and wiring, shall be installed at least 450 millimetres (18 inches) above the deck, provided that if the Administration is satisfied that the installation of such electrical equipment and wiring below this level is necessary for the safe operation of the ship, such electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type approved for use in an explosive petrol and air mixture. Electrical equipment installed at more than 450 millimetres (18 inches) above the deck shall be of a type so enclosed and protected as to prevent the escape of sparks. The reference to a level of 450 millimetres (18 inches) above the deck shall be construed to mean each deck on which vehicles are carried and on which explosive vapours might be expected to accumulate.

 (ii) Electrical equipment and wiring, if installed in an exhaust ventilation duct, shall be of a type approved for use in explosive petrol and air mixtures and the outlet from any exhaust duct shall be sited in a safe position, having regard to other possible sources of ignition.

Additional Provisions applicable only to Special Category Spaces below the Bulkhead Deck

(i) Bilge Pumping and Drainage

In view of the serious loss of stability which could arise due to large quantities of water accumulating on the deck or tank top consequent on the operation of the fixed pressure waterspraying system, the Administration may require pumping and drainage facilities to be provided additional to the requirements of Regulation 18 of Chapter II1 of the present Convention.

(j) Precautions against Ignition of Inflammable Vapours

 (i) Electrical equipment and wiring, if fitted, shall be of a type suitable for use in explosive petrol and air mixtures. Other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of inflammable vapours shall not be permitted.

 (ii) Electrical equipment and wiring, if installed in an exhaust ventilation duct, shall be of a type approved for use in explosive petrol and air mixtures and the outlet from any exhaust duct shall be sited in a safe position, having regard to other possible sources of ignition.

Regulation 31

Protection of Cargo Spaces other than Special Category Spaces
intended for the Carriage of Motor Vehicles with Fuel in their Tanks for
their own Propulsion

In any cargo space (other than special category spaces) containing motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion, the following provisions shall be complied with:

(a) Fire Detection

There shall be provided an approved fire detection and fire alarm system.

(b) FireExtinguishing Arrangements

 (i) There shall be fitted a fixed gas fireextinguishing system which shall comply with the provisions of Regulation 8 of this Chapter, except that if a carbon dioxide system is fitted, the quantity of gas available shall be at least sufficient to give a minimum volume of free gas equal to 45 per cent of the gross volume of the largest of such cargo spaces which is capable of being sealed, and the arrangements shall be such as to ensure that the gas is introduced rapidly and effectively into the space. Any other fixed gas fireextinguishing system or fixed high expansion froth fireextinguishing system may be fitted provided it gives equivalent protection.

 (ii) There shall be provided for use in any such space such number of portable fire extinguishers of an approved type as the Administration may deem sufficient.

(c) Ventilation System

 (i) In any such cargo space there shall be provided an effective power ventilation system sufficient to give at least 10 air changes per hour. The system for such cargo spaces shall be entirely separated from other ventilation systems and shall be operating at all times when vehicles are in such spaces.

 (ii) The ventilation shall be such as to prevent air stratification and the formation of air pockets.

 (iii) Means shall be provided to indicate on the navigating bridge any loss or reduction of the required ventilating capacity.

(d) Precautions against Ignition of Inflammable Vapours

 (i) Electrical equipment and wiring, if fitted, shall be of a type suitable for use in explosive petrol and air mixtures. Other equipment which may constitute a source of ignition of inflammable vapours shall not be permitted.

 (ii) Electrical equipment and wiring, if installed in an exhaust ventilation duct, shall be of a type approved for use in explosive petrol and air mixtures and the outlet from any exhaust duct shall be sited in a safe position, having regard to other possible sources of ignition.

Regulation 32

Maintenance of Fire Patrols, etc., and Provision for
FireExtinguishing Equipment

(a) Fire Patrols and Detection, Alarms and Public Address Systems

 (i) An efficient patrol system shall be maintained so that an outbreak of fire may be promptly detected. Each member of the fire patrol shall be trained to be familiar with the arrangements of the ship as well as the location and operation of any equipment he may be called upon to use.

 (ii) Manual alarms shall be fitted throughout the accommodation and service spaces to enable the fire patrol to give an alarm immediately to the navigating bridge or main fire control station.

 (iii) An approved fire alarm or fire detecting system shall be provided which will automatically indicate at one or more suitable points or stations the presence or indication of fire and its location in any cargo space which, in the opinion of the Administration, is not accessible to the patrol system, except where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that the ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply this requirement.

 (iv) The ship shall at all times when at sea, or in port (except when out of service), be so manned or equipped as to ensure that any initial fire alarm is immediately received by a responsible member of the crew.

 (v) A special alarm, operated from the navigating bridge or fire control station, shall be fitted to summon the crew. This alarm may be part of the ship’s general alarm system but it shall be capable of being sounded independently of the alarm to the passenger spaces.

 (vi) A public address system or other effective means of communication shall be available throughout the accommodation and service spaces and control stations.

(b) Fire Pumps and Fire Main System

The ship shall be provided with fire pumps, fire main system, hydrants and hoses complying with the provisions of Regulation 5 of this Chapter and shall comply with the following requirements:

 (i) In a ship of 4,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards, there shall be provided at least three independentlydriven fire pumps and, in a ship of less than 4,000 tons gross tonnage, at least two such fire pumps.

 (ii) In a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards, the arrangement of sea connexions, fire pumps and sources of power for operating them shall be such as to ensure that a fire in any one compartment will not put all the fire pumps out of action.

 (iii) In a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards, the arrangement of fire pumps, fire mains and hydrants shall be such that at least one effective jet of water as stipulated in paragraph (c) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter is immediately available from any one hydrant in an interior location. Arrangements shall also be made to ensure the continuation of the output of water by the automatic starting of a required fire pump.

 (iv) In a ship of less than 1,000 tons gross tonnage the arrangements shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) Fire Hydrants, Hoses and Nozzles

 (i) The ship shall be provided with fire hoses the number and diameter of which shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration. There shall be at least one fire hose for each of the hydrants required by paragraph (d) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter and these hoses shall be used only for the purposes of extinguishing fires or testing the fireextinguishing apparatus at fire drills and surveys.

 (ii) In accommodation and service spaces and in machinery spaces, the number and position of hydrants shall be such that the requirements of paragraph (d) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter may be complied with when all watertight doors and all doors in main vertical zone bulkheads are closed.

 (iii) The arrangements shall be such that at least two jets of water can reach any part of any cargo space when empty.

 (iv) All required hydrants in machinery spaces shall be fitted with hoses having in addition to the nozzles required in paragraph (g) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter nozzles suitable for spraying water on oil, or alternatively dualpurpose nozzles. Additionally, each machinery space of Category A shall be provided with at least two suitable water fog applicators.

 (v) Water spray nozzles or dualpurpose nozzles shall be provided for at least one quarter of the number of hoses required in parts of the ship other than machinery spaces.

 (vi) For each pair of breathing apparatus there shall be provided one water fog applicator which shall be stored adjacent to such apparatus.

 (vii) Where, in any machinery space of Category A, access is provided at a low level from an adjacent shaft tunnel, two hydrants fitted with hoses with dualpurpose nozzles shall be provided external to, but near the entrance to that machinery space. Where such access is not provided from a tunnel but is provided from other space or spaces there shall be provided in one of those spaces two hydrants fitted with hoses with dualpurpose nozzles near the entrance to the machinery space of Category A. Such provision need not be made when the tunnel or adjacent spaces are not part of an escape route.

(d) International Shore Connexion

 (i) A ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with at least one international shore connexion, complying with the provisions of paragraph (h) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter.

 (ii) Facilities shall be available enabling such a connexion to be used on either side of the ship.

(e) Portable Fire Extinguishers in Accommodation and Service Spaces and Control Stations

The ship shall be provided in accommodation and service spaces and control stations with such approved portable fire extinguishers as the Administration may deem to be appropriate and sufficient.

(f) Fixed FireExtinguishing Arrangements in Cargo Spaces

 (i) The cargo spaces of ships of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be protected by a fixed gas fireextinguishing system complying with the provisions of Regulation 8 of this Chapter, or by a fixed high expansion froth fireextinguishing system which gives equivalent protection.

 (ii) Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that a ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply the requirements of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph and also in ships of less than 1,000 tons gross tonnage, the arrangements in cargo spaces shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(g) FireExtinguishing Appliances in Boiler Rooms, etc.

Spaces containing oilfired boilers or oil fuel units shall be provided with the following arrangements:

 (i) There shall be any one of the following fixed fireextinguishing systems:

 (1) A pressure waterspraying system complying with the provisions of Regulation 11 of this Chapter.

 (2) A gas system complying with the provisions of Regulation 8 of this Chapter.

 (3) A froth system complying with the provisions of Regulation 9 of this Chapter.

 (4) A high expansion froth system complying with the provisions of Regulation 10 of this Chapter.

 In each case if the engine and boiler rooms are not entirely separate, or if fuel oil can drain from the boiler room into the engine room, the combined engine and boiler rooms shall be considered as one compartment.

 (ii) There shall be in each boiler room at least one set of portable airfroth equipment complying with the provisions of paragraph (d) of Regulation 7 of this Chapter.

 (iii) There shall be at least two approved portable extinguishers discharging froth or equivalent in each firing space in each boiler room and each space in which a part of the oil fuel installation is situated. There shall be not less than one approved frothtype extinguisher of at least 136 litres (30 gallons) capacity or equivalent in each boiler room. These extinguishers shall be provided with hoses on reels suitable for reaching any part of the boiler room.

 (iv) In each firing space there shall be a receptacle containing sand, sawdust impregnated with soda or other approved dry material, in such quantity as may be required by the Administration. Alternatively an approved portable extinguisher may be substituted therefor.

(h) FireExtinguishing Appliances in Spaces containing Internal Combustion Type Machinery

Spaces containing internal combustion machinery used either for main propulsion, or for other purposes when such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output of not less than 373 kW, shall be provided with the following arrangements:

 (i) There shall be one of the fireextinguishing systems required by subparagraph (g) (i) of this Regulation.

 (ii) There shall be at least one set of portable airfroth equipment complying with the provisions of paragraph (d) of Regulation 7 of this Chapter.

 (iii) There shall be in each such space approved frothtype fire extinguishers each of at least 45 litres (10 gallons) capacity or equivalent sufficient in number to enable froth or its equivalent to be directed on to any part of the fuel and lubricating oil pressure systems, gearing and other fire hazards. In addition, there shall be provided a sufficient number of portable froth extinguishers or equivalent which shall be so located that an extinguisher is not more than 10 metres (33 feet) walking distance from any point in the space; provided that there shall be at least two such extinguishers in each such space.

(i) FireExtinguishing Arrangements in Spaces containing Steam Turbines or enclosed Steam Engines

In spaces containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines used either for main propulsion or for other purposes when such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output of not less than 373 kW:

 (i) There shall be provided froth fire extinguishers each of at least 45 litres (10 gallons) capacity or equivalent sufficient in number to enable froth or its equivalent to be directed on to any part of the pressure lubrication system, on to any part of the casings enclosing pressure lubricated parts of the turbines, engines or associated gearing, and any other fire hazards. Provided that such extinguishers shall not be required if protection at least equivalent to this subparagraph is provided in such spaces by a fixed fireextinguishing system fitted in compliance with subparagraph (g) (i) of this Regulation.

 (ii) There shall be provided a sufficient number of portable froth extinguishers or equivalent which shall be so located that an extinguisher is not more than 10 metres (33 feet) walking distance from any point in the space; provided that there shall be at least two such extinguishers in each such space, and such extinguishers shall not be required in addition to any provided in compliance with subparagraph (h) (iii) of this Regulation.

(j) FireExtinguishing Appliances in other Machinery Spaces

Where, in the opinion of the Administration, a fire hazard exists in any machinery space for which no specific provisions for fireextinguishing appliances are prescribed in paragraphs (g), (h) and (i) of this Regulation there shall be provided in, or adjacent to, that space such number of approved portable fire extinguishers or other means of fire extinction as the Administration may deem sufficient.

(k) Fixed FireExtinguishing Appliances not required by this Part

Where a fixed fireextinguishing system not required by this Part of this Chapter is installed, such a system shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(l) Special Requirements for Machinery Spaces

 (i) For any machinery space of Category A to which access is provided at a low level from an adjacent shaft tunnel there shall be provided in addition to any watertight door and on the side remote from that machinery space a light steel firescreen door which shall be operable from each side.

 (ii) An automatic fire detection and alarm system shall be fitted when the Administration considers such special precautions warranted in any machinery space in which the installation of automatic and remote control systems and equipment have been approved in lieu of continuous manning of the space.

(m) Fireman’s Outfits and Personal Equipment

 (i) The minimum number of fireman’s outfits complying with the requirements of Regulation 14 of this Chapter, and of additional sets of personal equipment, each such set comprising the items stipulated in subparagraphs (a) (i), (ii) and (iii) of that Regulation, to be carried shall be as follows:

 (1) two fireman’s outfits; and in addition

 (2) for every 80 metres (262 feet) or part thereof, of the aggregate of the lengths of all passenger spaces and service spaces on the deck which carries such spaces or, if there is more than one such deck, on the deck which has the largest aggregate of such lengths, two fireman’s outfits and two sets of personal equipment, each such set comprising the items stipulated in Regulation 14 (a) (i), (ii) and (iii) of this Chapter.

 (ii) For each fireman’s outfit which includes a selfcontained breathing apparatus as provided in paragraph (b) of Regulation 14 of this Chapter, spare charges shall be carried on a scale approved by the Administration.

 (iii) Fireman’s outfits and sets of personal equipment shall be stored in widely separated positions ready for use. At least two fireman’s outfits and one set of personal equipment shall be available at any one position.

Regulation 33

Arrangements for Oil Fuel, Lubricating Oil and other Inflammable Oils

(a) Oil Fuel Arrangements

In a ship in which oil fuel is used, the arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of the oil fuel shall be such as to ensure the safety of the ship and persons on board and shall at least comply with the following provisions:

 (i) No oil fuel which has a flashpoint of less than 60C (140F) (closed cup test) as determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus shall be used as fuel, except in emergency generators, in which case the flashpoint shall be not less than 43C (110F).

 Provided that the Administration may permit the general use of fuel oil having a flashpoint of not less than 43C (110F) subject to such additional precautions as it may consider necessary and on condition that the temperature of the space in which such fuel is stored or used shall not be allowed to rise within 10C (18F) below the flashpoint of the fuel.

 (ii) As far as practicable no part of the oil fuel system containing heated oil under pressure exceeding 1.8 kilogrammes per square centimetre (25 pounds per square inch) gauge shall be so concealed that defects and leakage cannot readily be observed. In way of such parts of the oil fuel system the machinery space shall be adequately illuminated.

 (iii) The ventilation of machinery spaces shall be sufficient under all normal conditions to prevent accumulation of oil vapour.

 (iv) (1) As far as practicable, oil fuel tanks shall be part of the ship’s structure and shall be located outside machinery spaces of Category A. When oil fuel tanks, except double bottom tanks, are necessarily located adjacent to machinery spaces of Category A, they shall preferably have a common boundary with the double bottom tanks, and the area of the tank boundary common with the machinery space shall be kept to a minimum. In general, the use of freestanding oil fuel tanks shall be avoided but when such tanks are employed they shall not be situated in machinery spaces of Category A.

 (2) No oil tank shall be situated where spillage or leakage therefrom can constitute a hazard by falling on heated surfaces. Precautions shall be taken to prevent any oil that may escape under pressure from any pump, filter or heater from coming into contact with heated surfaces.

 (v) Every oil fuel pipe which if damaged would allow oil to escape from a storage, settling or daily service tank situated above the double bottom shall be fitted with a cock or valve on the tank capable of being closed from a safe position outside the space concerned in the event of a fire arising in the space in which such tanks are situated. In the special case of deep tanks situated in any shaft or pipe tunnel or similar space, valves on the tanks shall be fitted but control in event of fire may be effected by means of an additional valve on the pipe or pipes outside the tunnel or similar space.

 (vi) Safe and efficient means of ascertaining the amount of oil fuel contained in any oil tank shall be provided. Sounding pipes with suitable means of closure may be permitted if their upper ends terminate in safe positions. Other means of ascertaining the amount of oil fuel contained in any oil fuel tank may be permitted if they do not require penetration below the top of the tank, and providing their failure or overfilling of the tanks will not permit release of fuel thereby.

 (vii) Provisions shall be made to prevent overpressure in any oil tank or in any part of the oil fuel system, including the filling pipes. Any relief valves and air or overflow pipes shall discharge to a position which, in the opinion of the Administration, is safe.

 (viii) Oil fuel pipes shall be of steel or other approved material, provided that restricted use of flexible pipes shall be permissible in positions where the Administration is satisfied that they are necessary. Such flexible pipes and end attachments shall be of approved fireresisting materials of adequate strength and shall be constructed to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) Lubricating Oil Arrangements

The arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of oil used in pressure lubrication systems shall be such as to ensure the safety of the ships and persons on board, and such arrangements in machinery spaces of Category A and, whenever practicable, in other machinery spaces shall at least comply with the provisions of subparagraphs (ii), (iv) (2), (v), (vi) and (vii) of paragraph (a) of this Regulation.

(c) Arrangements for other Inflammable Oils

The arrangements for the storage, distribution and utilization of other inflammable oils employed under pressure in power transmission systems, control and activating systems and heating systems shall be such as to ensure the safety of the ship and persons on board. In locations where means of ignition are present such arrangements shall at least comply with the provisions of subparagraphs (a) (iv) (2) and (a) (vi), and with the provisions of subparagraph (a) (viii) in respect of strength and construction, of this Regulation.

Regulation 34

Special Arrangements in Machinery Spaces

(a) The provisions of this Regulation shall apply to machinery spaces of Category A and, where the Administration considers it desirable, to other machinery spaces.

(b) (i) The number of skylights, doors, ventilators, openings in funnels to permit exhaust ventilation and other openings to machinery spaces shall be reduced to a minimum consistent with the needs of ventilation and the proper and safe working of the ship.

 (ii) The flaps of such skylights where fitted shall be of steel. Suitable arrangements shall be made to permit the release of smoke in the event of fire, from the space to be protected.

 (iii) Such doors other than poweroperated watertight doors shall be arranged so that positive closure is assured in case of fire in the space, by poweroperated closing arrangements or by the provision of selfclosing doors capable of closing against an inclination of 31/2 degrees opposing closure and having a failsafe hookback facility, provided with a remotely operated release device.

(c) Windows shall not be fitted in machinery space casings.

(d) Means of control shall be provided for:

 (i) opening and closure of skylights, closure of openings in funnels which normally allow exhaust ventilation, and closure of ventilator dampers;

 (ii) permitting the release of smoke;

 (iii) closure of poweroperated doors or release mechanism on doors other than poweroperated watertight doors;

 (iv) stopping ventilating fans; and

 (v) stopping forced and induced draught fans, oil fuel transfer pumps, oil fuel unit pumps and other similar fuel pumps.

(e) The controls required for ventilating fans shall comply with the provisions of paragraph (f) of Regulation 25 of this Chapter. The controls for any required fixed fireextinguishing system and those required by
sub-paragraphs (d) (i), (ii), (iii) and (v) of this Regulation and of
sub-paragraph (a) (v) of Regulation 33 of this Chapter shall be situated at one control position, or grouped in as few positions as possible to the satisfaction of the Administration. Such position or positions shall be located where they will not be cut off in the event of fire in the space they serve, and shall have a safe access from the open deck.

PART CFIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR PASSENGER SHIPS CARRYING NOT MORE THAN 36 PASSENGERS

Regulation 35

Structure

(a) The hull, superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.

(b) Where fire protection in accordance with paragraph (b) of Regulation 40 of this Chapter is employed, the superstructure may be constructed of, for example, aluminium alloy, provided that:

 (i) for the temperature rise of the metallic cores of “A” Class divisions when exposed to the standard fire test, due regard is given to the mechanical properties of the material;

 (ii) the Administration is satisfied that the amount of combustible materials used in the relevant part of the ship is suitably reduced; the ceilings (i.e. linings of deck heads) are noncombustible;

 (iii) adequate provision is made to ensure that in the event of fire, arrangements for stowage, launching and embarkation into survival craft remain as effective as if the superstructure were constructed of steel;

 (iv) crowns and casings of boiler and machinery spaces are of steel construction adequately insulated, and the openings therein, if any, are suitably arranged and protected to prevent spread of fire.

Regulation 36

Main Vertical Zones

(a) The hull, superstructure and deckhouses shall be subdivided into main vertical zones. Steps and recesses shall be kept to a minimum, but where they are necessary, they shall be of “A” Class divisions.

(b) As far as practicable, the bulkheads forming the boundaries of the main vertical zones above the bulkhead deck shall be in line with watertight subdivision bulkheads situated immediately below the bulkhead deck.

(c) Such bulkheads shall extend from deck to deck and to the shell or other boundaries.

(d) On ships designed for special purposes, such as automobile or railroad car ferries, where installation of such bulkheads would defeat the purpose for which the ship is intended, equivalent means for controlling and limiting a fire shall be substituted and specifically approved by the Administration.

Regulation 37

Openings in “A” Class Divisions

(a) Where “A” Class divisions are pierced for the passage of electric cables, pipes, trunks, ducts, etc., for girders, beams or other structures, arrangements shall be made to ensure that the fire resistance is not impaired.

(b) Where of necessity, a duct passes through a main vertical zone bulkhead, a failsafe automatic closing fire damper shall be fitted adjacent to the bulkhead. The damper shall also be capable of being manually closed from both sides of the bulkhead. The operating position shall be readily accessible and be marked in red lightreflecting colour. The duct between the bulkhead and the damper shall be of steel or other equivalent material and, if necessary, to an insulating standard such as to comply with paragraph (a) of this Regulation. The damper shall be fitted on at least one side of the bulkhead with a visible indicator showing if the damper is in the open position.

(c) Except for hatches between cargo, store, and baggage spaces, and between such spaces and the weather decks, all openings shall be provided with permanently attached means of closing which shall be at least as effective for resisting fires as the divisions in which they are fitted.

(d) The construction of all doors and door frames in “A” Class divisions, with the means of securing them when closed, shall provide resistance to fire as well as to the passage of smoke and flame as far as practicable equivalent to that of the bulkheads in which the doors are situated. Watertight doors need not be insulated.

(e) It shall be possible for each door to be opened from either side of the bulkhead by one person only.

(f) Fire doors in main vertical zone bulkheads and stairway enclosures, other than poweroperated watertight doors and those which are normally locked, shall be of the selfclosing type capable of closing against an inclination of 31/2 degrees opposing closure. All such doors, except those that are normally closed, shall be capable of release from a control station, either simultaneously or in groups, and also individually from a position at the door. The release mechanism shall be so designed that the door will automatically close in the event of disruption of the control system; however, approved poweroperated watertight doors will be considered acceptable for this purpose. Holdback hooks, not subject to control station release, will not be permitted. When double swing doors are permitted, they shall have a latch arrangement which is automatically engaged by the operation of the door release system.

Regulation 38

Fire Integrity of “A” Class Divisions

Where “A” Class divisions are required under this Part, the Administration, in deciding the amount of insulation to be provided, shall be guided by the provisions of Part B of this Chapter, but may accept a reduction of the amount of insulation below that stipulated by that Part.

Regulation 39

Separation of Accommodation Spaces from Machinery,
Cargo and Service Spaces

The boundary bulkheads and decks separating accommodation spaces from machinery, cargo and service spaces shall be constructed of “A” Class divisions, and these bulkheads and decks shall have an insulation value to the satisfaction of the Administration having regard to the nature of the adjacent spaces.

Regulation 40

Protection of Accommodation and Service Spaces

The accommodation and service spaces shall be protected in accordance with the provisions of either paragraph (a) or (b) of this Regulation.

(a) (i) Within the accommodation spaces, all enclosure bulkheads other than those required to be of “A” Class divisions, shall be constructed of “B” Class divisions of noncombustible materials, which may, however, be faced with combustible materials in accordance with subparagraph (iii) of this paragraph.

 (ii) All corridor bulkheads shall extend from deck to deck. Ventilation openings may be permitted in the doors in “B” Class bulkheads, preferably in the lower portion. All other enclosure bulkheads shall extend from deck to deck vertically, and to the shell or other boundaries transversely, unless noncombustible ceilings or linings such as will ensure fire integrity are fitted, in which case the bulkheads may terminate at the ceilings or linings.

 (iii) Except in cargo spaces, mail rooms, baggage rooms, or refrigerated compartments of service spaces, all linings, grounds, ceilings and insulations shall be of noncombustible materials. The total volume of combustible facings, mouldings, decorations and veneers in any accommodation or public space shall not exceed a volume equivalent to 2.54 millimetres (1/10 inch) veneer on the combined area of the walls and ceilings. All exposed surfaces in corridors or stairway enclosures and in concealed or inaccessible spaces shall have low flamespread characteristics.

(b) (i) All corridor bulkheads in accommodation spaces shall be of steel or be constructed of “B” Class panels.

 (ii) A fire detecting system of an approved type shall be installed and so arranged as to detect the presence of fire in all enclosed spaces appropriated to the use or service of passengers or crew (except spaces which afford no substantial fire hazard) and automatically to indicate at one or more points or stations where it can be most quickly observed by officers and crew, the presence or indication of fire and also its location.

Regulation 41

Deck Coverings[†]

Primary deck coverings within accommodation spaces, control stations, stairways and corridors shall be of approved material which will not readily ignite.

Regulation 42

Protection of Stairways and Lifts in Accommodation and Service Spaces

(a) All stairways and means of escape in accommodation and service spaces shall be of steel or other suitable materials.

(b) Passenger and service lift trunks, vertical trunks for light and air to passenger spaces, etc., shall be of “A” Class divisions. Doors shall be of steel or other equivalent material and when closed shall provide fire resistance at least as effective as the trunks in which they are fitted.

Regulation 43

Protection of Control Stations and Storerooms

(a) Control stations shall be separated from the remainder of the ship by “A” Class bulkheads and decks.

(b) The boundary bulkheads of baggage rooms, mail rooms, storerooms, paint and lamp lockers, galleys and similar spaces shall be of “A” Class divisions. Spaces containing highly inflammable stores shall be so situated as to minimize the danger to passengers or crew in the event of fire.

Regulation 44

Windows and Sidescuttles

(a) All windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads separating accommodation spaces from weather shall be constructed with frames of steel or other suitable material. The glass shall be retained by a metal glazing bead.

(b) All windows and sidescuttles in bulkheads within accommodation spaces shall be constructed so as to preserve the integrity requirements of the type of bulkhead in which they are fitted.

Regulation 45

Ventilation Systems

Power ventilation of machinery spaces shall be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible position outside the machinery spaces.

Regulation 46

Details of Construction

(a) Paints, varnishes and similar preparations having a nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable base shall not be used in any part of the ship.

(b) Pipes penetrating “A” or “B” Class divisions shall be of a material approved by the Administration having regard to the temperature such divisions are required to withstand. Pipes conveying oil or combustible liquids shall be of a material approved by the Administration having regard to the fire risk. Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for overboard scuppers, sanitary discharges, and other outlets which are close to the waterline and where the failure of the material in the event of fire would give rise to danger of flooding.

(c) In spaces containing main propulsion machinery, or oilfired boilers, or auxiliary internal combustion type machinery of total power output of 746 kW or over, the following measures shall be taken:

 (i) skylights shall be capable of being closed from outside the space;

 (ii) skylights containing glass panels shall be fitted with external shutters of steel or other equivalent material permanently attached;

 (iii) any window permitted by the Administration in casings of such spaces shall be of the nonopening type, and shall be fitted with an external shutter of steel or other equivalent material permanently attached; and

 (iv) in the windows and skylights referred to in subparagraphs (i), (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph, wire reinforced glass shall be used.

Regulation 47

Fire Detection Systems and FireExtinguishing Equipment

(a) Patrols and Detection

 (i) An efficient patrol system shall be maintained in all ships so that any outbreak of fire may be promptly detected. Manual fire alarms shall be fitted throughout the passenger and crew accommodation to enable the fire patrol to give an alarm immediately to the navigating bridge or fire control station.

 (ii) An approved fire alarm or fire detecting system shall be provided which will automatically indicate at one or more suitable points or stations the presence or indication of fire and its location in any part of the ship which, in the opinion of the Administration, is not accessible to the patrol system, except where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that the ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply this requirement.

 (iii) The ship, whether new or existing, shall at all times when at sea, or in port (except when out of service), be so manned or equipped as to ensure that any initial fire alarm is immediately received by a responsible member of the crew.

(b) Fire Pumps and Fire Main System

The ship shall be provided with fire pumps, fire main system, hydrants and hoses complying with Regulation 5 of this Chapter and with the following requirements:

 (i) A ship of 4,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with at least three independently driven fire pumps and every ship of less than 4,000 tons gross tonnage with at least two such fire pumps.

 (ii) In a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards, the arrangement of sea connexions, pumps and sources of power for operating them shall be such as to ensure that a fire in any one compartment will not put all the fire pumps out of action.

 (iii) In a ship of less than 1,000 tons gross tonnage the arrangement shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) Fire Hydrants, Hoses and Nozzles

 (i) The ship shall be provided with such number of fire hoses as the Administration may deem sufficient. There shall be at least one fire hose for each of the hydrants required by paragraph (d) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter and these hoses shall be used only for the purposes of extinguishing fires or testing the fireextinguishing apparatus at fire drills and surveys.

 (ii) In accommodation, service and machinery spaces, the number and position of hydrants shall be such that the requirements of paragraph (d) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter may be complied with when all watertight doors and all doors in main vertical zone bulkheads are closed.

 (iii) The arrangements shall be such that at least two jets of water can reach any part of any cargo space when empty.

 (iv) All required hydrants in the machinery spaces of ships with oilfired boilers or internal combustion type propelling machinery shall be fitted with hoses having nozzles as required in paragraph (g) of regulation 5 of this Chapter.

(d) International Shore Connexion

 (i) A ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with at least one international shore connexion, complying with paragraph (h) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter.

 (ii) Facilities shall be available enabling such a connexion to be used on either side of the ship.

(e) Portable Fire Extinguishers in Accommodation and Service Spaces

The ship shall be provided in accommodation and service spaces with such approved portable fire extinguishers as the Administration may deem to be appropriate and sufficient.

(f) Fixed FireExtinguishing Arrangements in Cargo Spaces

 (i) The cargo spaces of ships of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be protected by a fixed gas fireextinguishing system complying with Regulation 8 of this Chapter.

 (ii) Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that a ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply the requirements of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph and also in ships of less than 1,000 tons gross tonnage, the arrangements in cargo spaces shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(g) FireExtinguishing Appliances in Boiler Rooms, etc.

Where main or auxiliary oilfired boilers are situated, or in spaces containing oil fuel units or settling tanks, a ship shall be provided with the following arrangements:

 (i) There shall be any one of the following fixed fireextinguishing installations:

 (1) a pressure waterspraying system complying with Regulation 11 of this Chapter;

 (2) a gas fireextinguishing installation complying with Regulation 8 of this Chapter;

 (3) a fixed froth installation complying with Regulation 9 of this Chapter. (The Administration may require fixed or mobile arrangements by pressure water or froth spraying to fight fire above the floor plates.)

 In each case if the engine and boiler rooms are not entirely separate, or if fuel oil can drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the combined engine and boiler rooms shall be considered as one compartment.

 (ii) There shall be at least two approved portable extinguishers discharging froth or other approved medium suitable for extinguishing oil fires, in each firing space in each boiler room and each space in which a part of the oil fuel installation is situated. There shall be not less than one approved froth type extinguisher of at least 136 litres (30 gallons) capacity or equivalent in each boiler room. These extinguishers shall be provided with hoses on reels suitable for reaching any part of the boiler room and spaces containing any part of the oil fuel installations.

 (iii) In each firing space there shall be a receptacle containing sand, sawdust impregnated with soda or other approved dry material, in such quantity as may be required by the Administration. Alternatively an approved portable extinguisher may be substituted therefor.

(h) FireFighting Appliances in Spaces containing Internal Combustion Type Machinery

Where internal combustion type engines are used, either for main propulsion or for auxiliary purposes associated with a total power output of not less than 746 kW, a ship shall be provided with the following arrangements:

 (i) there shall be one of the fixed arrangements required by subparagraph (g) (i) of this Regulation;

 (ii) there shall be in each engine space one approved frothtype extinguisher of not less than 45 litres (10 gallons) capacity or equivalent and also one approved portable frothtype extinguisher for each 746 kW of engine power output or part thereof; but the total number of portable extinguishers so supplied shall be not less than two and need not exceed six.

(i) FireFighting Arrangements in Spaces containing Steam Turbines and not requiring any Fixed Installation

The Administration shall give special consideration to the fireextinguishing arrangements to be provided in spaces containing steam turbines which are separated from boiler rooms by watertight bulkheads.

(j) Fireman’s Outfits and Personal Equipment

 (i) The minimum number of fireman’s outfits complying with the requirements of Regulation 14 of this Chapter, and of additional sets of personal equipment, each such set comprising the items stipulated in subparagraphs (a) (i), (ii) and (iii) of that Regulation, to be carried, shall be as follows:

 (1) two fireman’s outfits; and in addition

 (2) for every 80 metres (262 feet) or part thereof, of the aggregate of the lengths of all passenger spaces and service spaces on the deck which carries such spaces or, if there is more than one such deck, on the deck which has the largest aggregate of such lengths, two fireman’s outfits and two sets of personal equipment, each such set comprising the items stipulated in Regulation 14 (a) (i), (ii) and (iii) of this Chapter.

 (ii) For each fireman’s outfit which includes a selfcontained breathing apparatus as provided in paragraph (b) of Regulation 14 of this Chapter, spare charges shall be carried on a scale approved by the Administration.

 (iii) Fireman’s outfits and sets of personal equipment shall be stored in widely separated positions ready for use. At least two fireman’s outfits and one set of personal equipment shall be available at any one position.

Regulation 48

Means of Escape

(a) In and from all passenger and crew spaces and spaces in which crew are normally employed, other than machinery spaces, stairways and ladderways shall be arranged so as to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat embarkation deck. In particular the following precautions shall be complied with:

 (i) below the bulkhead deck, two means of escape, at least one of which shall be independent of watertight doors, shall be provided for each watertight compartment or similarly restricted space or group of spaces. One of these means of escape may be dispensed with by the Administration, due regard being paid to the nature and the location of spaces concerned, and to the number of persons who normally might be quartered or employed there;

 (ii) above the bulkhead deck, there shall be at least two practical means of escape from each main vertical zone or similarly restricted space or group of spaces at least one of which shall give access to a stairway forming a vertical escape; and

 (iii) at least one of the means of escape shall be by means of a readily accessible enclosed stairway, which shall provide as far as practicable continuous fire shelter from the level of its origin to the lifeboat embarkation deck. The width, number and continuity of the stairways shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) In machinery spaces, two means of escape, one of which may be a watertight door, shall be provided from each engine room, shaft tunnel and boiler room. In machinery spaces, where no watertight door is available, the two means of escape shall be formed by two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible leading to doors in the casing similarly separated and from which access is provided to the embarkation deck. In the case of ships of less than 2,000 tons gross tonnage, the Administration may dispense with this requirement, due regard being paid to the width and the disposition of the casing.

Regulation 49

Oil Fuel used for Internal Combustion Engines

No internal combustion engine shall be used for any fixed installation in a ship if its fuel has a flashpoint of 43C (110F) or less (closed cup test) as determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus.

Regulation 50

Special Arrangements in Machinery Spaces

(a) Means shall be provided for stopping ventilating fans serving machinery and cargo spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators, annular spaces around funnels and other openings to such spaces. These means shall be capable of being operated from outside such spaces in case of fire.

(b) Machinery driving forced and induced draught fans, oil fuel transfer pumps, oil fuel unit pumps and other similar fuel pumps shall be fitted with remote controls situated outside the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of a fire arising in the space in which they are located.

(c) Every oil fuel suction pipe from a storage, settling or daily service tank situated above the double bottom shall be fitted with a cock or valve capable of being closed from outside the space concerned in the event of a fire arising in the space in which such tanks are situated. In the special case of deep tanks situated in any shaft or pipe tunnel, valves on the tanks shall be fitted but control in event of fire may be effected by means of an additional valve on the pipeline or lines outside the tunnel or tunnels.

PART DFIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR CARGO SHIPS

Regulation 51

General Requirements for Cargo Ships of 4,000 tons Gross Tonnage and Upwards other than Tankers Covered by Part E of this Chapter

(a) The hull, superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses shall be constructed of steel, except where the Administration may sanction the use of other suitable material in special cases, having in mind the risk of fire.

(b) In accommodation spaces, the corridor bulkheads shall be of steel or be constructed of “B” Class panels.

(c) Deck coverings within accommodation spaces on the decks forming the crown of machinery and cargo spaces shall be of a type which will not readily ignite.[†]

(d) Interior stairways below the weather deck shall be of steel or other suitable material. Crew lift trunks within accommodation shall be of steel or equivalent material.

(e) Bulkheads of galleys, paint stores, lamp rooms, boatswain’s stores when adjacent to accommodation spaces and emergency generator rooms if any, shall be of steel or equivalent material.

(f) In accommodation and machinery spaces, paints, varnishes and similar preparations having a nitrocellulose or other highly inflammable base shall not be used.

(g) Pipes conveying oil or combustible liquids shall be of a material approved by the Administration having regard to the fire risk. Materials readily rendered ineffective by heat shall not be used for overboard scuppers, sanitary discharges, and other outlets which are close to the waterline and where the failure of the material in the event of fire would give rise to danger of flooding.

(h) Power ventilation of machinery spaces shall be capable of being stopped from an easily accessible position outside the machinery spaces.

Regulation 52

FireExtinguishing Systems and Equipment

(a) Application

Where ships have a lower gross tonnage than those quoted in this Regulation, the arrangements for the items covered in this Regulation shall be to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(b) Fire Pumps and Fire Main System

The ship shall be provided with fire pumps, fire main system, hydrants and hoses complying with Regulation 5 of this Chapter and with the following requirements:

 (i) A ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with two independently driven power pumps.

 (ii) In a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards if a fire in any one compartment could put all the pumps out of action, there must be an alternative means of providing water for fire fighting. In a ship of 2,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards this alternative means shall be a fixed emergency pump independently driven. This emergency pump shall be capable of supplying two jets of water to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) Fire Hydrants, Hoses and Nozzles

 (i) In a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards the number of fire hoses to be provided, each complete with couplings and nozzles, shall be one for each 30 metres (100 feet) length of the ship and one spare but in no case less than five in all. This number does not include any hoses required in any engine or boiler room. The Administration may increase the number of the hoses required so as to ensure that hoses in sufficient number are available and accessible at all times, having regard to the type of the ship and the nature of the trade on which the ship is employed.

 (ii) In accommodation, service and machinery spaces, the number and position of hydrants shall be such as to comply with the requirements of paragraph (d) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter.

 (iii) In a ship the arrangements shall be such that at least two jets of water can reach any part of any cargo space when empty.

 (iv) All required hydrants in the machinery spaces of ships with oilfired boilers or internal combustion type propelling machinery shall be fitted with hoses having nozzles as required in paragraph (g) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter.

(d) International Shore Connexion

 (i) A ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with at least one international shore connexion, complying with paragraph (h) of Regulation 5 of this Chapter.

 (ii) Facilities shall be available enabling such a connexion to be used on either side of the ship.

(e) Portable Fire Extinguishers in Accommodation and Service Spaces

The ship shall be provided in accommodation and service spaces with such approved portable fire extinguishers as the Administration may deem to be appropriate and sufficient; in any case, their number shall not be less than five for ships of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards.

(f) Fixed FireExtinguishing Arrangements in Cargo Spaces

 (i) Cargo spaces of ships of 2,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be protected by a fixed fireextinguishing system complying with Regulation 8 of this Chapter.

 (ii) The Administration may exempt from the requirements of subparagraph (i) of this paragraph the cargo holds of any ship (other than the tanks of a tanker):

 (1) if they are provided with steel hatch covers and effective means of closing all ventilators and other openings leading to the holds;

 (2) if the ship is constructed and intended solely for carrying such cargoes as ore, coal or grain; or

 (3) where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Administration that the ship is engaged on voyages of such short duration that it would be unreasonable to apply the requirement.

 (iii) Every ship in addition to complying with the requirements of this Regulation shall, while carrying explosives of such nature or in such quantity as are not permitted to be carried in passenger ships under Regulation 7 of Chapter VII of this Convention comply with the following requirements:

 (1) Steam shall not be used in any compartment containing explosives. For the purpose of this subparagraph, “compartment” means all spaces contained between two adjacent permanent bulkheads and includes the lower hold and all cargo spaces above it.

 (2) In addition, in each compartment containing explosives and in adjacent cargo compartments, there shall be provided a smoke or firedetection system in each cargo space.

(g) FireExtinguishing Appliances in Boiler Rooms, etc.

Where main or auxiliary oilfired boilers are situated, or in spaces containing oil fuel units or settling tanks, a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with the following arrangements:

 (i) There shall be any one of the following fixed fireextinguishing installations:

 (1) A pressure waterspraying system complying with Regulation 11 of this Chapter.

 (2) A fireextinguishing installation complying with Regulation 8 of this Chapter.

 (3) A fixed froth installation complying with Regulation 9 of this Chapter. (The Administration may require fixed or mobile arrangements by pressure water or froth spraying to fight fire above the floor plates).

 In each case if the engine and boiler rooms are not entirely separate, or if fuel oil can drain from the boiler room into the engine room bilges, the combined engine and boiler rooms shall be considered as one compartment.

 (ii) There shall be at least two approved portable extinguishers discharging froth or other approved medium suitable for extinguishing oil fires in each firing space in each boiler room and each space in which a part of the oil fuel installation is situated. In addition, there shall be at least one extinguisher of the same description with a capacity of 9 litres (2 gallons) for each burner, provided that the total capacity of the additional extinguisher or extinguishers need not exceed 45 litres (10 gallons) for any one boiler room.

 (iii) In each firing space there shall be a receptacle containing sand, sawdust impregnated with soda, or other approved dry material in such quantity as may be required by the Administration. Alternatively an approved portable extinguisher may be substituted therefor.

(h) FireFighting Appliances in Spaces containing Internal Combustion Type Machinery

Where internal combustion type engines are used, either for main propulsion machinery, or for auxiliary purposes associated with a total power output of not less than 746 kW, a ship of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards shall be provided with the following arrangements:

 (i) There shall be one of the fixed arrangements required by subparagraph (g) (i) of this Regulation.

 (ii) There shall be in each engine space one approved frothtype extinguisher of not less than 45 litres (10 gallons) capacity or equivalent and also one approved portable froth extinguisher for each 746 kW of engine power output or part thereof; but the total number of portable extinguishers so supplied shall be not less than two and need not exceed six.

(i) FireFighting Arrangements in Spaces containing Steam Turbines and not requiring any Fixed Installation

The Administration shall give special consideration to the fireextinguishing arrangements to be provided in spaces containing steam turbines which are separated from boiler rooms by watertight bulkheads.

(j) Fireman’s Outfits and Personal Equipment

 (i) The ship, whether new or existing, shall carry at least two fireman’s outfits complying with the requirements of Regulation 14 of this Chapter. Furthermore, Administrations may require in large ships additional sets of personal equipment and in tankers and special ships such as factory ships additional fireman’s outfits.

 (ii) For each fireman’s outfit which includes a selfcontained breathing apparatus as provided in paragraph (b) of Regulation 14 of this Chapter, spare charges shall be carried on a scale approved by the Administration.

 (iii) The fireman’s outfits and personal equipment shall be stored so as to be easily accessible and ready for use and, where more than one fireman’s outfit and set of personal equipment are carried, they shall be stored in widely separated positions.

Regulation 53

Means of Escape

(a) In and from all crew and passenger spaces and spaces in which crew are normally employed, other than machinery spaces, stairways and ladders shall be arranged so as to provide ready means of escape to the lifeboat embarkation deck.

(b) In machinery spaces, two means of escape, one of which may be a watertight door, shall be provided from each engine room, shaft tunnel and boiler room. In machinery spaces, where no watertight door is available, the two means of escape shall be formed by two sets of steel ladders as widely separated as possible leading to doors in the casing similarly separated and from which access is provided to the embarkation deck. In the case of ships of less than 2,000 tons gross tonnage, the Administration may dispense with this requirement, due regard being paid to the width and the disposition of the casing.

Regulation 54

Special Arrangements in Machinery Spaces

(a) Means shall be provided for stopping ventilating fans serving machinery and cargo spaces and for closing all doorways, ventilators, annular spaces around funnels and other openings to such spaces. These means shall be capable of being operated from outside such spaces in case of fire.

(b) Machinery driving forced and induced draught fans, oil fuel transfer pumps, oil fuel unit pumps and other similar fuel pumps shall be fitted with remote controls situated outside the space concerned so that they may be stopped in the event of a fire arising in the space in which they are located.

(c) Every oil fuel suction pipe from a storage, settling or daily service tank situated above the double bottom shall be fitted with a cock or valve capable of being closed from outside the space concerned in the event of a fire arising in the space in which such tanks are situated. In the special case of deep tanks situated in any shaft or pipe tunnel, valves on the tanks shall be fitted but control in event of fire may be effected by means of an additional valve on the pipeline or lines outside the tunnel or tunnels.

PART EFIRE SAFETY MEASURES FOR TANKERS

Regulation 55

Application

(a) This Part shall apply to all new tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products having a flashpoint not exceeding 60C (140F) (closed cup test) as determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus and whose Reid vapour pressure is below that of atmospheric pressure, and other liquid products having a similar fire hazard.

(b) In addition, all ships covered by this Part shall comply with the requirements of Regulations 52, 53 and 54 of this Chapter, except that paragraph (f) of Regulation 52 need not apply to tankers complying with Regulation 60 of this Chapter.

(c) Where cargoes other than those referred to in paragraph (a) of this Regulation which introduce additional fire hazards are intended to be carried, additional safety measures shall be required to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(d) Combination carriers shall not carry solid cargoes unless all cargo tanks are empty of oil and gas freed or unless, in each case, the Administration is satisfied with the arrangements provided.

Regulation 56

Location and Separation of Spaces

(a) Machinery spaces of Category A shall be positioned aft of cargo tanks and slop tanks and shall be isolated from them by a cofferdam, cargo pump room or oil fuel bunker tank; they shall also be situated aft of such cargo pump rooms and cofferdams, but not necessarily aft of the oil fuel bunker tanks. However, the lower portion of the pump room may be recessed into such spaces to accommodate pumps provided the deck head of the recess is in general not more than onethird of the moulded depth above the keel except that in the case of ships of not more than 25,000 metric tons deadweight, where it can be demonstrated that for reasons of access and satisfactory piping arrangements this is impracticable, the Administration may permit a recess in excess of such height, but not exceeding one half of the moulded depth above the keel.

(b) Accommodation spaces, main cargo control stations, control stations and service spaces shall be positioned aft of all cargo tanks, slop tanks, cargo pump rooms and cofferdams which isolate cargo or slop tanks from machinery spaces of Category A. Any common bulkhead separating a cargo pump room, including the pump room entrance, from accommodation and service spaces and control stations shall be constructed to “A60” Class. Where deemed necessary, accommodation spaces, control stations, machinery spaces other than those of Category A and service spaces may be permitted forward of all cargo tanks, slop tanks, cargo pump rooms and cofferdams subject to an equivalent standard of safety and appropriate availability of fireextinguishing arrangements being provided to the satisfaction of the Administration.

(c) Where the fitting of a navigation position above the cargo tank area is shown to be necessary it shall be for navigation purposes only and it shall be separated from the cargo tank deck by means of an open space with a height of at least 2 metres. The fire protection of such navigation position shall in addition be as required for control spaces as set forth in paragraphs (a) and (b) of Regulation 57 and other provisions as applicable of this Part.

(d) Means shall be provided to keep deck spills away from the accommodation and service areas. This may be accomplished by provision of a permanent continuous coaming of a suitable height extending from side to side. Special consideration shall be given to the arrangements associated with stern loading.

(e) Exterior boundaries of superstructures and deckhouses enclosing accommodation and service spaces and including any overhanging decks which support such accommodation, shall be insulated to “A60” Class for the whole of the portions which face cargo oil tanks and for 3 metres aft of the front boundary. In the case of the sides of these superstructures and deckhouses, such insulation shall be carried as high as is deemed necessary by the Administration.

(f) In boundaries, facing cargo tanks, of superstructures and deckhouses containing accommodation and service spaces the following provisions shall apply:

 (i) No doors shall be permitted in such boundaries, except that doors to those spaces not having access to accommodation and service spaces, such as cargo control stations, provision rooms, and storerooms may be permitted by the Administration. Where such doors are fitted, the boundaries of the space shall be insulated to “A60” Class. Bolted plates for removal of machinery may be fitted in such boundaries.

 (ii) Portlights in such boundaries shall be of a fixed (nonopening) type. Pilot house windows may be nonfixed (opening).

 (iii) Portlights in the first tier on the main deck shall be fitted with inside covers of steel or equivalent material.

 The requirements of this paragraph, where applicable, except in the case of access to the navigating bridge spaces, shall also be applied to the boundaries of the superstructures and deckhouses for a distance of 5 metres measured longitudinally from the forward end of such structures.

Regulation 57

Construction

(a) (i) The hull, superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks and deckhouses shall be constructed of steel or other equivalent material.

 (ii) Bulkheads between cargo pump rooms, including their trunks and machinery spaces of Category A shall be “A” Class and shall have no penetrations which are less than “A0” Class or equivalent in all respects, other than the cargo pump shaft glands and similar glanded penetrations.

 (iii) Bulkheads and decks forming divisions separating machinery spaces of Category A and cargo pump rooms, including their trunks, respectively, from the accommodation and service spaces shall be of “A60” Class. Such bulkheads and decks and any boundaries of machinery spaces of Category A and cargo pump rooms shall not be pierced for windows or portlights.

 (iv) The requirements of subparagraphs (ii) and (iii) of this paragraph, however, do not preclude the installation of permanent approved gastight lighting enclosures for illuminating the pump rooms provided that they are of adequate strength and maintain the integrity and gastightness of the bulkhead as “A” Class.